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US History - 20.1 - 20.2 - 20.3 - Politics of the Roaring Twenties

USH 20.1 through 20.3


on 25 September 2014

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Transcript of US History - 20.1 - 20.2 - 20.3 - Politics of the Roaring Twenties

Politics of the Roaring Twenties
The Effects of Peace on the Public
War leaves Americans exhausted; debate over League divides them
Economy adjusting: cost of living doubles; farm, factory orders down
soldiers take jobs from women, minorities
farmers, factory workers suffer
Nativism—prejudice against foreign-born people—sweeps nation
Isolationism—pulling away from world affairs—becomes popular
Why? Postwar Conditions:
WWI left Americans exhausted.
Divided over League of Nations.
Soldiers faced unemployment because women and/or minorities had taken their jobs.
Cost of living had doubled.
Farmers and factory workers that made war materials no longer had to.
Fear of Communism
The Red Scare
Communism—economic, political system, single-party government
ruled by dictator
no private property
1919 Vladimir I. Lenin, Bolsheviks, set up Communist state in Russia
U.S. Communist Party forms; some Industrial Workers of the World join
Bombs mailed to government, businesses; people fear Red conspiracy
Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer takes action
The Red Scare
Began in 1919 when Lenin and the "Bolsheviks" ("the majority") overthrew the czarist regime in Russia and established a communist state.
A Communist Party formed in the US.

70,000 joined.

Mailed bombs to gov. and business leaders.
The Palmer Raids
Palmer, J. Edgar Hoover hunt down Communists, socialists, anarchists
Anarchists oppose any form of government
Raids trample civil rights, fail to find evidence of conspiracy
Raids = flop.

Didn't turn up any revolutionary conspiracy or explosives.

Public decided Palmer didn't know what he was talking about.
Red Scare
Short, but made people suspicious of foreigners and immigrants.
Nativist attitude --> ruined reputations and wrecked lives.

Two most famous victims = Nicola Sacco & Bartolomeo Vanzetti.
J. Edgar Hoover
Heads up Palmer Raids
Known for:
1st Director of FBI

US Attorney General Mitchell Palmer
1919 - 1921
Headed up the Palmer Raids.
Not that awesome.

Limiting Immigration
Anti-Immigrant Attitudes
Nativists: fewer unskilled jobs available, fewer immigrants needed
Think immigrant anarchists and socialists are Communist
The Klan Rises Again
Bigots use anti-communism to harass groups unlike themselves
KKK opposes blacks, Catholics, Jews, immigrants, unions, saloons
1924, 4.5 million members
Klan controls many states’ politics; violence leads to less power
The Quota System
1919–1921, number of immigrants grows almost 600%
Quota system sets maximum number can enter U.S. from each country
sharply reduces European immigration
1924, European arrivals cut to 2% of number of residents in 1890
Discriminates against southern, eastern Europeans
Prohibits Japanese immigration; causes ill will between U.S., Japan
Does not apply to Western Hemisphere; many Canadians, Mexicans enter
Postwar Labor Issues
Government doesn’t allow strikes in wartime; 1919 over 3,000 strikes
Employers against raises, unions; label strikers as Communists
Section I - America Struggles with
Postwar Issues
Sacco and Vanzetti
Red Scare feeds fear of foreigners, ruins reputations, wrecks lives
1920, Sacco and Vanzetti, Italian immigrants, anarchists, arrested
charged with robbery, murder
trial does not prove guilt
Jury finds them guilty; widespread protests in U.S., abroad
Sacco, Vanzetti executed 1927
The Boston Police Strike
Boston police strike over raises, right to unionize
Was seen as a threat to the public safety
Calvin Coolidge ends strike, replaces strikers with new policemen
The Steel Mill Strike
1919, steel workers strike; companies use force, later negotiate
The steel company labeled the strikers as anarchists and communists
Talks deadlock; Wilson appeals; strike ends
1923 report on conditions leads to 8-hour day
The Coal Miners’ Strike
1919, John L. Lewis becomes head of United Mine Workers of America
Leads strike; defies court order to work; accepts arbitration
Miners receive 27% wage increase; Lewis becomes national hero

Labor Movement Loses Appeal
In 1920s, union membership drops from over 5 million to 3.5 million
Less than 1% of African Americans, just over 3% whites in unions

Section II - The Harding
International Problems
President Warren G. Harding voices public desire for “normalcy”
Hosts Washington Naval Conference; invites major powers, not Russia
Sec. of State Charles Evans Hughes proposes disarmament, others agree
In 1928 Kellog-Briand Pact nations renounce war as national policy
Americans were very optimistic
Most Americans were isolationists once more
High Tariffs and Reparations
Fordney-McCumber Tariff raises taxes on U.S. imports to 60%
Britain, France cannot repay U.S.
Germany defaults; Dawes Plan—U.S. investors lend reparations money
Britain, France repay; resentment on all sides
Harding’s Cabinet
Harding favors limited government role in business, social reform
Creates Bureau of the Budget to help run government
Has capable men in cabinet—Hughes, Herbert Hoover, Andrew Mellon
Also appoints Ohio gang—corrupt friends who cause embarrassment
Scandal Plagues Harding
Harding does not understand all issues facing nation
Corrupt friends use their positions to become wealthy through graft
The Teapot Dome Scandal
Teapot Dome scandal—naval oil reserves used for personal gain
Interior Secretary Albert B. Fall leases land to private companies
Takes bribes; is first person convicted of felony while in cabinet
August 1923, Harding dies suddenly
VP Calvin Coolidge assumes presidency, restores faith in government
Section III - The Business
of America
Coolidge’s Economic Policy
Calvin Coolidge favors minimal government interference in business
allow private enterprise to flourish
The Impact of the Automobile
Henry Ford uses mass production techniques to build the first affordable automobile
The Model T becomes the industry standard
Cars change life—paved roads, gas stations, motels, shopping centers
Give mobility to rural families, women, young people
Workers live far from jobs, leads to urban sprawl (spread of cities)
Auto industry economic base for some cities, boosts oil industry
By late 1920s, 1 car for every 5 Americans
The Young Airplane Industry
Airplane industry starts as mail service for U.S. Post Office
Weather forecasting begins; planes carry radios, navigation tools
Lockheed Company produces popular transport plane of late 1920s
1927, Pan American Airways inaugurates transatlantic flights
America's Standard of
Living Soars
American Industries Flourish
Incomes Grow
Average annual income rises over 35%, from $522 to $705
Electrical Conveniences
Factories use electricity to run machines
Development of alternating current gives electricity to suburbs
By end of 1920s, more homes begin to have electrical appliances
Appliances make housework easier, free women for other activities
Appliances coincide with trend of women working outside home
The Dawn of Modern Advertising
Advertising agencies hire psychologists to learn to appeal to public
For example, Listerine invented a new term called halitosis, or bad breath to give create a sense of urgency
Make brand names familiar nationwide; push luxuries as necessities
Businesspeople work with service groups
promote selves as benefactors of society
Producing Great Quantities of Goods
Most Americans believe prosperity will last forever
Productivity increasing, businesses expanding
Mergers in auto industry, steel, electrical equipment, utilities
Chain stores develop; national banks allowed to create branches
Income gap between workers, managers grows
Iron, railroad industries not prosperous; farms suffer losses
A Superficial Prosperity
Buying Goods on Credit
Installment plan—pay for goods over extended period with interest
Banks provide money at low interest rates
Some economists, business owners think installment buying excessive
Think is sign of fundamental weakness behind superficial prosperity

Open the Google Doc shared with you and fill in the appropriate information.

Be prepared to discuss briefly

You (your naturalized citizen) has just learned about the quota system.

You family back home has been considering a move to the U.S.

You have 2 min. Tweet @ or send a quick direct message to your family explaining how this is going to affect them.

Have a sense of urgency.


Open a Google Drawing, pixton.com, or just get a pencil and paper.

Using one of these resources, design your very own political cartoon about at least one content point from Section II.

This will be due on TEST DAY.
Full transcript