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Transcript of Schizophrenia Disorder
Schizophrenia http://newdepressioninfo.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/SchizophreniaTreatments.jpg http://www.mactonnies.com/paranoia.jpg 2. Disorganized Schizophrenia Symptoms http://blogs.monografias.com/sistema-limbico-neurociencias/files/2010/06/schizophrenia2.jpg Symptoms 3. Catatonic Schizophrenia http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_tWcMxuwF6hg/SbXKypfW4aI/AAAAAAAAAYY/h3NSy5_NVHo/s400/mute.gif Symptoms 4. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/schizophrenia-2.jpg Symptoms 5. Residual Schizophrenia http://cache.gizmodo.com/assets/resources/2007/05/gogglesillustration.jpg Symptoms Causes of Schizophrenia -genetic -environmental -abnormal brain structure -brain chemical imbalance http://www.sciencedaily.com/images/2008/09/080910133341-large.jpg Genetic -Schizophrenia is passed between relatives geneticaly http://webjct.com/pics_for_pages/graph.jpg ie high levels of stress trigger schizophrenia through instances like prenatal exposure to a viral infection, low oxygen levels at birth, exposure to a virus when an infant, early parental loss or separation, and physical or sexual abuse in childhood Environmental -inherited genes make a person very vulerable to schizophrenia, but environmental factors trigger the disorder http://static.technorati.com/10/02/04/4199/child-abuse.jpg Brain Chemical Imbalances -chemical imbalances in certain neurotransmitters in the brain is a cause Two main chemicals: -dopamine -glutamate http://www.scienceclarified.com/images/uesc_09_img0510.jpg Abnormal Brain Structure -enlarged brain ventricles show a lack of volume of brain tissue -low activity in the frontal lobe -abnormalities in the temporal lobes, hippocampus and amygdala are also connected to symptoms http://kevinturnquist.org/images/enlargedventricles.jpg History of Schizophrenia Treatment and Therapy -Delusions
-Constant fear (Paranoia) -Disorganized speech and Behaviour
-Experience at least two symptoms of:
*Difficulty mobbing, resistance to moving, excessive movement, abnormal movements, repeating what others say or do.
-rigid and mute -The person has at least two symptoms of:
*Elusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech or behaviour, catatonic behaviour or negative symptoms. -No positive symptoms
-Only negative symptoms such as:
*withdrawal, disinterest, not speaking. -The term "Schizophernia" has ony been used since the early 1900's.
-"Unmada" was the term used before the 1900's.
-Thought to be caused by evil spirits in the medieval times.
-Treatments were very different. Such as:
* spinning chair Spinning Chair
http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/418882_6 Positive and Negative Symptoms
-Behaviours and actions that occur or are presented in an individual such as paranoia or heightened sensitivity.
-Behaviours and actions that are no longer present or and individual lacks, such as loss of interest or withdrawal. Sources
http://www.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.youtube.com%2Fwatch%3Fv%3DuJOT45wXErk&h=45b30 Schizophrenia is a mental illness that requires lifelong treatment, the treatments and therapies are mostly the same between all types of schizophrenia with a few differences, but they all focus on eliminating symptoms of the illness. Tests Physical Exam - take many measurements: may include -
checking vital signs (Heart Rate, blood pressure, tempuratute
and listening to heart and lungs)
checking your abdomen
Labratory Tests - may include:
a complete blood count (CBC)
screening for drugs or alcohol
checking your thyroid function Psychological Evaluation
(led by a doctor or mental health provider) - talk about thoughts, feelings and behaviour patterns
- discuss thoughts of suicide, self harm or harming others
- the doctor may want to talk to friends and family if possible
-they will ask questions about symptoms: When did they start?
How severe were your symptoms? How did they affect your daily life?
Have you had similar episodes in the past?
- If you are unresponsive, or your behaviour is deemed inappropriate
they will check for catatonic symptoms Diagnosis Requirements Catatonic
-being unable to move
-being unable to speak
- being in the same position for long periods of time
- excessive or over excited behaviour with no purpose
-resisting instructions, or attempts to move you
-peculiar movements (grimacing/unusual postures)
- mimicking words or actions of others
-lack of emotion
-emotion thats inappropriate for the situation
-a preoccupation with one or more delusions
-frequent auditory hallucinations Treatments
-electroconvulsion therapy (ECT)
-vocational skills training
Medication being the most important part of treatment The treatments are usually guided by psychiatrist or a doctor. The rest of the team may involve people like a psychotherapist, pharmacist, family members, case worker, psychiatric nurse, or a social worker. Your team is your support, and the people that do their best to give you the most appropriate treatments. Medications Catatonic:
- Benzodiazepines (or Anti-anxiety medications)
- Barbiturates (are also seductives)
- These medications help relieve a catatonic state, are used only on emergancy basis, but may take several weeks to notice improvement. Disorganized and Paranoid:
First Generation Anti-Psychotics (Typical)
- control symptoms affecting brain chemicals called neurotransmitters
- manages symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions
- Anti-psychotics (especially the generic versions) are often cheaper than other drugs.
Second Generation Anti-Psychotics (A-Typical)
- manage hallucinations, delusions, and other symptoms (loss of motivation, lack of emotion)
All types of schizophrenia share some other medications, anti-depressants, mood stabilizing medications, or anti-psychotic medications. Disorganized and Paranoid Schizophrenia may also include anti-anxiety medications. Examples of...
- Depakote Side Effects of...
- blurred vision
- sensitivity to the sun
- rapid heartbeat
- skin rashes
- menstrual problems
- can cause major weight gain, changes in metabolism which increases risks of diabetes or high cholesteral
- glucose and lipid levels should be monitored regularly
- persistant muscle spasms
- muscle stiffness
- may lead to TD -> muscle movements you can't control, usually around the mouth (can range from mild to severe) People will recover fully or partially when they are no longer on the medication, very rarely they do not recover. Anti-Psychotic Medications - The medications have been available since the mid-1950's
- The second generation medications came out in the 1990's
- Usually comes in pill or liquid form, sometimes given a shot once or twice a month
- Symptoms of schizophrenia usually go away within a few days, and delusions after a few weeks, after about 6 weeks you should notice a lot of improvement
- You may need to try several medications before finding the right one
- Relapses are most likely to happen when a person doesnt take, or only sometimes takes their medication
- There can be unpleasent or dangerous side effects if taken with other drugs, a doctor MUST know every medication the patient is on, and should know about smoking and drinking habits!
- You should never stop taking medication without talking to your doctor, stopping instantly is unhealthy and should be done gradually Electroconvulsion Therapy (ECT) - electric currents pass through the brain to trigger
a brief siezure causing changes in your brains chemistry;
which can reduce symptoms
- this is an option if your symptoms are severe or
medication doesnt work
- make sure you understand the pros and cons Social/Vocational Skills Training - teach them to live independantly , or with a therapist, so they can learn good hygeine, cooking, and better communication.
- communities have programs to help with jobs, housing, adn self help groups, and help for crisis situations Hospitalization Psycho-Therapy Individual Therapy
- learn ways to cope with the stress and daily life challenges -> improve communication skills and reduce the severity of the symptoms
-increases the ability to do tasks, have relationships, work, and is motivation to stick to the treatment plan
- learning about your illness helps you understand it better and cope with symptoms and stigma, and understand why you need to take your medication Family Therapy
- provides support and education for the family
- you have a better chance of improving if your family understands illness and recognizes situations that trigger a relapse
- can help your family cope and reduce their stress about condition
- can help you and your family communicate better Other Psycho-Social Interventions/Treatments
- substance abuse treatments
- social skills training
- supported employment
- cognative behavioural therapy (reality based interventon that focuses on helping a client understand and change patterns that interfere with their ability to interact and function)
- weight managemant
- illness management
-self help groups during crisis periods and times with severe symptoms hospitalization can be necessary for your safety and the safety of others
- this also makes sure that you get the proper nutrition, sleep and hygiene
- sometimes partial hospitalization or residential care are given