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Cell Parts

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Stephanie Ward

on 1 November 2013

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Transcript of Cell Parts

Structure:
Nickname= "Brain"

FUNCTION: the cell’s command
center.
3. Nucleus
Parts of A Cell
Chloroplasts
Now let’s talk about structures only found in PLANT Cells!!
Nickname: “The Powerhouse”
Function: Releases ENERGY
Burns GLUCOSE
Breaks down food to make ATP
ATP: is the major fuel for all cell activities that require energy
(circular, but bigger than ribosomes)

Nickname: "Janitors”

Function: uses enzymes to digest (break down) food into particles the rest of the cell can use and to destroy old cells
10. Lysosomes:
2 Types:
Rough ER:
Rough appearance because it has ribosomes
Function: helps make proteins, that’s why it has ribosomes
Smooth ER:
NO ribosomes
Function: makes fats or lipids
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Ribosomes
Function: makes proteins
Found in all cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic
Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function
Nucleus
Nickname: “The Control Center”
Function: holds the DNA
Parts:
Nucleolus: dark spot in the middle of the nucleus that helps make ribosomes
Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Nickname: “Roads”
Function: The internal delivery system of the cell
Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function
Chloroplasts
Vacuole
Cell Membrane
Plant Cell
Go to Section:
Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
Section 7-2
Cytoplasm
Cell Membrane
Mitochondria
Golgi Bodies
Ribosomes
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Nucleolus
Nucleus
Animal Cell
Vacuole
Cell Membrane
Plant Cell
Go to Section:
Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
Section 7-2
Ribosomes
Cytoplasm
Cell Membrane
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Nucleolus
Nucleus
Animal Cell
Go to Section:
Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
Section 7-2
Cell Wall
Chloroplasts
Vacuole
Cell Membrane
Plant Cell
Go to Section:
Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
Section 7-2
Cytoplasm
Ribosomes
Mitochondria
Golgi Bodies
Smooth ER
Rough ER
Nucleus
Nucleolus
Cell Wall
Chloroplasts
Vacuole
Cell Membrane
Cytoplasm
Cell Membrane
Mitochondria
Golgi Bodies
Ribosomes
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Nucleolus
Nucleus
Animal Cell
Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
Section 7-2
Cytoplasm
Cell Membrane
Golgi Complex
Ribosomes
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Nucleolus
Nucleus
Animal Cell
Go to Section:
Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
Section 7-2
CELL MEMBRANE
DNA
RIBOSOMES

SIMILARITIES
EUKARYOTES PROKARYOTES
larger smaller
nucleus no nucleus
DNA= X-shaped DNA= circular
organelles no organelles

DIFFERENCES
TWO TYPES OF CELLS
1. PROKARYOTES— NO nucleus or complex organelles
simple cells
example = bacteria


2.EUKARYOTES—have a nucleus and complex organelles
complex cells
example= plants, animals,
fungi, protists

Centrioles
Smooth
endoplasmic
reticulum

Mitochondrion
Golgi apparatus
Rough
endoplasmic
reticulum

Cell Membrane
Ribosome (free)
Ribosome (attached)
Nuclear envelope
Nucleus
Nucleolus
Image from: © Pearson Education Inc, Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall; All rights reserved

PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS
BIO. 4a

1. CELL (Plasma) MEMBRANE
Nickname: "Gate Keeper"
Function: Controls what enters and leaves the cell. (SEMIPERMEABLE-Allow certain molecules to pass through, but keep others out )

composed of bilayer of phospholipids with proteins embedded
Help in cell movement
FLAGELLA
LYSOSOMES (suicide bags)

Digests large particles

If they rupture, they can kill a cell!
Animation from: http://www.sp.uconn.edu/~terry/images/anim/fluidmem.gif
Fluid Mosaic Model
Molecules in cell membranes are
constantly moving and changing
Cell membranes MOVE!
Plant vs Animal cells
Cell wall
HUGE vacuoles
Chloroplasts
No centrioles
WHAT’S SPECIAL ABOUT PLANT CELLS?
Animation from: http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/13-cells.htm

Move cell itself
CILIA
Image from: http://www.coleharbourhigh.ednet.ns.ca/library/organelle_worksheet.htm
Made of MICROTUBULES (Tubulin)
CENTRIOLES/MITOTIC SPINDLE
Appear during cell division to guide chromosomes apart
CENTRIOLES
Internal framework that helps maintain cell shape and helps it move.
Made of microtubules & microfilaments


1) microtubules—hollow tubes larger than microfilaments
a) cilia—short hair-like projections used for movement
b) flagella—long hair-like projections used for movement
c) spindle fibers—move chromosomes during cell division
d) centrioles—necessary in animal cell division; where spindle fibers attach


2) microfilaments—not hollow, smaller
12) CYTOSKELETON
1
Contractile vacuoles pump out excess water in pond water organisms.

Keeps them from bursting!
(HOMEOSTASIS)
Image from: http://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_06/5_10B.GIF
Network of hollow membrane tubules
2 KINDS:
SMOOTH or ROUGH
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
CONTROLS MAKING RIBOSOMES AND PROTEINS; IN NUCLEUS
5) NUCLEOLUS
CONTROLS WHAT ENTERS AND LEAVES THE NUCLEUS; HAS OPEININGS CALLED PORES
4. NUCLEAR MEMBRANE (ENVELOPE)-
Image from: http://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_06/5_11.GIF
JELLY-LIKE MATERIAL (BETWEEN NUCLEUS & Cell Membrane) is the Cytoplasm
FILLED WITH ORGANELLES-( TINY ORGAN LIKE STRUCTURES THAT HAVE SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS IN CELLS)
2.CYTOPLASM-
http://www.seorf.ohiou.edu/~tstork/compass.rose/photosynthesis/chloro_sun_bathing.gif
http://stallion.abac.peachnet.edu/sm/kmccrae/BIOL2050/Ch1-13/JpegArt1-13/04jpeg/04-28_chloroplasts_1.jpg
Use energy from sunlight to make own food (glucose)
CHLOROPLASTS
http://library.thinkquest.org/3564/Cells/cell93.gif
Image from: http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/plant_cell.gif
Storage space
VACUOLES
Huge in plant cells, Small in animal cells

When plant vacuoles fill with water, this exerts turgor pressure on c.m. and gives plant cells shape.

LOSS OF TURGOR PRESSURE RESULTS IN WILTING.
Storage space for food, water, waste
11) VACUOLES
Makes membrane proteins and proteins for export out of cell
ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (Rough ER)
Image from: http://www.biologyclass.net/endoplasmic.jpe
Image from: http://www.mccc.edu/~chorba/celldiagram.htm
Can be attached to Rough ER

OR

free in cytoplasm
RIBOSOMES
Image by: RIedell

b)
attached ribosomes
- ON THE ROUGH ER; MAKE PROTEINS TO BE TRANSPORTED OUT OF THE CELL
Function: MAKING PROTEINS

a)
free ribosomes
- found in cytoplasm; make proteins to be used within the cell
6) RIBOSOMES
Images from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/cellmembrane.html
http://www.mccc.edu/~chorba/celldiagram.htm
"GATE KEEPER" Acts as a boundary
Controls what enters and leaves cell
WHAT DOES IT DO?
Contain CHLOROPHYLL where photosynthesis happens.

FOUND ONLY IN PLANT CELLS
14. CHLOROPLAST
Thylakoid membrane sacs contain enzymes for photosynthesis
http://media.pearsoncmg.com/bc/bc_campbell_essentials_2/cipl/04/HTML/source/04-17-chloroplast-nl.htm
Surrounded by DOUBLE membrane
CHLOROPLASTS
http://www.windows.ucar.edu/kids_space/images/brick_wall.jpg
Supports and protects cell
CELL WALL
CELLULOSE
SUPPORT PROTECTION
Cell membrane
___________________ makes plant cells sturdy
Found OUTSIDE the ____________________
Provides ____________ & ________________
14) CELL WALL
Image from: © Pearson Education Inc, Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall; All rights reserved

Nickname: The shippers
Function: Modify, sort, & package substances from ER for storage or export out of cell
Appearance: stack of pancakes
8) GOLGI APPARATUS (BODY)
series of canals in the cell used for transport
a) Smooth ER: NO RIBOSOMES
(BREAKS DOWN POISONS IN LIVER)
b) Rough ER: WITH RIBOSOMES; MAKES PROTEINS TO BE EXPORTED OUT OF CELL
ROUGH ER SMOOTH ER
(with ribosomes) (no ribosomes)
7) ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM-
Organelles suspended
in gel-like goo
Image from: http://faculty.stcc.cc.tn.us/jiwilliams/labprojectsmenu.htm
Image from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/cytoplasm.html
ORGANELLE- small structure with a specific function (job)
CYTOPLASM
(Between nucleus and cell membrane)
bacteria
Animal cell
Plant cell
_________ > _____________ > ___________
WHICH IS BIGGER?
Animation from: http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/13-cells.htm
WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
Few
Long
FLAGELLA
Many
short
CILIA
Image by: Riedell
“Powerplant of cell”
Stores energy as ATP
Burns glucose to
release energy
WHAT DOES THE
MITOCHONDRIA DO?
Image from: http://www.rsbs.anu.edu
Image from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/golgi.h
Image from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/golgi.h
Modify, sort, & package
molecules from ER
for storage OR transport out of cell
Pancake like membrane stacks
GOLGI APPARATUS (BODY)
Centrioles
Smooth
endoplasmic
reticulum
Mitochondrion
Golgi apparatus
Rough
endoplasmic
reticulum
Cell Membrane
Ribosome (free)
Ribosome (attached)
Nuclear envelope
Nucleus
Nucleolus
Image from: © Pearson Education Inc, Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall; All rights reserved
http://summit.k12.co.us/schools/shs/computer/tkelley/types.html
http://www.earthlife.net/prokaryotes/welcome.html
Bacterial Cell
EUKARYOTES
PROKARYOTES
WITH
Cells __________ a NUCLEUS AND ORGANELLES surrounded by MEMBRANES


= _________________
MEMBRANES
NUCLEUS
WITHOUT
Cells __________ a _____________ OR
ORGANELLES surrounded by _______________

= ________________
ALL LIVING THINGS ARE MADE OF CELLS
Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
Section 7-2
Vacuole
Chloroplast
Cell
Membrane
Cell wall
Mitochondrion
Golgi apparatus
Nucleolus
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Nucleus
Smooth endoplasmic
reticulum
Ribosome
(free)
Ribosome
(attached)
Nuclear
envelope
Plant Cell
CYTOLOGY IS THE STUDY OF CELLS
Cells come in a variety of shapes and sizes.

*CELL STRUCTURE IS CLOSELY RELATED TO CELL FUNCTION*

•smallest cell- mycoplasmas (bacteria like)
•largest cell- ostrich egg cell

The cell nucleus contains the cell's
the genetic code (DNA)
Found Within the Nuclues is
CHROMATIN
=GENETIC MATERIAL COMPOSED OF DNA AND PROTEIN

THICKENS INTO X SHAPED STRUCTURES CALLED CHROMOSOMES DURING CELL DIVISION
9. MITOCHONDRIA
THYLAKOID =membrane sacs inside

This is where GLUCOSE is made!
Full transcript