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The Middle Ages

Jason/Aniketh/Eric P2

Erikah He

on 5 May 2010

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Transcript of The Middle Ages

THE MIDDLE AGES The Bubonic Plague How it spread to Europe The consequences It started in central Asia, and made its way to Europe via infected rats carrying fleas who trasmitted it to humans. These pesky rats traveled with traders along the Silk Road and sea trade routes. Symptoms Nearly a third of Europe's population was wiped out, about 25 million people. Though this may seem like a bad thing, it was actually good for Europe because it contributed to the end of feudalism. First, nobles now need more peasants to work the field becuase many of them had now died. So, the peasants now held the power and could demand wages and rights. Second, the Church lost a lot of power.
During the bubonic plague, many of the clergy either deserted or charged exorbitant fees for their services None of the Church's prayers worked either. had a huge role in the Middle Ages because of all the social changes it brought to Europe. Signature symptom was buboes in the groin, neck, and armpits, which oozed pus and then bled Fever, headaches, painful aching joints, nausea and vomiting The dirty conditions that people lived in helped spread the plague Many Jews were persecuted because poeple blamed them for the plague The Church had an unbelievably huge role in the Middle Ages because so many people converted to Christianity because of what it promised. During the Middle Ages, many peasants had nothing to look forward to because there was no future for them. Life was boring and unpleasant. Christianity provided a way out of that. It promised that there would be heaven, an eternal peace, for those who were good, giving people hope. At first, there were a few converters, who were actually prosecuted. However, Constantine soon legalized Christianity in 313 AD, which gave it the oppurtunity to grow. On Christmas day, 496 AD, the king of France, Clovis, became a Christian, because it gave him new allies. The main thing that united Europe during the Middle Ages was... The Pope had a lot of power, being the single most powerful person in the Church. To have the Church as your ally was very powerful. The clergy was also the most educated during the Middle Ages. How it became influential Its power Pope Benedict, the current pope Political Developments Political developments in feudal Europe were advancements to the singular monarchy. Kings ruled yet power was not decided by only them. In the Middle Ages, political developments were stepping stones to democracy. Modern democracies were based on the political developments of the Middle Ages. Nationalism, the development of nations, started to grow after the end of feudalism. Examples in Middle Ages King Henry ruled from 1154 to 1189. He introduced the jury, a group of loyal people to the defendant. King John, son of King Henry, ruled from 1199 to 1216. He was a failed military leader who was greedy, taking money from his subjects. He raised taxes to an all time high. On June 15, 1215, his nobles and peasants revolted and made him sign a document which provided basic political rights. This document was known as the Magna Carta, the Great Charter. King Edward had to raise taxes to fund a war, so he summoned two nobles and two knights from every province. The council made decisions based on popular opinion. This council was known as the Model Parliament. Influence The Hundred Years War It lasted from 1337 to 1453. This was a hundred year war with England against France. Background Victory passed between the two countries very often. Each won many important battles In the end, it was France who won the Hundred Years. It was close but the French out numbered the English in many battles towards the end.
In the Hundred Years War, the English and French fought with two different types of bows The English fought with long bows such as the picture to the right. Longbows had much more range then crossbows. Shooters could shoot more arrows in a short amount of time The French fought with crossbows. At the Battle of Crecy, though they outnumbered the English, the longbow arrows pelted them and killed many. The French lost at Crecy. The English won may important battles during the war such as Crecy, Poitiers, and Agincourt. Battles A young peasant girl named Joan of Arc, had visions of her having to safe France from England. At the Battle of Orleans, she made the tide turn for France; A victory in Orleans. The war was an amazing expense of lives, property and money for both sides The Crusades Before the 1st crusade The fewer amount of barbarian invasions lead to fewer activities for knights. While the knights are bored, Emperor Alexius I Comnenos sends a letter to Pope Urban II requesting help to drive the Seljuk Turks from Byzantine territory. Pope Urban II agrees and persuades knights to crusade and promises salvation upon death. 50,000 to 60,000 knights join the first crusade. Peasants are also allow to become knights and crusade. For the first time since the start of feudalism in Europe, peasants are allow to rise to a high social class, weakening feudalism. Picture of Pope Urban II The 1st crusade to recapture Jerusalem proved unsuccessful, but returning knights brought back a gift more valueable than wealth, but knowledge. Some knowledge of architecture, medicine, and much more were brought back to Europe. Later crusades proved unsuccessful as well, as the 9th crusade marked the end of crusades in the Middle East. Nobles who would join the crusades would sell off their land and free their serfs. And many serfs had also became knights, hindering the feudal pyramid.
Serfs would have the opportunity to become knights. Results of the Crusades Growth of Towns and Trade Reasons for Growth Warmer climate from about 800-1200 lead to better farming conditions. These conditions resulted in an increased food supply. Farmers also used new unconventional methods such as horsepower and the three-field system. Due to an increase in population, trade routes spread from all over Europe and all over Asia. Ports were opened and were even opened in Muslim territories. Guilds A guild was an association of poeple who worked at the same occupation. They were masters in trade who spent five to nine years as apprentices. Guilds controlled all prices and wages in their craft. A picture of a guild at work Expansion of Towns Towns became the center of trade, which contained ports all over the town. As town life progressed, serfs ran away from their feudal manors to enjoy the town life. So many serfs ran away by 1100 that it was said that serfs living in a town for a year and a day would become free. With so many serfs abandoning their feudal manors, the feudal structure was hard to maintain. Some say that the age of chivalry ended with the Hundred Years War. After a long exhausting war the people of France and England were devastated. The Hundred Years War sparked the birth of nationalism. Instead of viewing the king as simply as feudal lord the people began to view him as national leader who fought for the glory of the country. Nationalism was starting to replace feudalism. In 1302, King Philip IV of France, who ruled from 1285 to 1314, was involved in a quarrel with the pope. The pope was against Philip for making preists pay taxes. So, Philip called on a meeting in his kingdom similar to English parliament. To win wider support against the pope, he invited commoners. In France, the Church leaders were known as the First-Estate, the lords and kings the Second-Estate, and the commoners Third-Estate, so this meeting was called the Estates-General. It helped to increase royal power against nobility. The political developments helped to decrease the political method of feudalism and increased the fundimentals of nationalism. The Magna Carta Longbow Crossbow Battle of Crecy THE END In conclusion, the bubonic plague, the Church, political developments, the Hundred Years War, the Crusades, and the growth of towns and trade all led to the end of feudalism, playing a huge part in...
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