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Education, Dramatism and Kenneth Burke

By Alan Taylor. #JFKI, Free University, Berlin. Winter 2015-2016
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Alan Taylor

on 6 January 2016

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Transcript of Education, Dramatism and Kenneth Burke

Chalkface Rhetorics 2015

Pittsburgh, Ohio University
Columbia New York (left first year, 1917
Short Story Writer - published in The Dial, Succession (New York)
Translator, Death in Venice (Mann)
Collection of Short Stories, The White Oxen
Employed as Sub-editor, reviewer, THE DIAL 1923-1929
At the centre of New York Modernism
Resident & Commuter: Greenwich Village & Andover, New Jersey
1930s - 1990s: book author, visiting lecturer, reviewer, poet, speaker, maverick guru.
January 2016

From Cicero to Savio

Reviewing Chalkface Rhetorics of 2015


Logos, pathos, ethos- How Burke's Pentad
is Taught in US HE Education

KEY TERMS
Action
(human) NOT motion (animal)
Humans as essentailly
symbol-user and mis-users
The
victim - redemption cycle
(Christian paradigm)
Identification, establishing the common 'God-term'
To achieve
constantiablity
between speaker/audience
The
scapegoat
mechanism
Kairos - the timing of the event, the message

Burke and the Three Levels of Association
Burke's Dramatistic Pentad
KENNETH BURKE'S DRAMATISM:
Framing a Critical Analysis of U.S. Education Rhetorics
Dr. Alan Taylor

Kenneth Burke (1897-1993)
Chalkface Rhetorics, #JFKI, @FUBerlin 2015 - 2016
https://kinowords.wordpress.com/chalkface-rhetorics-2015-2016/

2016: From Persuasion to Identification The New Rhetoric 1950s -
Janus: representative figure of the all-previaling
ambiguity of substance

“…quickly enough by example. A soldier may be nationally motivated to kill the enemies of his country, whereas individually he is motivated by a horror of killing his own enemies. Or conversely, as a patriot he may act by the motive of sacrifice in behalf of his country, but as an individual he may want to profit. Or a man's business code may differ so greatly from his private code that we can even think of him as a "split personality" (that is, a man of "two sub- stances," or "divided substance"). Or one will find a resistance to people in particular "balanced by" a humanitarian empathy for mankind in general.”
(KB, GM, 1946, 37

Scope and Depth of our study so far:

Uni corporate advertising
Documentary filmmakers (Waiting for Superman, 2012)
Advocacy groups - BadAss Teachers
Hollywood cinema (Heaven's Gate, 1980)
Corporate News Media - Fox News/CBS
Student focus: HE sports , school menus, & Free Speech Movements 1960s- 2015



Methods and Means: Words and images
Aristotle....

1. Ethos - the status of the speaker/institution
2. Logos - the strength of the logical argument
3. Pathos - the appeal to emotions
For example: Ronald Reagan
towards Governorship
of California, 1966...

“A is not identical with his colleague B. But insofar as their interests are joined, A is identified with B.

Or he may identify himself with B even when their interests are not joined, if he assumes that they are, or is persuaded to believe so. Here are ambiguities of substance. In bring identified with B,

A is “substantially one” with a person other than himself. Yet at the same time he remains unique, an individual locus of motives.

Thus he is both joined and separate, at once a distinct substance and consubstantial with another.” (KB, RM, 20-21).
From Persuasion to Identification
Kenneth Burke, International University, Florida, 1978)

Counter-Statement (1931)
"Towards a Better Life" (1932)
Permanence and Change (1935)
Attitudes Toward History (1937)
Article: The Rhetoric of Hitler's "Battle" (1939)
Philosophy of Literary Form (1941)
A Grammar of Motives (1945)
A Rhetoric of Motives (1950)
Article: Linguistic Approaches to Problems of Education (1955)
The Rhetoric of Religion (1961)
Language As Symbolic Action (1966)
KENNETH BURKE: BOOK PUBLICATIONS
Examples of the heuristic in U.S communication studies....
The core question:

"What is involved,
when we say

what people are doing and
why they are doing it?"

(Grammar of Motives, 1945, xv).
Kenneth Burke and the Turn to the New Rhetoric
Leading to ".....a universal heuristic of motives which derives from the very conception of human
action
. It demonstrates how the terms of the pentad may be exploited by rhetors and analyzed by rhetorical critics." Rountree.
Analysis: the content AND the adopted style of this video.....

The ultimate rhetorical motive, however, is in connecting Burke’s three stages of association

1. from the mechanical (time and place)

2. to the analogic (common local/habitual/cultural/ interests) to

3. and reach the transcendental, the ideological.
BURKE LEGACIES: USA, EUROPE
Thanks
Dr. Alan Taylor

Mavericks in Action, New Hollywood, New Rhetoric and Kenneth Burke

For 2016 publication, Peter Lang GmbH.

a.taylor@oxon.org

mavericksinaction@tutamail.com
Correction: What is Missing
The "scene" is NOT where the speech/act took place.

It is the place and "scene" of where the REPORT of the event is taking place.

Reminder:

"What is involved,
when we say

what people are doing and
why they are doing it?"

(Grammar of Motives, 1945, xv).
QUICK REVIEW

Contest with 1930s - 1940s
1. Positivism
2. Scientism
3. The New Critics
4. Specialisms & Course Disciplines
6. Bureacracies of the Imaginative
TERMINISTIC SCREENS

1. Reflects the reality we believe exists
2. Selects what is assumed to be relevant
3. Deflects attention from contrary POVS

Burke advanced instead the
-Perspective by incongruity (Dada, 1920s)
ANTICIPATED
1. Reader response theory
2. Semiology
3. Post structuralism

http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/kennethburketheoryofterms.htm
KENNETH BURKE in 1966
The Five Dogs.
Drew Theological Seminary, Madison, New Jersey

"Now if, on the other hand, I am a symbol-using animal, then everything that I -- that I do will be approached -- I will approach the world, even the non-symbolic world, through the -- the -- the screens, through terministic screens of one sort or another. And in my use of -- of symbolic action there, by the way, it is not simply reducible just to words. Words are -- are one of the most convenient forms for us to deal with. But it would also apply to the -- to a dance, to music, and paintings and so on. Any -- any symbol system would be -- the use of any symbol system would be an example of a symbolic act."

"Man is the symbol-using (symbol-making, symbol-misusing) animal, inventor of the negative (or moralized by the negative), separated from his natural condition by instruments of his own making, goaded by the spirit of hierarchy (or moved by the sense of order), and rotten with perfection".(LSA, 1966)



Rhetoric as Equipment for Living
Kenneth Burke, Culture and Education - May 22-25, 2013, Ghent University, Belgium

http://www.cultureeducation.ugent.be/kennethburke/index.php
http://kbjournal.org/kbs
Burke (1945) extends the rhetorical field wherein 'explanations' of:
-
materialism
selects

the scene
as source of ultimate meaning
- idealism

selects
the action
of the agent as core motivating source
-
pragmatism
selects

agency
(technology)
-
mysticism

selects (ultimate)
purpose
of the act
- realism
selects
the act
as its own justification (KB, GM, 128).

ALL accounts use 'God-terms' to establish coherent totalizing meaning

The spokesperson attempts to ascribe an act based on ideological assumption by adopting the appropriate terminology as ascription.

THE PENTAD AND IDEOLOGY
(Schools are failing because...)
Ambiguities of Substance in the Classroom
The Pentad in Education: Agency/Agent/Purpose/Act/Scene?
Motivational Posters from Edutopia
(Founded in 1991 by filmmaker
George Lucas and venture
capitalist Steve Arnold)


On the "collapse of the public into the private"....
Dr. Henry Giroux Addresses the
Ontario Common Front Assembly
See
Oravec, Christine. “Kenneth Burke's Concept of Association and the Complexity of Identity.” The Legacy of Kenneth Burke. Ed. Herbert Simons and Trevor Melia.
"Imagine that you enter a parlor.
You come late. When you arrive, others have long preceded you, and they are engaged in a heated discussion, a discussion too heated for them to pause and tell you exactly what it is about.

In fact, the discussion had already begun long before any of them got there, so that no one present is qualified to retrace for you all the steps that had gone before.

You listen for a while, until you decide that you have caught the tenor of the argument; then you put in your oar. Someone answers; you answer him; another comes to your defense; another aligns himself against you, to either the embarrassment or gratification of your opponent, depending upon the quality of your ally's assistance.

However, the discussion is interminable. The hour grows late, you must depart. And you do depart, with the discussion still vigorously in progress."

The Philosophy of Literary Form, 1966, 110-111

VERSIONS OF BURKE'S
PARLOR METAPHOR in
US HE EDUCATION
RECOGNITIONS
- leader, followers, movement...


The Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism describes Burke, as "one of the most unorthodox, challenging, and theoretically
sophisticated American-born literary critics of the twentieth century."

- 1960s, 70s, 80s 2nd/3rd editions with new forwards of the books (Berkeley)
- 1981: National Medal for Literature at the American Book Awards
- Winter 1983-1984, Legacy of Kenneth Burke Conference, Philadelphia
- 1984 - present The Kenneth Burke Society & Conferences
- 3rd generation of US scholars now revisiting, revising, catching up with Burke.
- 1980s, 1990s
Pilgrimages to Andover: http://kbjournal.org/cahill
ANIMALS MOVE, HUMANS ACT
from persuasion (rhetoric) to identification (New Rhetoric)

IDENTIFICATION & CONSUBSTATIATION
via GOD TERMS

ORDER - HIERARCHY - MYSTERY
the negative - thou-shalt-not

PIETY / IMPIETY

WHERE ALL LANGUAGE as SYMBOLIC ACTION

Opens up the scope of 'literature' to include dress, rituals, brands, maps, poems....anticipating Barthes & semiologists of the 1950s, 1960s.
THE CULTURAL CONTEXT; USA
1930s - 1950s

POSITIVISM
- behavioural sciences that emphasize motion (Thorndike, Columbia, education practice and theory, conditioning)
- Taylorism, industrial efficiency (Hollywood, the motor industry)
- the
"bureucratization of the imaginative"
- career specializations
- educational narrowing
- confirmed by
"terministic screens"
(1966)
-
"narratives of expertise"
(Knapp, 2005)
- condemned to
"entelechy"
(Aristotle)
- leading to
"trained incapacities"
- and
"occupational psychosis"
The Rhetorical Power of the Representative Anecdote

- specialization
- occupational psychosis
- conflict

“The progress of human enlightenment can go no further than in picturing people not as vicious, but as mistaken.”
― Kenneth Burke
BREAKING THE CYCLE.

Perspective by Incongruity
- The Impious Move
BURKE & LANGUAGE IN THE
DRAMA OF HUMAN RELATIONS
IMPIOUS CHALLENGES to the ORDER/HIERARCHY
THE HOLLYWOOD VERSION (Patch Adams, 1998)
So - the pentadic scheme is
"...equally present in symbolically elaborated metaphysical structures."
(KB, 1946, GM) i.e., Capitalism, Marxism, Religions, The Market, Science


- the bureacratization of the imaginative
vs perspective by incongruity
- agent expands the scope of "expertise"
- and challenges the "thou shalt nots"
- agent (action) over structure (scene)
= Hollywood realism

"In ancient Roman religion and myth, Janus (/ˈdʒeɪnəs/; Latin: Ianus, pronounced [ˈjaː.nus]) is the god of beginnings and transitions,and thereby of gates, doors, doorways, passages and endings."
Kenneth Burke's Dramatism in U.S. Education

An introduction.

Lecture: January 6th, 2016

A component of Chalkface Rhetorics,
#JFKI, FU Berlin.

Dr. Alan Taylor
FINALLY

ALEMBICATION...

BURKE'S PARLOR

Theodore Sery, Term Assistant
Professor Rhetoric & Composition, CAS
2013: Advanced Composition and Technical Writing, UA Alaska.
2016 Update: Now that Mein Kampf now open for republication, see analysis of Burke's 1939 critque here
http://www.kbjournal.org/content/criticism-context-kenneth-burkes-rhetoric-hitlers-battle
BURKE ON EDUCATION (and media literacy)
when..."democracy is liable to degenerage into tyranny..."

“Linguistic Approach to Problems of Education” in Modern Philosophies of Education, ed. Nelson B. Henry (University of Chicago Press, 1955)
over to you......
SAMPLE WORK
from Shakespeare, Gide, Joyce,
Mann, T.S. Eliot, Goethe...

KENNETH BURKE and
Hitlers Battle (Mein Kampf). 1939
"Let s watch it carefully...let us try to discover what kind of "medicine" this medicine-man has concocted, that we may know with greater accuracy, exactly what to guard against, if we are to forestall the concocting of similar medicine in America". Burke, 1939
Full transcript