Send the link below via email or IMCopy
Present to your audienceStart remote presentation
- Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
- People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
- This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
- A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
- Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article
Do you really want to delete this prezi?
Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.
Make your likes visible on Facebook?
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.
Public Speaking ING-0431
Transcript of Public Speaking ING-0431
(Verderber, Sellnow & Verderber, 2012)
How to spot a liar
Understanding Persuasive Messages
Great Speeches Arena
Jaime García y Espinosa
, music fan, compulsive reader and nature
You can call me:
Jimbo, Jaime, however you please.
BA International Business (class 2006)
Master in Applied Linguistics (Class 2011)
English, Critical Thinking, Academic Writing, Education & Technology
All relevant information is found
in the syllabus...
Find someone who...
Walk around looking for the provider of the information
Shouting is not an option
Do social talk!
Who has a pet called Tenoch?
How many books
do you read monthly?
I read 2 books a month, my favorite genre is poetry. What about you?
what kind of books he/she likes to read?
what other language does she/he speak?
can cook well
speaks a third language
comes from the coast
has lived abroad
works and studies
(at the same time)
is planning to take a study abroad program
reads at least 1 book monthly
has any Nirvana album
can play an instrument
rides a bike to uni
Make it count!
from the book found in the Drive:
The Challenge of Effective Speaking
(Verderber, R., Sellnow, D., & Verderber, K. 2012)
Some guiding questions...
A process to use
to prepare and make effective speeches
How does the communication process work?
What are the contexts in which communication occurs?
What does it mean to be an ethical speaker?
How does understanding the rhetorical situation help you prepare a speech?
Learning to be an effective speaker shall help you be more effective in other communication settings.
“a sustained formal presentation by a speaker to an audience” (p. 2)
one form of communication
one of the oldest liberal arts
(mass communication included)
individuals assuming the roles of senders and receivers.
verbal utterances, nonverbal behavior; meanings encoded and decoded;
route and means of transportations. i.e. sensory channels: auditory and visual;
physical (external noise)
Feedback (reaction): how is the message received, audience nonverbal signs.
Specific knowledge particular to your own profession
Essential skills that can help you participate effectively as an engaged citizen in a democratic society.
Assignment for next week
Activity 1A page 57 (example in p. 54)
What is public speaking,
and why is it important to study
Liberal arts aims for
Cornerstone of democratic societies since ancient times.
Effective public speakers continue to reap rewards in personal relationships, and the public and private spheres.
to think, but
Essential citizens living in a democratic society: thinking
Critical thinking skills developed
information and arguments,
how others use
to try to
better equipped to notice
"Democracies only thrive in settings where
of fulfilling their
about, and eloquently
about important issues. So public speaking is a liberal art—an
." (p. 6)
Success relies on the ability to communicate what you know to others, be it your manager, clients, colleagues or pupils.
Confidence to speak out
and voice your ideas
One of the most sought-after skills in hiring is oral communication.
"The audience is the end and object of the speech”
Knowledgeable about the subject
Own interests, beliefs, background and skills will shape the language used.
Aims to inform or persuade others about something.
Personal experiences influence attitudes and beliefs expressed.
Understanding the audience is primal to achieve effective communication and motivation.
Specific group of people to whom the speech is directed.
The setting (place, venue, etc.)
What makes a speech effective?
The purpose for which the audience is gathered.
The shared expectations.
Principles of effective public speaking
Usage of rethorical devices
level of fear
Public Speaking Apprehension
"Because at least some tension is constructive, the goal is not to eliminate nervousness but to
learn how to manage
it." (p. 21)
symptoms and causes
Ending of speech
Recap main ideas
To create interest and hold attention
“The extent to which audience members listen to, understand, remember, and are motivated to act on what a speaker has said”.
They “respond to a felt need, are appropriate to the occasion, reflect careful research, make sense and sound interesting.” (p. 11)
What is said and done,
outfit, citing credible sources,
speaking within the time allotted.
Appealing to emotions
Effective public speakers are audience-centered.
Appealing to sound reasoning
stomach upset, flushed skin, sweating, shaking, rapid heartbeats, vocalized pauses and
anxious, worried, upset.
I'll blow it
Delivery of Self-Introduction Speech
Week January 25th-29th
Level of skills
Biologically based temperament
(introverted vs extroverted)
Major and career interests
Hobbies and activities
Issues and concerns
Reading and movies
Read chapter 2 from old book "developing confidence..." (Verderber, Sellnow & Verderber, 2012)
Narrative or personal
Elaborate upon their
3 - 5 minute
(why, what, how)
Be the change you want to see in the world.
Ch. 1A (Powell, 2011)
Ch. 1B (Powell, 2011)
Communication Orientation Motivation (COM) techniques
(rather than a "performance")
Progressive muscle relaxation exercises
Identify fears and write them down
Analyze how rational they are
Develop positive statements to replace negative self-talk and use them everyday!
Designed to reduce anxiety
Public speaking skills training
We may feel anxiety due to lack of knowledge and behavior to be effective
1st Evaluation Period
oral presentation 60%
written activity 30%
2nd Evaluation Period
Oral presentation 70%
Speech outline 30%
3rd Evaluation Period
Oral presentation 100%
4th Evaluation Period
Oral presentation 100%
Allow sufficient time to prepare.
Use presentational aids
Practice your speech aloud
Choose the appropriate time to speak
Use positive self-talk
Face the audience
Focus on the important:
sharing your message.
Make a speech plan
What is a presentation like?
are you going?
(audience can follow organization of ideas)
retention is likely to increase.
Help audience remember info
P. 10 Act. 2&3 (Powell, 2011)
Referring to previous points is a way of showing coherence and strengthen arguments.
Mentioning what you will talk next can build anticipation.
Showing a logical link between your main points is highly important in a presentation.
Act. 4 p. 11
2B Smooth structure
Describe to a peer the process you follow when assigned to give a presention.
How do you plan a presentation?
Out of the different types of presentation in 2,
which one are you most likely to give?
Take 3 or 4 parts from the box which you'd include in your presentation.
Put them in order and explain your structure.
Giving a motivational speech
call for action
who we are and what it means to be a citizen
the current situation of disengagement and apathy.
What does it imply “loving your country” and “feeling proudly mexican”?
Does it imply paying taxes and voting only?
Is “doing what concerns me” enough?
("yo hago lo que me toca")
Leaving it only to politicians (political parties) to decide public affairs.
Unaccountability for their actions.
In the long run, corruption does more harm than a bomb
encourage people to speak up and get rid of vain political affiliations...
sign into citizen initiatives such as
Support genuine citizen candidates to represent us:
A speech whose
is to explain or describe
facts, truths, and principles
in a way that
stimulates interest, facilitates understanding,
and increases the likelihood of
is to achieve
about an object, person, place, process, event, idea, concept, or issue.
Characteristics of effective informative speaking
Information will be perceived as intellectually stimulating when it:
Piques their curiosity, and
is new to the audience,
Excites their interest.
To grab audience attention, incorporate statements that clarify how a particular point may be important to a listener (listener relevance links).
Describe how a main point relates to the audience becoming happier, healthier, wealthier, etc.?
Demonstrate how a remote topic relates to audience in a familiar way
Productive thinking occurs when we contemplate something from a variety of perspectives, then select the ideas best suited to a particular audience.
Effective informative speeches emphasize the main points in ways that help audience members remember them.
Addressing of Diverse Learning Styles.
: responds to concrete, vivid images, examples, stories, and testimonials
Methods of Informing
A method used to create an accurate, vivid, verbal picture of an object, geographic feature, setting, event, person, or image.
A method that explains the meaning of something, by
Classifying it and differentiating it from similar ideas,
Explaining its derivation or history,
Explaining its use or function, or
Using a familiar synonym or antonym.
A method of informing that focuses on how something is similar to and different from other things.
A method of informing using
storytelling techniques to describe an accounting of related events.
Four Major Parts of the Story
When and where the events took place
What was the sequence of events that led to the problem or conflict
Why the conflict or problem affected key people in the narrative
How the conflict or problem was resolved
A strong storyline
Effective use of dialogue
Pacing that builds suspense
A strong voice
A good narrative should have
How something is done,
the stages of a process,
depicts how something works.
Common Informative Frameworks
Effective process speeches demonstrate carefully how to delineate the steps of a process and the order in which they occur.
The steps typically become the main points, and concrete explanations of each step become the sub-points.
Good expository speeches:
Types of Expository Speeches
The manner in which one conveys messages through the spoken word
Degrees of Speech Formality
An effective oral style is less formal than a written style, but more formal than everyday talk.
The degree of formality required, to be an effective public speaker, is based on the rhetorical situation.
Your goal is to adapt your language to the audience and occasion.
Effective Oral Style
Ways in which an effective oral style differs from a written style:
Tends toward short sentences and familiar words
Features plural personal pronouns
Clear transitions and signposts.
Using language that adapts to the needs, interests, knowledge, and attitudes of your listeners and avoids language that alienates any audience members.
Language used to reduce the psychological distance between you and your audience: choose words that enhance the connection between you and the members of your audience.
Aspects of Appropriate Speech
Using “We” Language
Using Bias-Free Language
Adapting to cultural diversity
Avoiding Offensive Humor, and shunning hate speech
Avoiding Profanity and Vulgarity
Read Mark Twain's quote aloud. If you could pause just once, where would you do it?
Try more pauses (2,3,4)
Which version sounds best?
How far do you agree with Cicero that the
most important aspect
in speaking is
how you sound
What's the difference between
How can a good use of pausing be
to both speaker and audience?
Read Gerry Spencer's comment aloud. Try pausing for a second after 'spaces between words: now try 2, 3 and 4 seconds.
How long is too long?
d pp. 190-204
Chapter 10: Language and Oral Style,
Creativity comes from good research, time, and productive thinking.
For the creative process to work, you have to think productively.
You can use things such as:
Tip: build up language
: is cultivated when doing something during the speech or afterward.
: works best through clear macrostructure as well as definitions, explanations, and statistics.
: focuses on visual aids, facial expressions and gestures
Helpful organizational pattern
Use a variety of informative methods
As you'll recall...
So, the next question is...
This brings us to...
Effective Use of Voice
How you sound should
you intend, but sometimes it can contradict it.
Understand the characteristics of your own voice.
Characteristics of Voice
the speed at which you talk.
Highness or lowness of the sounds produced in your larynx by the size and vibration of your vocal cords.
What distinguishes it from the voices of others.
your pitch, volume, rate, and quality, you can achieve an
that is both
If your accent is “thick” or varies from a standard variety,
key words so that you are easily understood.
Use Vocal Expressiveness
A total lack of vocal expressiveness produces a monotone.
How you use your voice affects how successful you are in getting your ideas across.
Focus not only on
you say but also on
you sound as you say it.
How your voice sounds depends on pitch, volume, rate, and quality.
means to be
: if you’re not intelligible, people may find it difficult to get your verbal message.
Vary your volume to emphasize important information.
can affect how intelligible your message is.
: mispronouncing is more common than you think.
is using the tongue, palate, teeth, jaw movement, and lips
to shape vocalized sounds that combine to produce a word.
is the inflection, tone, and speech habits typical of native speakers of a language: it's a major
for second language speakers.
Changing pitch, volume, and rate, stressing certain words; and using pauses strategically.
Speeding up your rate,
raising your pitch, or
increasing your volume
your rate, lowering your pitch, or decreasing your volume can communicate resolution, peacefulness, remorse, disgust, or sadness.
Adjust voice to the acoustics of the room, audience size and background noise.
Normal: 130 and 180 words per minute.
restrains time to process the difficult information.
The rate at which you speak can determine how intelligible your message is:
gives your listeners time to let their minds
after they’ve processed your message.
Changes in pitch are known as inflections
mark questions, statements, sincerity, sarcasm, mood, etc.
It's what gives
to your voice!
composition of audience
nature of occasion
A good rate of speech depends on
Vocal attributes of speaker
mood attempted to create
Tone or timbre of your voice.
It's "how you sound” .
Can be affected by
(stress important words, concepts, ideas)
and accent problems
In addition to vocal characteristics,
For you, which words are difficult to pronounce?
Everyone speaks with some kind of accent, because “accent” means any tone or inflection that differs from the way others speak.
These contrasts clarify the emotional meaning of your message and help animate your delivery
A slide =
should be understood
Criteria for choosing presentational aids
content you want to
What are the most important ideas you want your audience to understand and remember?
to the oral message,
for speech or a
Prepare visual aids in advance
Integrate them smoothly with the speech.
Plan carefully when to use them
Rehearse, indicate on your outline.
Reconsider using them if purposeless, they are free anyway!
Keep it simple
Limit the reading required of the audience
Fonts large enough
Use color effectively
Basic rule of thumb
: get rid of them when no longer needed.
Talk to the audience, not to the pres aid
: keep eye contact
dark fonts on clear
clear fonts on dark
Time to prepare so you can devise creative aids.
“One picture is worth a thousand words.”
Is there important information that your audience may find boring?
If you're expecting your audience to read your slides, you're already in big trouble.
Kinds of visual aids
Pie charts: distribution patterns
Bar graphs: comparison 2+ items.
More vivid numbers
Useful to summarize large blocks of information
5% of speaking
30 seconds or
Keep it in the family
max. 2 different typography.
Use simple fonts
ALL CAPS: only in titles or special emphasis
2nd partial evaluation
Example in p. 249-252 for informative, 260-263 for expository (pdf book)
it helps audiences concentrate on the speech
a break in mutual eye contact decreases concentration on the message.
In Western societies, failure to maintain eye contact might be perceived as
dishonest or insincere
Assess audience reaction to your ideas.
Do as if talking with friends:
audiences expect your expressions to be
facial expressions as they
what you’re saying and how you
Failure to vary
facial expressions during their speech may be
as boring, insincere, or stern.
Use gestures to emphasize what you say.
with a specific purpose
it will be used
You'll breath better
and feel more relaxed
3rd partial evaluation
Rubric to be announced
(ideally one related to your final persuasive speech)
10 & 15
To emphasize a particular point
move closer to the audience
Create a feeling of
before telling a personal story.
Which is more important to you?
What do you see?
How can you demonstrate
for your subject?
The tribes we lead
What can you say or do to
with your audience?
How can you
to your audience?
Using well your body language: appearing relaxed and comfortable,
making eye contact.
The word 'communication' means
'to have something in common',
'to share a mutual objective',
'to strenghten connections'.
If your topic
matters to you
it will matter to your audience.
Making it sound as a
, imagine they're your friends you're talking to.
Talking to them, not
To communicate is to connect.
The more you talk
and experiences, the more you'll connect.
with an audience,
they need to like you
and to like you,
they need to like
something in you
that is like something they like in
Talk to them as they arrive, inquire names and motives for being in the conference.
Give your audience
opportunities to participate,
or getting them to
You don't have to a word-perfect: most audiences prefer some degree of
it as you speak.
Just being interested is not enough.
How can you show openness to your audience?
Motivation to listen goes up in conversations, as people may have to speak next.
Fill the room with energy:
enthusiasm is infectious
, but so is the lack of it.
"Create opportunities for laughter to emerge."
more important than being
In what ways could you create ‘opportunities for laughter to emerge’?
Using humor in a presentation
Get your audience
Activities can liven up too
Humorous stories are memorable and if relevant, can help you get your message across more effectively.
Laughter raises energy levels
If humour is shared by audience
and speaker, it can create rapport.
It gives "space to breath"
Humour lowers defenses
Fun not always involves humor
Humour can be distracting if it's not connected to the topic.
It can confuse an audience whose English isn't good enough.
It can be embarrassing if the joke doesn't punch.
Accross cultures, humour changes and so
ne could feel offended.
The danger of a single story
If you don't feel like trying and be funny yourself...use
+ inclusive - less risky
You can make the audience feel good about you
Laugh at yourself when things go wrong
Discuss with a partner
Entertain the audience (if they like your sense of humor)
You can make the audience feel good about themselves.
audiences can also participate in the fun.
Presentation = shared experience
You wish you could park like this....
Obama's fun stunts
what were the things you
enjoyed the most
Name some of your favorite songs, movies, books...
Something in common?
Read quote in p. 44 from Annette Simmons.
don’t want more information,
more facts will not help...
story will help
figure out what
If you let the
‘facts speak for themselves’
you risk a
, one that doesn’t fit your intentions.
first give a story
and then add facts, theres's a
better chance of influencing
others to share your interpretation.
“Storytelling is the single most powerful tool in a leader’s toolkit”
How is a story told “intelligently and skilfully”?
How far do you agree with Gardner’s statement about the power of storytelling?
What kind of stories can be sign of leadership?
Discuss questions in p. 42
leaders who need to tell stories?
(read quote from Steve Denning)
vital to leadership
not only to
, but also to
Leaders need to tell
When you were a child...
to all levels of society to get buy-in for your ideas:
Stories are a
powerful form of communication
to explain something telling a story instead of using jargon and technical terms.
Recreate the moment
, not just report it:
to hear what people actually said
they said it.
Golden rules of storytelling
to the topic
yet not lacking
Do not rush important parts of the story!
as much as possible.
“Human beings understand and interpret the world around us through storytelling."
The world makes
A moral is a
A narrative is a speech where you
recount an experience
you or somebody else has had and the
which aims to
Think carefully about the point of your story and make sure it is appropriate.
"Narrative drama can be increased by using dialogue.
gives an audience the experience of 'being there' and increases their interest and involvement."
Effectively told personal experiences establish an
between speaker and audience.
Develop it with
Be sure to
describe the character(s), setting(s), and events
to which listeners can relate.
the story so that the point has
Most narratives dramatize because they recount
A narrative has a point (a moral).
Obama visit to Cuba
Isabel Allende: How to live passionately—no matter your age
Simon Sinek: How great leaders inspire action
Steve Jobs: commencement address in Stanford
Dave Meslin: the antidote to apathy
Julian Treasure: how to speak so that people want to listen
Clint Smith: The danger of silence
The Nature of Persuasion
The Greeks and Romans defined
How people process persuasive messages?
Relying on simple clues
The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) suggests
people process information in
one of two ways:
What determines which route to use ?
Attitudes as a result of
less likely to change
than attitudes formed based on peripheral cues.
If something is true for everything in a certain class ,
Data or logical statement that
the support to the claim .
The central route
The peripheral route
a quick evaluation of the speaker’s competence, credibility, and character
A gut about the message
thinking about what is said,
mentally elaborating on the message.
Decision is based on the appeal to logic and reasoning .
We must conclude that what is true for all members of the class must be true in the specific instance.
Agreement will depend on
number, quality, and typicality
of each piece of evidence offered.
4th partial evaluation
based on evidence
Argument reasons from
to reach a general conclusion.
1,2 persons per car
Evidence offered as the grounds for the claim.
What speaker wants the
audience to believe, do, change in attitude, etc.
Safe and environmentally friendly public transportation
should be the
around the city,
not the last one
a specific instance is part of that class
Do the signs cited always or usually indicate the conclusion drawn?
Are a sufficient number of signs present?
Are contradictory signs in evidence?
Supporting a claim by providing evidence that the events that signal the claim have occurred
Validate argument by answering questions such as:
Are enough examples cited?
Are the examples typical?
Are negative examples accounted for?
Supporting a claim with statements containing examples of the claim you are making
Test the validity of your argument by answering:
Are the subjects being compared, similar in every important way?
Are any of the ways in which the subjects are dissimilar, important to the outcome?
Supporting a claim with a single comparable example that is significantly similar to the subject of the claim
Are the events alone sufficient to cause the stated effect?
Did other events accompanying the cited events, actually cause the effect?
Is the relationship between the causal events and the effect consistent?
Supporting by citing events that have occurred that result in the claim.
Validity testing questions:
Conveying Competence and Credibility
Use vocal expression to enhance your credibility.
Speaker’s credibility is dependent on the audience’s perception of the speaker’s goodwill. (Aristotle)
Ability to see the world through somebody else's eyes.
Identify emotionally with people's views.
Caring about audience's feedback
Explain your competence.
Establish common ground.
Use evidence from respected sources.
Use nonverbal elements of delivery to enhance your image.
If you’ve done a good deal of research on the topic, say so.
If you have personal experience, say so.
It’s important for the audience to know why they can trust what you are saying.
Shared beliefs and values
Show empathy for your audience's position
before trying to convince them to change opinion.
Increase credibility using supporting material
from well-recognized, unbiased and respected sources.
attractiveness creates a perception
of competence and confidence.
Credibility is strongly influenced by how you sound
Expressing ideas with conviction
Disquieting; people want to get rid of them.
Helpful at involving audiences, as they look for ways to solve them.
evoked when we face failure, loss or separation.
When we personally violate a moral, ethical, or religious code that we hold dear
Shame: comes after a violation of a moral code
evoked when we are faced with an unfair obstacle or something demeaning.
Types of Negative Emotions
Perception that we have no control over a situation that threatens us.
Use examples, stories, statistics, etc. that create fear in your audience.
Evoking positive emotions
With negative emotions, the goal is to show how a proposal will help the audience to
With positive emotions, our goal is to
sustain or develop the feeling.
Compassion: a selfless concern for the suffering of others and the energy prompting us to try to relieve that suffering
Happiness and joy:
buildup of positive energy
Pride: self-satisfaction and increased self-esteem as a result of accomplishmemnts.
Feelings of self-worth.
Demonstrate how your proposal will help your audience feel good about themselves.
When a threatening situation has been alleviated.
desirable that is likely to happen.
Guidelines for appealing to emotions
Use gestures and facial expressions that highlight the emotions you are conveying.
Tell vivid stories.
Use startling statistics.
Incorporate listener relevance links.
Choose striking presentational aids.
Use descriptive and provocative language.
Use nonverbal elements of delivery to reinforce your emotional appeal.
"um", "you know", "like", etc.
evoking moments of great happiness from the past.
Roots in a difficult situation.
How will your proposal provide a plan for overcoming a difficult situation?
Use relief combined with fear to motivate your audience.
Part of the speech planning process.
against a particular belief or holding an opposite point of view
uninformed, neutral, or apathetic
already supportive of a particular belief
seek incremental change
(Model in pp. 304-309, Verdemeer et al., 2010)
provide the basic arguments and information
present evidence as to why your position is superior to others
provide strong listener relevance links
Identify your proposition
clearly indicating the
agree and take action
Used to say that something: is, was,
may, will be/occur or not.
I want to convince my audience that...
Used for value judgement:
how good, bad, moral, immoral, fair, unfair something is.
I want to convince my audience that...
we all have to breath cars' emissions...
of counting on a safe transportation system as a way to raise living standards.
Designed to convince an audience that a particular rule, plan, or course of action should be taken.
Involvement in hearing how your proposal can eliminate the source of this.
I want to convince my audience why...
be made obligatory in all the city households and business.
Types of propositions
Ethical Guidelines for Persuasive Speeches
Aim to improve the well-being of the audience with sincere advocacy
Use supporting information that is representative
Are engaging and rational
Honestly present the speaker’s credibility
Organizational Frameworks for Persuasive Speeches
Comparative advantages – points out best alternative
Criteria satisfaction – sets up criteria framework, then shows how argument fits that criteria
Refutative – both challenges opposition and bolster’s speaker’s argument
Statement of reasons – confirms best supported reasons in a meaningful order
Problem-solution – explains the nature of a problem and proposes a solution
Problem-cause-solution – reveals the causes of the problem and then proposes a solution designed to alleviate those causes
Motivated sequence – combines problem-solution with explicit appeals designed to motivate the audience
Phrase your goal as a proposition.
What is your target audience stance? Why?
Do you need to rephrase goal to that audience attitude?
Is your proposition one of fact, value, or policy.
What are you good at?
cooking, managing, playing an instrument, dancing, etc.
Last movie you saw?
How was it?
Do you practice any sport?
Name somebody you admire
(out of your family)
and point out a QUALITY you admire in this person.
94 95 96 97
Coffee or tea
Cold or hot
Mountain or beach
Sweet or salty
Day or night
City or nature
Book or movie
Music or silence
Travelling or staying home
French or German
Cats or dogs
Singing or dancing
What happened this year?
(in the arts, events, discoveries, records, etc.)
on important public issues.
ABILITY to express ideas
more likely to
for the benefit of others.
information in ways that many can understand
convey knowledge about a complex topic
Historical events or forces
Explanation of a theory, principle, or law.
Exposition of creative work
Opening an closing techniques
Tendency to remember the
first and last items
conveyed orally in a series rather than items in between.
Completing the outline
Creating the conclusion
Creating the introduction
State your thesis
Establish listener relevance
Establish your credibility and goodwill
How might my speech
relate to my listeners’ needs
for health, wealth, well-being, self-esteem, success, and so forth?
Why should my listeners
about what I’m saying?
In what way(s) might they benefit from hearing about it?
Who you are and why they should pay attention to what you say?
Why should they believe you?
Why are you a reliable source of information?
What makes you an authority in the subject?
Do you seem sincere?
Say what your speech is going to be about
unless you have a special reason for not revealing it (yet).
that provides a sense of
by driving home the importance of your speech in a
To determine how you will
two or three
Choose the one you believe will best