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Work Teams and Groups

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Roy Teeh

on 29 October 2015

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Transcript of Work Teams and Groups

Types Of Groups
Types Of Formal Groups
Formal groups may be further classified as:
Stage of Group Development
the forming stage
the storming stage
the norming stage
the performing stage
the adjourning stage
The Stages of Group Development
In the forming stage, the initial entry of members to a groups is a primary concern. However, the specific concerns of the members consist of the following:
They eager to learn what tasks they will be performing.
How they can benefit from group membership
The Norming Stage
This stage is also known as the initial integration stage, this is when the group really begins to come together as a coordinated unit.
Cooperation and collaboration are its main characteristics.
The Storming Stage
The Forming Stage
The group emerges as a mature, organized, and a well functioning group, and it is ready to focus on accomplishing its key task.
This stage is also referred to as the total integration
There are 8 specific roles that are deemed important in the group process.
Knowlege contributor
Any group would largely benefit from a memeber who plays this role.
People supporter
Some group member are not emotionally strong to face the various difficulties heaped upon them in the performance of thier function.
Process observe
There is a need for someone to listen to whatever ideas or proposals by any member of the group.
People join groups because they believe that groups are venues for satisfying their needs. Social needs, for instance, may be satisfied through interaction with group members.

The Adjourning Stage
Involves the termination of activities.
This stage is applicable to temporary groups such as committees, projects groups, task forces, and similar entities.
There is always a chance that one or two overager member will dominate discussion.
Is adisadvantage of working in a group, is actually reffered to as "GROUPTHINK".
This term may be briefly defined as a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment in the interest of group cohensiveness.
How to minimize Groupthink
Techniques in group decision making
Four various techniques used in group decision making
Interacting Groups
are typical groups in which members interact with each other face-to-face
Interest group
is one that is formed because of some special topic interest. In general, the group disbands when the interest declines or a goal has been achieved.

Example: Employees with young children grouping together to present a unified front to management for some benefits like allowances for child care.

Friendship groups
Is one where members are brought together because they share one or more common characteristics such age, political beliefs, or ethnic background. Often extend their interaction and common to activities outside of their jobs.

Types of Informal Groups
Informal groups may be classified as follows:
A group may be defines as two or more persons, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve certain objectives.

Work Teams and Groups
Groups may be classified as:
Formal group
this one defined by the organization structure, with designated work assignments and established tasks.

Example: the economics area of university consisting of six faculty members and an area chairman.
Informal group

this type is neither formally structure nor organizationally determined. It is formed by individuals and developed around common interests and friendship rather than around a deliberate design.

Example: group of six faculty members of a university who love music and bring their musical instruments at a place outside the university, and play for a few hours every Saturday evening. They don’t get for paid for playing; they just enjoy themselves.

A group composed of individual who report directly to a certain manager.

Example: group consisting of sales supervisor and his ten salesmen

Task group
It is that kind of group consisting of persons working together to complete a job task.
Example: five faculty members from different departments coordinating and preparing the semester enrollment program of the university.

Command Group
Proximity is another reason why people form groups. When people work near each other, it is not hard for them to form a group.

People are attracted to each other because of similarities in perception, attitude, performance , or motivation. This condition is a positive factor in the formation of groups.
A group is formed when number of people are required to achieve a goal. For instance, a symphony cannot be played without first forming a group of musicians.
Individual person join groups so they can obtain economic benefits not otherwise made available if they are not members of a group. A labor union, for instance , is a group of people whose primary aims is to bargain for economic benefits with the employer.
The Forming Stage
Person getting appointed to a discipline committee.
Person who is helping to form a medical mission.
Person who is gradually becoming part of choral group over a period of months.
What constitutes acceptable behavior
What rules must be followed
is that stage when conflict within the group happens. Members may get involved in competition for desired assignments and disagreements over appropriate behaviors and responsibilities related to task performance.

In this stage, members feel a preliminary sense of closeness, and would want to protect the group from disintegration.

The person occupying this role forces members to look at how the group function.
The group needs someone who confronts and challenges bad ideas.
The role of people supports who provides emotional support to teamamtes and resolve conflicts
The challenger will succed in his role if he possesses effective interpersonal skills.
It is not uncommon for group members to get involved in disputes between each other.
The role of the gatekeeper is to provide the opportunity for every member to express his or her opinion. The gatekeeper will also remind every member about good ideas that were recognize previously.
Take-charge leader
There are occasions when a group has no appointed leader or if there is one, he could not play his role for one reason or another.
People in the groups are more supportive of decisions that were formulated with their assistance.
It allows the efficient exchange of information for effective problem solving
The opportunity for fulfilling the safety, affiliation, and esteem needs of group members is made available.
Group members get mutual support from each other.
More inputs from various perspectives can be made available for effective decision making.
Synergism is more likely when people work together as a group.
Working in a group offers the following ADVATAGES:
The group's decision may be diluted by every member's input making the decision ineffective.
Accountability is often a problem with group activity
There are occasions when some members shirk responsibility and let other members of the group do the work
When the group is highly cohesive and motivated, outside criticism tends to be ignored as group members look inward for reinforcement of each other's opinions
Group activity is usually slower and more cumbersome because every member has the opporunity to make

Group meetings are held to disseminate strictly routine data that could be more efficiently conveyed in writing through interoffice memorandum.
Working in a group DISADVANTAGES
Ten years ago, Mr. George Publico was assigned to train five bright new employees. He was satisfied with their prformance and he facilitated their promotion to supervisory posotions. Later, Mr. Publico was directed to form a group that will performs task like finding effective ways of cost-cutting. The five new supervisors were assigned to him as members of the group. They were thankful that they were given the opportunity to work with their benefactor.
During group meetings, the five members always defer to their leader. Whatever problems are tossed to the group, they determine Mr.Publico's view, and not wanting to displease him, they indicate their approval. Their job as group members bacame routine and easy because it is their leader who does all the thinking.

Monitoring group size, so it will not grow large enough to intimidate some members to perform well.
Encouraging group leaders to play an impartial role by actively seeking input from all members and avoid expressing thier own opinions, especialy in the early stages of deliberation.
Appoiting a member to play the role of devil's advocate
Using exercises that stimulate active discussion of diverse alternative without threatening the group and intensifying indentity protection.
Interacting groups
nominal group technique
electronic meeting
is a group problem-solving technique which promotes creativity by encouraging members to come up with any ideas, no matter how strange, without fear of critism
In brainstorming, the participants are required to observe the following:
Generate as many ideas as possible,
Be creative, freewheeling, and imaginative,
Build upon,extend, or combine earlier ideas,
Withhold criticism of others' ideas
Norminal Group Technique
is a group decision-making method in individual members meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion.
The following descrete steps are undertaken in the nominal group technique:
Individual members quietly list their ideas.
Ideas are written on a chat one at a time until all ideas.
Briefly time is allotted so that question can be asked, but only for clarification.
A written vote is taken and the group decision is announced.
is a decision-making technique wherein members interact through computers, allowing anonymity of comments and aggregation of votes.
Team work is a formal group comprised of people interacting very closely together with as shared commitment to accomplish agreed-upon objectives.
Differences between Workgroups and Teams
a work group is one that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each member perform within his/her are of responsibility.
-Team emphasize shared leadership, mutual accountability and collective work products.
problem - solving teams
self-managed work teams
Cross functional teams
Virtual teams
Problem-solving team
are group of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for few hours each week to discuss ways of improving, efficiency and work environment.
Self- managed work teams
is one that impowered to make decisions about schedules, task allocation, job training, performance evaluation, selection of new membersand controlling quality of work.
Improved flexibility of staff;
Reduced number of job classification
Reduce absenteeism and turnover
Org. commitment and satisfaction are at highest level
Implementing the concept takes time
Cost training member is high
Inefficiences created during training period
Employees are not able to adapt to a team structure
Cross-functional teams
is a team composed of employees from the same hierarchical levels but from diferent work areas.
Exchange information
Develop new ideas
Solve problems
Coordinate complex projects
Virtual teams
are those who use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed member in order to achieve a common goal.
Characteristis of effective teams
Clear Goals - Clear understanding of the goal
Relevant Skills - Necessary technical and interpersonal skills
Mutual Trust - Among members
Good communication - Messages are clearly understood
Negotiating Skills - confront and recondile differences
Appropriate Leadership - Motivate!
Internal and External support - Training, Incentives and Resources
In searching for team players, it must be remembered that not all people are alike.
is a way of turning individuals in team players.
are powerful motivation.
Potential team problems
Changing membership
Social loafing
Changing membership
Newly formed needs time to turn into mature groups. however, this could ne disrupted by frequent changes in its composition. members may drop out
temporarily or permanently for reaseons like:
Transfering to higher priority proj
Occurence of personal problem requiring extended leaves if absence
Accepting a job in another company
Higher membership turnover is, the bigger is the team's problem. to address such concern, the team must learn to manage its internal turnover through the following:
Recognition of potential problems brought by turnover
Development of plan for managing turnover
Thinking through how best to integrate new members
Social loafing
refers to the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually.
Reasons for social loafingare:
members think their contribution is less noticeable
members prefer to see others carry the workload
to minimize social loafing some means of identifying individual efforts must be provided. it may be wise to consider an analysis of the following
Nature of the task
Qualifications & desires of participants
Time and cost contraing
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