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Modals are special verbs which behave very irregularly in En
Transcript of Modals are special verbs which behave very irregularly in En
Modal verbs express the speaker's attitude to the action indicated by the main verb.
Polite request with “you” as the subject
The word "necessity" is a general term used for describing the main meaning of the modal verb MUST and its substitutes HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO, NEED.
be supposed to
Modals are special verbs which behave very irregularly in English.
A modal verb (also modal, modal auxiliary verb, modal auxiliary) is a type of auxiliary verb that is used to indicate modality – that is, ability, permission, and obligation.
Many modal verbs have more than one meaning.
They are always fallowed by the simple form of a verb.
Advisability: Should, Ought to, Had better
Should and ought to both express advisability.
They meaning ranges in strength from a suggestion (This is a good idea) to statement about responsibility or duty (This is a very important thing to do).
Unfulfilled Intentions: was / were going to
Could you help me for a minute, please?
Could you (please) + simple verb..?
would you please email that document
to me? I need it.
To ask questions in a polite but more casual way, say:
can you (please) + simple verb…?
Will you please answer the phone? I’m working.
We do not use the word “may” in a polite question when “you” is the subject.
Polite requests with Would you mind
Would you mind if I closed the window?
Would you mind if I used the phone?
No, not at all /of course not.
No, that would be fine.
Would you mind closing the window?
Excuse me.Would you mind repeating that?
I'd be happy to.
Not at all.
I'd be glad to.
Sure / Okay.(informal)
obey the speed limit.
obey the speed limit.
In meaning, had better is close to should and ought to, but had better is usually stronger.
Often had better implies a warning or a threat of possible bad consequences.
Asking Someone to do something
Should and Ought to
Notes on the use of had better
It has a present or future meaning.
It is fallowed by the simple form of a verb.
It is more common in speaking than writing.
You had better take care of that cut on your hand soon, or it will get infected.
The Past Form Of Should
"Should' is the past tense of the word 'shall.'
When using the words 'should have' you are talking about something in the past that you 'ought to' or 'might have' done.
"I should have gone with you."
"I should have read the directions before starting."
BE SUPPOSED TO: MEANING
Be supposed to expresses the idea that someone ( I, we, they, the teacher, lots of people, my father,etc) expects something to happen.
Be supposed to also expresses expectations about scheduded events.
The game is supposed to begin at 10:00
The committee is supposed to vote by secret ballot.
Be supposed to also expresses expectations about behavior.
I am supposed to go to the meeting. My boss told me that he wants me to attend.
The children are supposed to put away their toys before they go to bed.
Be supposed to in the past
Be supposed to in the past (was/were supposed to) expresses unfulfilled expectations.
Jack was supposed to call me last night. I wonder why he didn´t.
Modals are different from normal verbs:
1: They don't use an 's' for the third person singular.
2: They make questions by inversion ('she can go' becomes 'can she go?').
3: They are followed directly by the infinitive of another verb (without 'to')
AM/IS/ARE GOING TO is used to talk about mentions about intentions for future plans or activities, for example:
I´m going to wash the dishes.
subject + to be + going to + verb + complement.
I am going to buy a necklace
WAS – WERE /GOING TO AFFIRMATIVE FORM
To talks about past intentions that never actually ocurred. Usually, these are unfilled intentions, for example:
John was going to drive and Karen was going to follow on her bycicle.
subject + was + going to + verb + complement.
WAS – WERE /GOING TO NEGATIVE FORM
The negative of "be going to" is formed by placing "not" after the verb "be."
They were not going to look.
subject + wasn´t + going to + verb + complement.
Modal verb MUST
The modal verb MUST in the meaning "strong necessity" forms only the present tense. The future is expressed by the present tense with the help of the context and adverbs or adverbial phrases indicating the future time, for example, "tomorrow, soon, next week, in an hour".
• I must talk to him immediately.
MUST in the meaning "strong necessity" does not have the past form. The substitute phrase HAD TO (necessity) is typically used instead of MUST in the past tense, with a little change in meaning.
• Natasha must go to the bank today.
• She has to go to the bank today.
• Victor had to go to the bank yesterday.
Modal verb MUST and its substitute HAVE TO
an entrance exam.
have to take
an entrance exam
MUST is stronger, stricter, and more categorical than HAVE TO.
HAVE TO in the meaning "necessity" is used in affirmative statements and questions in the present, past, and future.
PRESENT: He has to finish it tomorrow.
PAST: He had to rewrite several pages of the report yesterday.
FUTURE: He will have to finish his report tomorrow.
The verb HAVE TO is used in both formal and informal English in speech and writing, and many native speakers use HAVE TO instead of MUST in many cases, especially in American English.
He must write a report.
He has to write a report.
He must finish his report tomorrow.
In some cases the difference between MUST and HAVE TO is bigger than "strong necessity" versus "necessity".
• Children must go to school.
(It's obligatory, and it's the right thing to do.)
• Children have to go to school.
Substitute phrase HAVE GOT TO
Have got to also express the idea of necessity.
It is informal and is used primarily in spoken English
have got to go
now. I have a class in ten minutes.
have to go
now. I have a class in ten minutes.
LACK OF NECESSITY AND PROHIBITION:
HAVE TO AND MUST IN THE NEGATIVE
• If he wants to go to England, he must obtain a visa first.
• She must obey the rules.
Absence of necessity
• I don't have to go to work today. It is Saturday.
• She doesn't have to go to the store. The refrigerator is full of food.
• He didn't have to study yesterday, so he went to the movies with us.
Must not (Prohibition)
We use must not to say that something is not permitted or allowed.
Use of Must not
Must not expresses prohibition.The prohibition can be subjective or objective
We can use must not to talk about the present or the future: