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Westward Expansion Unit Presentation

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Emily Phelan

on 28 August 2015

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Transcript of Westward Expansion Unit Presentation

Westward Expansion
Frequent dust storms
Flatlands that rise gradually from east to west…………...

Adventure
A law passed by Congress in 1862 that gave government land in the West for free to settlers willing to farm it.
What was the Homestead Act?
Westward Expansion Song

As the Homestead Act and new technologies brought settlers to the Great Plains, many American Indian tribes were forced from thier homes and onto reservations.
Westward Expansion Causes Conflict
with the
Native Americans
.

Settlers (homesteaders) planted wheat a type of crop that doesn’t require a lot of water to grow. Wheat is used to make bread which provided the settlers with a cash crop.


Wheat Farming


Settlers planted seeds deep in the ground where the soil was moist, watered the seeded area, then covered the planted seed with dry dirt. This allowed the seed to grow without a lot of water.


Dry Farming

Farmers (called sodbusters) could use the steel plow to break up the thick prairie sod to plant crops.

Steel Plows

Before the Civil War, Americans saw the area shaded in red as a “treeless wasteland”.

The area was not seen as suitable for farming.

New technologies
will change opinions after the Civil War.

The perception (opinion/view) of the Great Plains changed after the Civil War.

Land eroded by wind and water

VERY Dry- Low rainfall

Watch carefully so you can label the states in the Great Plains on your map that you shaded!

Physical features of The Great Plains
(What did it look like out there?)

Americans spread into the West in large numbers after the Civil War ended in 1865.......
In order to put a stop the Ghost Dance (that the federal government felt was causing renewed resistance by the Sioux on the reservation) they ordered that
Sitting Bull
be arrested.
The Massacre at Wounded Knee

The buffalo provided the Native Americans with things they needed in everyday life.

The buffalo was used for clothing, shelter, food, tools, and weapons….EVERY part of the buffalo
was used nothing was wasted.
A group of young Nez Perce warriors attacked and killed four white settlers who had moved into the area.

Chief Joseph feared revenge from the federal government and fled toward
Canada.

Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce Indians
Reservations
As settlers moved west, conflicts with the American Indians increased. Settlers took over more and more of the Indians‘ land.

Indians resisted westward expansions by settlers.

Railroads, like the Transcontinental Railroad, connected the eastern part of the United States with the West.

Factories in the east could now connect with with the western part of the United States where there were abundant (a lot) of natural resources.
Railroads
With the completion of nationwide railroad system, cattle herding became obsolete.

Longhorn cattle were plentiful on the Great Plains of Texas, therefore the price was low. The cowboys who had gone west for adventure herded (moved) the cattle from deep in Texas across cattle trails to cow towns like Dodge City or Kansas.
Beef Cattle Raising
The windmill pumped water up from underground streams to water crops and livestock. This helped settlers (homesteaders) to survive in a climate where there was little rainfall.

Windmills

Since there were very few trees on the Great Plains, settlers built their homes out of sod.
Sod is prairie grass with the dirt and roots still attached.

Sod Houses

…Since there were so few trees, settlers used a new invention by Gideon Wells called barbed wire. This inexpensive fencing required very few fence posts and could keep the farmers livestock in and passing Longhorn cattle drives away from planted crops.



Barbed Wire

After the Civil War, many former slaves took advantage of the Homestead Act to own land and have their own farm. Many African-Americans went west for a new start as a result of this opportunity.

Exodusters
Miners were excited to learn of the discovery of gold and silver in Colorado and Nevada.


Gold and Silver
Geronimo was the most famous of the Apache Indian leaders.

For decades after his wife and children were killed in 1858, Geronimo led small bands of Apaches on raids on settlements in both Mexico and the southwestern parts of the United States.

Orange area indicates Apache land

In his later years, Geronimo would sign
autographs and take pictures earning money.
In 1905 he traveled to Washington D.C. to
Appear in President Teddy Roosevelt’s
inaugural parade.

Senator Henry Dawes

The Dawes Act :

Senator Henry Dawes of Massachusetts, disapproved of the treatment of the American Indians by the federal government. He worked with his friends to pass a new piece of legislation.
When gold was discovered on the
Great Sioux Reservation miners began
to move onto the reservation in large
numbers. The Sioux asked the federal
government to stop this, but received
no help.
Colonel George Custer

Lakota Sioux Chief Sitting Bull

Battle of Little Bighorn
The Union Pacific hired mostly Irish immigrants.
The Central Pacific hired mostly Chinese Immigrants.
Met May 10,1869

Union
Pacific

Central Pacific

Connecting the Eastern U.S. and the Western U.S. making it possible to have national markets.

The Transcontinental Railroad
Why do you think the cartoon shows the farmer plowing up gold coins out of the land?
Now people could go West without having to use a covered wagon which drastically increased the number of settlers. Who do you think might object to so many settlers and why?

Thousands rushed West with the Hope of getting rich quick. Sadly, VERY FEW miners became rich.

Young men went west seeking adventure. Many became cowboys herding Longhorn steers from Texas to the railroad towns in Kansas where the cattle could be taken to cities like Chicago.
This is where the cattle were sold, put on the railroad , and taken to cities like Chicago where the price for the cattle was much higher.
The cow towns were rowdy, lawless, places where the cowboys let off steam after the “long drive was over”.
This made it possible for there to be a national market (where things are made, bought , and sold across the entire country).
The United States government would negotiate
treaties
with the Indian tribes in order to obtain more of their land.


The U.S. government often
broke
these treaties if they later decided they wanted the land.
The federal government created the
reservations.

Reservations are areas of land set aside for the Native Americans. They were required to stay on the reservation and were not allowed to hunt on their traditional lands to provide for their own needs.
This made the Native Americans totally dependent on the federal government for food and other supplies.

Colonel George Custer was sent to force
the Indians out. They were camped near the Little Big Horn River.

Custer and his men were outnumbered.


Within an hour of his attack, Colonel Custer and all of his men were killed.
The Nez Perce were stopped just 40 miles from the Canadian border.

"Hear me, my chiefs. I am tired. My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever"

– Chief Joseph
Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce Indian
The Nez Perce Indians were resisting a new treaty requiring them to move to a smaller reservation
The
buffalo
were essential to the survival of the Native Americans. Settlers moved into the Great Plains and hunted the buffalo, but only used certain parts.
This hunting caused the buffalo to diminish almost to extinction.

Facing starvation, many American Indian tribes had no choice but to surrender to the reservation system.
Assimilation
attempts and lifestyle changes were forced on Indians.
See all the buffalo?
The Sioux were intercepted at Wounded Knee Creek on December 29, 1890. The situation was tense.


In panic, many of the Sioux left the reservation to seek protection at another reservation.
During the the arrest, Sitting Bull was killed.
A massive blizzard blew in freezing many of the dead where they lay and adding to the tragic scene.










The massacre at
Wounded knee
was the last armed conflict between the American Indian and the United States military.



When a shot rang out as the Indians were surrendering their weapons, the federal troops who had been sent to capture them opened fire.

Within minutes of the first shot, the death toll was massive.


Native Americans = 300 men, women, and children
Soldiers = 25 men
The American Indian lived in limbo for decades…not citizens of their tribe or the United States.





Finally in 1924, the American Indian was granted United States citizenship.
Geronimo
His followers believed he had magical powers, such as the ability to walk without leaving footprints.

Finally in 1886, Geronimo was captured by the U.S. military and placed on a
reservation.
Geronimo made a request to the federal government.

He asked to be allowed to go home to Arizona before he died, but his request was ignored.

On Feb. 17, 1909 Geronimo died at Ft. Sill
Oklahoma.
He is remembered today as one of the last Indian leaders of the West to surrender to the federal government.

Dawes and his friends felt if they could assimilate the American Indian and make them farmers the two groups could live peaceably together.




The Dawes Act
Indian School

Native American children were forced to go to
Indian schools where they were required to give up their Indian names and boys to cut their hair.

Many Native Americans became desperate as they watched their culture fade away. began to perform the
Ghost Dance
which they believed would bring back their dead ancestors and make the
buffalo herds
plentiful again.

Settlers got 160 acres of land, but they had to live there for 5 years, build a house, and farm the land.
The Great Plains
Boom Town to Ghost Town
Manifest Destiny - the belief in the late 19th century that it was the destiny of the U.S. to expand it's territory over the whole of North America and to extend it's political, social and economic influence.
Cowboys and Cattle Drives
Inventions and Innovations
Change the West
L.A.R.G.E.

See how the cattle trails move north to the railroads?
The solid lines are railroads. Now that they reach down into Texas, there is no need to "drive" the cattle north to find the railroads.
L
AND
There was available land from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean!
Reservations were set aside for Native Americans
You will need your L.A.R.G.E. foldable to take notes..............
Exodusters
Make sure you have your Westward Expansion notes page on your desk before we continue...
Massacre at Wounded Knee
The Last great Native American victory was the
Battle of Little Bighorn
.
Here's how it started ..............
Now lets learn a little about
Chief Joseph
, the leader of the Nez Perce.
Assimilation
: What's that?
This Act
In 1887 when the Dawes Act was signed,
Grover Cleveland was President
This was like the Homestead Act, designed for Native Americans.
The Native Americans didn't want to have individual farms.
Here's what happened....................
Native Americans weren't given rights as citizens until
1924.
EXODUSTERS WAS THE NAME THAT NEWLY FREED SLAVES CALLED THEMSELVES AS THEY WENT WEST.
"EXODUS" FROM THE BIBLE, DESCRIBES THE JEWS LEAVING EGYPT
American Progress by John Gast
Painted in 1872
It was commissioned by George
Crofutt, the publisher of a
popular series of
western travel guides.
Academic Conversation:
Because Thomas Gast is based in Brooklyn, Ny - What does he most likely believe about the Western Frontier?
This was commissioned for a travel guide, so who do you believe was the intended audience?
Based on our disussion, do you trust this image? Why or why not?
Do you think this would have influenced the farmer to move West?
Railroads
GOLD
Mapping Moment: make sure you have your map on your desk before we continue.........
Imagine you've made the difficult decision to move out west.
ON the back of your foldable, explain which of the five factors influenced your decision.
Explain why.
Academic Conversation;
Homesteading, what was so hard about it?
GEOGRAPHY!!
Academic Conversation:
You are a member of a Native American tribe that has been forced onto a reservation.
You are no longer able to provide for your family has you have for your entire life before this.
How do you react?
What happens next?
The rest of the buffalo was left to rot.

This hurt the Native Americans, they used all
parts
of the buffalo for their daily lives.

The census taken in
1900
declared the frontier closed. American Indians had lost their long struggle.
Full transcript