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Public Speaking ING-0431

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Jaime Garcia

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Transcript of Public Speaking ING-0431

Foundations of public speaking
(Verderber, Sellnow & Verderber, 2012)
Informative speech
COURSE INFO
Body language
How to spot a liar
Persuasive speaking
Understanding Persuasive Messages
Great Speeches Arena
Public Speaking
Jaime García y Espinosa
local produce
est. 1981
Applied
linguist
, urban
cyclist
, music fan, compulsive reader and nature
enthusiast
.
You can call me:
Jimmy, James,
Jimbo, Jaime, however you please.
BA International Business (class 2006)
Master in Applied Linguistics (Class 2011)
E-mail: jaime.garciay@udlap.mx
Contact details
Résumé
English, Critical Thinking, Academic Writing, Education & Technology
since 2012
Cities lived-in
Bio
ING-0431
All relevant information is found
in the syllabus...
Find someone who...
Walk around looking for the provider of the information
Shouting is not an option
Do social talk!
Who has a pet called Tenoch?
How many books
do you read monthly?
I read 2 books a month, my favorite genre is poetry. What about you?
Request
more information
than needed...
(
what kind of books he/she likes to read?
what other language does she/he speak?
etc.)
can cook well

speaks a third language

comes from the coast

has lived abroad

works and studies

runs races

(at the same time)
is planning to take a study abroad program

reads at least 1 book monthly

has any Nirvana album

can play an instrument

rides a bike to uni

Make it count!
1st assignment
Read
chapter 1
from the book found in the Drive:

The Challenge of Effective Speaking
(Verderber, R., Sellnow, D., & Verderber, K. 2012)
Some guiding questions...
A process to use
to prepare and make effective speeches
How does the communication process work?
What are the contexts in which communication occurs?
What does it mean to be an ethical speaker?
How does understanding the rhetorical situation help you prepare a speech?
Learning to be an effective speaker shall help you be more effective in other communication settings.
“a sustained formal presentation by a speaker to an audience” (p. 2)
one form of communication
one of the oldest liberal arts
public communication
(mass communication included)
Participants (who)
individuals assuming the roles of senders and receivers.
Messages (what):
verbal utterances, nonverbal behavior; meanings encoded and decoded;
Channels, (how):
route and means of transportations. i.e. sensory channels: auditory and visual;
Interference (distractions):
physical (external noise)
or psychological
(internal: daydreaming);
Feedback (reaction): how is the message received, audience nonverbal signs.
intrapersonal
interpersonal
small group
General knowledge
vs
Specific knowledge particular to your own profession
Essential skills that can help you participate effectively as an engaged citizen in a democratic society.
Assignment for next week
Activity 1A page 57 (example in p. 54)
What is public speaking,
and why is it important to study
Liberal arts aims for
liberty







Cornerstone of democratic societies since ancient times.
Effective public speakers continue to reap rewards in personal relationships, and the public and private spheres.
Learning
not what
to think, but
how
to think.







Essential citizens living in a democratic society: thinking
critically
, questioning.
Critical thinking skills developed
Ability to
judge
information and arguments,
identify
flaws
in reasoning;
ability to
identify
how others use
emotion
to try to
persuade
you;
better equipped to notice
unethical
communication.
"Democracies only thrive in settings where
citizens
are
capable
of fulfilling their
civic responsibilities
to
analyze
,
think
about, and eloquently
speak out
about important issues. So public speaking is a liberal art—an
essential skill
for free,
engaged citizens
." (p. 6)
Success relies on the ability to communicate what you know to others, be it your manager, clients, colleagues or pupils.
Confidence to speak out
and voice your ideas
Empowerment
One of the most sought-after skills in hiring is oral communication.
Responsibility
Honesty
Integrity
Fairness
Respect
speaker
"The audience is the end and object of the speech”
Elements
occasion
audience
Knowledgeable about the subject
Own interests, beliefs, background and skills will shape the language used.
Aims to inform or persuade others about something.
Personal experiences influence attitudes and beliefs expressed.
Understanding the audience is primal to achieve effective communication and motivation.
Specific group of people to whom the speech is directed.
The setting (place, venue, etc.)
What makes a speech effective?
The purpose for which the audience is gathered.
The shared expectations.
You
Rethorical situation
The occasion
Your audience
.
Speech effectiveness
Principles of effective public speaking
Structuring appropriately
Microstructure
Macrostructure
Usage of rethorical devices
Delivery
level of fear
Public Speaking Apprehension
"Because at least some tension is constructive, the goal is not to eliminate nervousness but to
learn how to manage
it." (p. 21)
Cognitive:
negative self-talk
PSA
symptoms and causes
INTRODUCTION
BODY
CONCLUSION
TRANSITIONS
Builds interest
Introduces topic
Main ideas
Supporting material
Ending of speech
Recap main ideas
Urge audience
Thus...
Finally...
TRANSITIONS
First...
So...
Therefore...
Specific language
Style choices

Rhymes
Metaphors
Hyperbole
Metonymy
etc.
To create interest and hold attention
voice
posture
attitude
“The extent to which audience members listen to, understand, remember, and are motivated to act on what a speaker has said”.
They “respond to a felt need, are appropriate to the occasion, reflect careful research, make sense and sound interesting.” (p. 11)
Ethos
What is said and done,
confidence,
outfit, citing credible sources,
speaking within the time allotted.

Pathos
Appealing to emotions
Effective public speakers are audience-centered.
Appealing to sound reasoning
Logos
Physical:
stomach upset, flushed skin, sweating, shaking, rapid heartbeats, vocalized pauses and

sttutering
Emotional:
anxious, worried, upset.
I'll blow it
Delivery of Self-Introduction Speech

Oral Presentation:
Week January 25th-29th

Level of skills
Biologically based temperament
Previous experience
(introverted vs extroverted)
"skill deficit"
Major and career interests
Hobbies and activities
Issues and concerns
Linguistics

Teaching

Writing

Business

Intercultural communication
Fair trade

Social change
Sports

Music/ concerts

Urban cycling

Reading and movies

Networking
Urban mobility
Well-being
Environment
Assignment
Read chapter 2 from old book "developing confidence..." (Verderber, Sellnow & Verderber, 2012)
Modelling
Reinforcement
Managing PSA
Narrative or personal
experience speech
Recount (an)
life experience
(s)
Elaborate upon their
significance
.
Closing
3 - 5 minute
narrative/
personal
experience speech.
Include:
Personal Background
Choosing major
Opening
(why, what, how)
Guidelines
Be the change you want to see in the world.
Ch. 1A (Powell, 2011)
Ch. 1B (Powell, 2011)
Communication Orientation Motivation (COM) techniques
(rather than a "performance")
Adopt a
communication
orientation
Visualization
Relaxation exercises
Abdominal breathing
Sighing
Progressive muscle relaxation exercises
Systematic desensitization
Cognitive restructuring
Identify fears and write them down

Analyze how rational they are

Develop positive statements to replace negative self-talk and use them everyday!
Designed to reduce anxiety
Public speaking skills training
Systematic practice
We may feel anxiety due to lack of knowledge and behavior to be effective
Ex. 5
Pair work
1st Evaluation Period
oral presentation 60%
written activity 30%
assignment/Quiz 10%

2nd Evaluation Period
Oral presentation 70%
Speech outline 30%


3rd Evaluation Period
Oral presentation 100%

4th Evaluation Period

Oral presentation 100%

25%
25%
25%
25%
100%
Allow sufficient time to prepare.
Use presentational aids
Practice your speech aloud
Dress up
Choose the appropriate time to speak
Use positive self-talk
Specific techniques
Face the audience
Focus on the important:
sharing your message.
Make a speech plan
What is a presentation like?
TRANSITIONS
are you going?
(audience can follow organization of ideas)
retention is likely to increase.
Help audience remember info
P. 10 Act. 2&3 (Powell, 2011)
Referring to previous points is a way of showing coherence and strengthen arguments.
Mentioning what you will talk next can build anticipation.
Showing a logical link between your main points is highly important in a presentation.
Act. 4 p. 11
2B Smooth structure
Describe to a peer the process you follow when assigned to give a presention.
How do you plan a presentation?
Out of the different types of presentation in 2,
which one are you most likely to give?
Act. 3
Take 3 or 4 parts from the box which you'd include in your presentation.

Put them in order and explain your structure.
Giving a motivational speech
or
call for action
Example
threats
Parts
us
implications
actions
who we are and what it means to be a citizen
the current situation of disengagement and apathy.
What does it imply “loving your country” and “feeling proudly mexican”?
Does it imply paying taxes and voting only?
Is “doing what concerns me” enough?
("yo hago lo que me toca")
Leaving it only to politicians (political parties) to decide public affairs.
Unaccountability for their actions.
In the long run, corruption does more harm than a bomb
encourage people to speak up and get rid of vain political affiliations...
sign into citizen initiatives such as
Support genuine citizen candidates to represent us:
A speech whose
goal
is to explain or describe
facts, truths, and principles
in a way that
stimulates interest, facilitates understanding,
and increases the likelihood of
remembering
.
An informative
speaker’s goal
is to achieve
mutual understanding
about an object, person, place, process, event, idea, concept, or issue.
Characteristics of effective informative speaking
Information will be perceived as intellectually stimulating when it:
Intellectually Stimulating
Piques their curiosity, and
is new to the audience,
Excites their interest.
Relevancy
To grab audience attention, incorporate statements that clarify how a particular point may be important to a listener (listener relevance links).
Describe how a main point relates to the audience becoming happier, healthier, wealthier, etc.?
Demonstrate how a remote topic relates to audience in a familiar way
Productive thinking occurs when we contemplate something from a variety of perspectives, then select the ideas best suited to a particular audience.
Creativity
Effective informative speeches emphasize the main points in ways that help audience members remember them.
Memorable
Addressing of Diverse Learning Styles.
Feeling
: responds to concrete, vivid images, examples, stories, and testimonials
Methods of Informing
Description
A method used to create an accurate, vivid, verbal picture of an object, geographic feature, setting, event, person, or image.
Definition
A method that explains the meaning of something, by
Classifying it and differentiating it from similar ideas,
Explaining its derivation or history,
Explaining its use or function, or
Using a familiar synonym or antonym.

Comparison
and Contrast
A method of informing that focuses on how something is similar to and different from other things.
Narration
A method of informing using
storytelling techniques to describe an accounting of related events.
Four Major Parts of the Story
When and where the events took place
What was the sequence of events that led to the problem or conflict
Why the conflict or problem affected key people in the narrative
How the conflict or problem was resolved
A strong storyline
Descriptive language
Effective use of dialogue
Pacing that builds suspense
A strong voice
A good narrative should have
Demonstration
How something is done,
the stages of a process,
depicts how something works.
Common Informative Frameworks
Effective process speeches demonstrate carefully how to delineate the steps of a process and the order in which they occur.
The steps typically become the main points, and concrete explanations of each step become the sub-points.

PROCESS
EXPOSITORY
Carefully researched
Good expository speeches:
Types of Expository Speeches
Voice power
Oral Style
The manner in which one conveys messages through the spoken word
Degrees of Speech Formality
An effective oral style is less formal than a written style, but more formal than everyday talk.

The degree of formality required, to be an effective public speaker, is based on the rhetorical situation.

Your goal is to adapt your language to the audience and occasion.

Effective Oral Style
Ways in which an effective oral style differs from a written style:
Tends toward short sentences and familiar words
Features plural personal pronouns
Descriptive words
Clear transitions and signposts.
Speaking Appropriately
Using language that adapts to the needs, interests, knowledge, and attitudes of your listeners and avoids language that alienates any audience members.
Language used to reduce the psychological distance between you and your audience: choose words that enhance the connection between you and the members of your audience.
Verbal Immediacy
Aspects of Appropriate Speech
Using “We” Language
Using Bias-Free Language
Generic language
Nonparallel language
Adapting to cultural diversity
Avoiding Offensive Humor, and shunning hate speech
Avoiding Profanity and Vulgarity
3A

Read Mark Twain's quote aloud. If you could pause just once, where would you do it?
Try more pauses (2,3,4)
Which version sounds best?
How far do you agree with Cicero that the
most important aspect
in speaking is
how you sound
?
What's the difference between
pausing
and
hesitating
?

How can a good use of pausing be
helpful
to both speaker and audience?
Read Gerry Spencer's comment aloud. Try pausing for a second after 'spaces between words: now try 2, 3 and 4 seconds.
How long is too long?
Rea
d pp. 190-204
Chapter 10: Language and Oral Style,
pdf book.
Creativity comes from good research, time, and productive thinking.
For the creative process to work, you have to think productively.
You can use things such as:
Presentational aids
Repetition,
Transitions
Humor,
Mnemonics.
http://justenglish.me/2014/04/18/synonyms-for-the-96-most-commonly-used-words-in-english/
Tip: build up language
Doing
: is cultivated when doing something during the speech or afterward.
Thinking
: works best through clear macrostructure as well as definitions, explanations, and statistics.
Watching
: focuses on visual aids, facial expressions and gestures
Helpful organizational pattern
Use a variety of informative methods
As you'll recall...
So, the next question is...
This brings us to...
signpost
Effective Use of Voice
How you sound should
emphasize
and
reinforce
the
meaning
you intend, but sometimes it can contradict it.
Understand the characteristics of your own voice.
Characteristics of Voice
RATE
the speed at which you talk.
PITCH
Highness or lowness of the sounds produced in your larynx by the size and vibration of your vocal cords.
VOLUME
how
loud
ly or
soft
ly
you speak
What distinguishes it from the voices of others.
By
effectively varying
your pitch, volume, rate, and quality, you can achieve an
animated
and
conversational style
that is both
intelligible
and
expressive
.
Speak Intelligibly
If your accent is “thick” or varies from a standard variety,
practice pronouncing
key words so that you are easily understood.
Use Vocal Expressiveness
A total lack of vocal expressiveness produces a monotone.
How you use your voice affects how successful you are in getting your ideas across.
Focus not only on
what
you say but also on
how
you sound as you say it.
How your voice sounds depends on pitch, volume, rate, and quality.
To be
intelligible
means to be
understandable
: if you’re not intelligible, people may find it difficult to get your verbal message.
pitch fluctuation
appropriate volume
Vary your volume to emphasize important information.
can affect how intelligible your message is.
Pronunciation
: mispronouncing is more common than you think.
Articulation
is using the tongue, palate, teeth, jaw movement, and lips
to shape vocalized sounds that combine to produce a word.
Accent
is the inflection, tone, and speech habits typical of native speakers of a language: it's a major
concern
for second language speakers.
Changing pitch, volume, and rate, stressing certain words; and using pauses strategically.
Speeding up your rate,
raising your pitch, or
increasing your volume
reinforces

emotions.

Slowing down
your rate, lowering your pitch, or decreasing your volume can communicate resolution, peacefulness, remorse, disgust, or sadness.
Adjust voice to the acoustics of the room, audience size and background noise.
Normal: 130 and 180 words per minute.
Speaking
too quickly
restrains time to process the difficult information.
The rate at which you speak can determine how intelligible your message is:
Speaking
too slowly
gives your listeners time to let their minds
wander
after they’ve processed your message.
Changes in pitch are known as inflections
Inflections
mark questions, statements, sincerity, sarcasm, mood, etc.
It's what gives
vitality
to your voice!
composition of audience
nature of occasion
A good rate of speech depends on
Vocal attributes of speaker
mood attempted to create
Tone or timbre of your voice.
It's "how you sound” .
QUALITY
Can be affected by
(stress important words, concepts, ideas)
articulation,
pronunciation,
and accent problems
In addition to vocal characteristics,
For you, which words are difficult to pronounce?
Everyone speaks with some kind of accent, because “accent” means any tone or inflection that differs from the way others speak.
These contrasts clarify the emotional meaning of your message and help animate your delivery
Visual aids
A slide =
visual medium.
M
essage
should be understood
through
images
.
The speaker
Criteria for choosing presentational aids
What
content you want to
highlight
and
how
What are the most important ideas you want your audience to understand and remember?
Quantity
Supplementary
to the oral message,

not replacement
for speech or a
distraction.
Audience size
Equipment availability
Guidelines
Prepare visual aids in advance
Integrate them smoothly with the speech.
Plan carefully when to use them
Rehearse, indicate on your outline.
Reconsider using them if purposeless, they are free anyway!
Keep it simple
Limit the reading required of the audience
Fonts
avoid
Fonts large enough
Use color effectively
Contrasting increases
recognition.
Basic rule of thumb
: get rid of them when no longer needed.
Talk to the audience, not to the pres aid
: keep eye contact
Models
T.J. Walker
and
dark fonts on clear
colors.
use
clear fonts on dark
colors...
Time to prepare so you can devise creative aids.
“One picture is worth a thousand words.”
Photographs
Objects
Are there
important ideas
that are
complex
or
difficult
to
explain verbally
?
Is there important information that your audience may find boring?
If you're expecting your audience to read your slides, you're already in big trouble.
Kinds of visual aids
Graphs
Charts
&
Pie charts: distribution patterns
Bar graphs: comparison 2+ items.
More vivid numbers
Useful to summarize large blocks of information
Video
detail
immediacy
vividness
5% of speaking
30 seconds or
Graph it!
decorative fonts
Keep it in the family
max. 2 different typography.
Use simple fonts
ALL CAPS: only in titles or special emphasis
Speech outline

Informative
speech
2nd partial evaluation
30%
70%
Example in p. 249-252 for informative, 260-263 for expository (pdf book)
Evaluation
http://www.ted.com/talks/pamela_meyer_how_to_spot_a_liar
55%
it helps audiences concentrate on the speech

a break in mutual eye contact decreases concentration on the message.
In Western societies, failure to maintain eye contact might be perceived as
dishonest or insincere
.
Assess audience reaction to your ideas.
eye
and
mouth
movements conveying
personableness
and
good character
.
Facial expressions
Do as if talking with friends:
natural
.
audiences expect your expressions to be
similarly animated
.
Audiences respond
positively
to
natural
facial expressions as they
reflect
what you’re saying and how you
feel
about it.
Failure to vary
facial expressions during their speech may be
perceived
as boring, insincere, or stern.
Use gestures to emphasize what you say.
Motivated movement:
with a specific purpose
Practice
when
and
how
it will be used
Posture
You'll breath better
and feel more relaxed
3rd partial evaluation
Tell a
story
or
anecdote

Rubric to be announced
(ideally one related to your final persuasive speech)
November
10 & 15
Upright stance
squared shoulders
To emphasize a particular point
move closer to the audience
,
Create a feeling of
intimacy
before telling a personal story.
Rapport-building
Which is more important to you?
What do you see?
Authority
Rapport
How can you demonstrate
passion
for your subject?
Common ground
Background,
knowledge,
attitudes,
experiences and
philosophies shared.
http://www.ted.com/talks/seth_godin_on_the_tribes_we_lead/transcript?language=en
The tribes we lead
What can you say or do to
connect
with your audience?
How can you
listen deeply
and
actively
to your audience?
Using well your body language: appearing relaxed and comfortable,
making eye contact.
The word 'communication' means
'to have something in common',
'to share a mutual objective',
'to strenghten connections'.
If your topic
matters to you
it will matter to your audience.
Making it sound as a
conversation
, imagine they're your friends you're talking to.
Smiling
often
Talking to them, not
at
them
To communicate is to connect.
The more you talk
their language
and
show
you have
common thoughts
and experiences, the more you'll connect.
To
connect
with an audience,
they need to like you
,
and to like you,
they need to like
something in you
that is like something they like in
themselves.
Talk to them as they arrive, inquire names and motives for being in the conference.
Give your audience
opportunities to participate,
perhaps
asking questions
or getting them to
do things
.
You don't have to a word-perfect: most audiences prefer some degree of
spontaneity
.
Convey
enthusiasm
for it,
enjoy
it as you speak.
Just being interested is not enough.
How can you show openness to your audience?
Motivation to listen goes up in conversations, as people may have to speak next.
Fill the room with energy:
enthusiasm is infectious
, but so is the lack of it.
"Create opportunities for laughter to emerge."
(Doni Tamblyn)
Is being
fun
more important than being
funny
?
In what ways could you create ‘opportunities for laughter to emerge’?
Pros
Using humor in a presentation
Cons
Get your audience
to
trust
you
Activities can liven up too
Humorous stories are memorable and if relevant, can help you get your message across more effectively.

Laughter raises energy levels

If humour is shared by audience
and speaker, it can create rapport.

It gives "space to breath"

Reduces stress

Humour lowers defenses
Fun not always involves humor
Humour can be distracting if it's not connected to the topic.

It can confuse an audience whose English isn't good enough.


It can be embarrassing if the joke doesn't punch.




Accross cultures, humour changes and so
meo
ne could feel offended.
https://www.ted.com/talks/chimamanda_adichie_the_danger_of_a_single_story?language=en
The danger of a single story
Pros
Cons
If you don't feel like trying and be funny yourself...use
Humorous quotes
+ inclusive - less risky
You can make the audience feel good about you
Laugh at yourself when things go wrong
Discuss with a partner
Funny
Entertain the audience (if they like your sense of humor)
Fun
You can make the audience feel good about themselves.
audiences can also participate in the fun.
Presentation = shared experience
even
memes
!
Exercise 3
p. 32
You wish you could park like this....
Obama's fun stunts
Humour
Storytelling
what were the things you
enjoyed the most
?
Name some of your favorite songs, movies, books...
Something in common?
Read quote in p. 44 from Annette Simmons.
People
don’t want more information,
more facts will not help...

A
story will help
figure out what
facts mean.


If you let the
‘facts speak for themselves’

you risk a
misinterpretation
, one that doesn’t fit your intentions.

When you
first give a story
and then add facts, theres's a
better chance of influencing
others to share your interpretation.
(Howard Gardner)
“Storytelling is the single most powerful tool in a leader’s toolkit”
How is a story told “intelligently and skilfully”?
How far do you agree with Gardner’s statement about the power of storytelling?
What kind of stories can be sign of leadership?
Discuss questions in p. 42
Is it
only
leaders who need to tell stories?
a
b
c
(read quote from Steve Denning)
change, etc.
Storytelling is
vital to leadership
not only to
inspire

and
motivate
, but also to
guide
and
facilitate
.
Leaders need to tell
stories
of
many kinds
:
about
success
and
failure
past
and
future
people and
plans

dreams
and
ambitions
good fortune
and
adversity
lessons
learned
When you were a child...
Need to
appeal
to all levels of society to get buy-in for your ideas:
persuasion
.
Stories are a
powerful form of communication
for anyone.
Easier
to explain something telling a story instead of using jargon and technical terms.
Recreate the moment
, not just report it:
it’s more
effective
to hear what people actually said
and
how
they said it.
Golden rules of storytelling
Relevance
to the topic
Short,
yet not lacking
colour
and
detail
Do not rush important parts of the story!
Pause
before delivering
important parts
Direct speech
as much as possible.
(
use dialogues
)
Involve
audiences through
questions
“Human beings understand and interpret the world around us through storytelling."
we
learn
we
entertain
with them.
The world makes
sense
through
stories
we
teach
A moral is a
life lesson
about
right
or
wrong
.
A narrative is a speech where you
recount an experience
you or somebody else has had and the
significance attached
A
setting
,
characters
and
events

shape
the
story
which aims to
represent
a
moral
deemed important.

Think carefully about the point of your story and make sure it is appropriate.
"Narrative drama can be increased by using dialogue.
Dialogue
gives an audience the experience of 'being there' and increases their interest and involvement."
Effectively told personal experiences establish an
emotional bond
between speaker and audience.
Develop it with
supporting details
that give
background
Be sure to
describe the character(s), setting(s), and events
with
vivid details
to which listeners can relate.
Embellish

the story so that the point has

maximum effect
.
Most narratives dramatize because they recount
emotional incidents.
A narrative has a point (a moral).
Obama visit to Cuba
Isabel Allende: How to live passionately—no matter your age
Simon Sinek: How great leaders inspire action
Steve Jobs: commencement address in Stanford
Dave Meslin: the antidote to apathy
Julian Treasure: how to speak so that people want to listen
Clint Smith: The danger of silence
Aims at
influencing
The Nature of Persuasion
The Greeks and Romans defined
persuasion
as
logical
and
well-supported arguments
developed through
rhetorical appeals
to:
How people process persuasive messages?
Relying on simple clues
Listening carefully,
The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) suggests
people process information in
one of two ways:
What determines which route to use ?
Attitudes as a result of
central processing
are
less likely to change
than attitudes formed based on peripheral cues.
Deductive reasoning
Inductive reasoning
If something is true for everything in a certain class ,

Crafting Arguments
Data or logical statement that
connects
the support to the claim .
Persuasive speech
Outline 30%
LOGOS
The central route
The peripheral route
a quick evaluation of the speaker’s competence, credibility, and character
Taking shortcuts
A gut about the message
(ethos)
(pathos)
thinking about what is said,
mentally elaborating on the message.
Decision is based on the appeal to logic and reasoning .
(logos).
(major premise)
(minor premise)
(logical conclusion).
and
then
We must conclude that what is true for all members of the class must be true in the specific instance.


Agreement will depend on
number, quality, and typicality
of each piece of evidence offered.
4th partial evaluation
Speech 70%
or behavior
attitudes
beliefs
values
General conclusion
based on evidence
.
Argument reasons from
specific pieces
of
evidence
to reach a general conclusion.
1,2 persons per car
in CDMX
(ITDP, 2016)
Evidence offered as the grounds for the claim.
Warrant
Claim
Support
What speaker wants the
audience to believe, do, change in attitude, etc.
Safe and environmentally friendly public transportation
should be the
first option
to
move
around the city,
not the last one
.
a specific instance is part of that class
Do the signs cited always or usually indicate the conclusion drawn?
Are a sufficient number of signs present?
Are contradictory signs in evidence?
Arguing
from sign
Supporting a claim by providing evidence that the events that signal the claim have occurred
Validate argument by answering questions such as:
Are enough examples cited?
Are the examples typical?
Are negative examples accounted for?

from example
Supporting a claim with statements containing examples of the claim you are making
Bogotá
Curitiba
NYC
Holland
Test the validity of your argument by answering:
Are the subjects being compared, similar in every important way?
Are any of the ways in which the subjects are dissimilar, important to the outcome?
from analogy
Supporting a claim with a single comparable example that is significantly similar to the subject of the claim
Test validity:
Are the events alone sufficient to cause the stated effect?

Did other events accompanying the cited events, actually cause the effect?

Is the relationship between the causal events and the effect consistent?

from causation
Supporting by citing events that have occurred that result in the claim.
Validity testing questions:
https://bookofbadarguments.com/
Reasoning fallacies
ETHOS
Goodwill
Conveying Competence and Credibility
Empathy
Use vocal expression to enhance your credibility.
Speaker’s credibility is dependent on the audience’s perception of the speaker’s goodwill. (Aristotle)
Ability to see the world through somebody else's eyes.
Identify emotionally with people's views.
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Responsive
Caring about audience's feedback
Explain your competence.
Establish common ground.
Use evidence from respected sources.
Use nonverbal elements of delivery to enhance your image.
If you’ve done a good deal of research on the topic, say so.

If you have personal experience, say so.

It’s important for the audience to know why they can trust what you are saying.
Shared beliefs and values

Show empathy for your audience's position
before trying to convince them to change opinion.

Increase credibility using supporting material
from well-recognized, unbiased and respected sources.
Professional attire
attractiveness creates a perception
of competence and confidence.
Body language
Credibility is strongly influenced by how you sound
Expressing ideas with conviction
Avoiding fillers
PATHOS
Negative emotions
Disquieting; people want to get rid of them.
Helpful at involving audiences, as they look for ways to solve them.
Sadness:
evoked when we face failure, loss or separation.
When we personally violate a moral, ethical, or religious code that we hold dear
Shame: comes after a violation of a moral code
evoked when we are faced with an unfair obstacle or something demeaning.
Types of Negative Emotions
Perception that we have no control over a situation that threatens us.

Use examples, stories, statistics, etc. that create fear in your audience.

Evoking positive emotions
With negative emotions, the goal is to show how a proposal will help the audience to
reduce
or
avoid
the feeling.

With positive emotions, our goal is to
sustain or develop the feeling.

Compassion: a selfless concern for the suffering of others and the energy prompting us to try to relieve that suffering
Happiness and joy:
buildup of positive energy
Pride: self-satisfaction and increased self-esteem as a result of accomplishmemnts.

Feelings of self-worth.

Demonstrate how your proposal will help your audience feel good about themselves.
When a threatening situation has been alleviated.
Hope: emotional
energy stemming
from something
desirable that is likely to happen.
Guidelines for appealing to emotions
Use gestures and facial expressions that highlight the emotions you are conveying.
Tell vivid stories.
Use startling statistics.
Incorporate listener relevance links.
Choose striking presentational aids.
Use descriptive and provocative language.
Use nonverbal elements of delivery to reinforce your emotional appeal.
Anger
"um", "you know", "like", etc.
evoking moments of great happiness from the past.
Roots in a difficult situation.

How will your proposal provide a plan for overcoming a difficult situation?
Relief
Use relief combined with fear to motivate your audience.
Identify attitudes
Part of the speech planning process.
against a particular belief or holding an opposite point of view
in favor
no opinion
uninformed, neutral, or apathetic
already supportive of a particular belief
opposed
seek incremental change
seek agreement
seek action
(Model in pp. 304-309, Verdemeer et al., 2010)

provide the basic arguments and information
present evidence as to why your position is superior to others
provide strong listener relevance links
Identify your proposition
A
declarative sentence
clearly indicating the
position
you advocate.
Informing
Persuading
Audience understand.
Audience understand,
agree and take action
.
Proposition:
Fact
Policy
Value
Used to say that something: is, was,
may, will be/occur or not.
I want to convince my audience that...
Used for value judgement:
how good, bad, moral, immoral, fair, unfair something is.
I want to convince my audience that...
It is
unfair
we all have to breath cars' emissions...
or
the
importance
of counting on a safe transportation system as a way to raise living standards.
Designed to convince an audience that a particular rule, plan, or course of action should be taken.

Involvement in hearing how your proposal can eliminate the source of this.
I want to convince my audience why...
rubbish separation
should
be made obligatory in all the city households and business.
Types of propositions
Ethical Guidelines for Persuasive Speeches
Aim to improve the well-being of the audience with sincere advocacy

Provide choice

Use supporting information that is representative

Are engaging and rational

Honestly present the speaker’s credibility
Organizational Frameworks for Persuasive Speeches
Actuating
Convincing
Comparative advantages – points out best alternative

Criteria satisfaction – sets up criteria framework, then shows how argument fits that criteria

Refutative – both challenges opposition and bolster’s speaker’s argument

Statement of reasons – confirms best supported reasons in a meaningful order
Problem-solution – explains the nature of a problem and proposes a solution

Problem-cause-solution – reveals the causes of the problem and then proposes a solution designed to alleviate those causes

Motivated sequence – combines problem-solution with explicit appeals designed to motivate the audience
Phrase your goal as a proposition.
What is your target audience stance? Why?
Do you need to rephrase goal to that audience attitude?
Is your proposition one of fact, value, or policy.

What are you good at?
cooking, managing, playing an instrument, dancing, etc.
i.e.
Last movie you saw?
How was it?
Do you practice any sport?
Name somebody you admire
(out of your family)
and point out a QUALITY you admire in this person.
94 95 96 97
Coffee or tea
Cold or hot
Mountain or beach
Sweet or salty
Day or night
City or nature
Book or movie
Music or silence
Travelling or staying home
French or German
Cats or dogs
Singing or dancing
Fall
Winter
Summer
Spring
What happened this year?
(in the arts, events, discoveries, records, etc.)
on important public issues.
ABILITY to express ideas
clearly
,
more likely to
share
them
for the benefit of others.
information in ways that many can understand
to communicate
complex ideas
convey knowledge about a complex topic
in depth
Political
Historical events or forces
Explanation of a theory, principle, or law.
economic
social
ethical
issues.
Exposition of creative work
Opening an closing techniques
Tendency to remember the
first and last items
conveyed orally in a series rather than items in between.
Completing the outline
Creating the conclusion
Creating the introduction
Primacy-Recency Effect
Goals
State your thesis
Get attention
Establish listener relevance
Establish your credibility and goodwill
How might my speech
relate to my listeners’ needs
or
desires
for health, wealth, well-being, self-esteem, success, and so forth?
Suspense
Startling statements
Questions
Stories
Jokes
Personal references
Quotations
Action
(3R test)
Why should my listeners
care
about what I’m saying?
In what way(s) might they benefit from hearing about it?
Who you are and why they should pay attention to what you say?
Why should they believe you?
Why are you a reliable source of information?
What makes you an authority in the subject?
Do you seem sincere?
Say what your speech is going to be about



unless you have a special reason for not revealing it (yet).
Have a
clincher
Summarize the
goal
and
main points
.
a
statement
that provides a sense of
closure
by driving home the importance of your speech in a
memorable
way.
To determine how you will
conclude
your speech,
create
two or three
conclusions
Choose the one you believe will best
reinforce

your
speech
goal

Other workplaces
Ex. 3
p. 32
a
Full transcript