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Parts of Speech--Grammar Review

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by

Ian Berry

on 5 June 2015

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Transcript of Parts of Speech--Grammar Review

Grammar Review
The Parts of Speech
A
noun
is a person, place, thing, or idea
Nouns
A
verb
is an action or a state of being.
Verbs
Adjectives
describe nouns.
Answer the questions:
What kind?
How many?
Which one?
Adjectives
An
adverb
describes or modifies
verbs
,
adjectives
, or other
adverbs
.
Adverbs
A
pronoun
takes the place of a noun.
Pronouns
Links nouns, pronouns, and phrases to other parts of a sentence.
Prepositions
Persons:
boy, girl, coach, scientist, Carlos, President Obama, ...Justin Bieber.
Places:
zoo, school, hospital, the mountains, the beach, outer space, American Airlines Center, the White House
Examples:

swim, learn, ask, smile
Action Verbs
Linking/Helping Verbs
Action Verbs

describe an action--for example:

do, make, run, write
Linking/Helping Verbs:

1-Link the Subject to the Predicate
2-Help another Verb

Examples:

am, is, are, was, were
should, could, might, may
John

kicks
the
ball.
The
mailman

delivered
the
package.
Tanya

is
a
doctor.
The
cat

is
chasing the
mouse.
Here, "is" links Tanya and doctor.
Tanya = doctor.
"chasing" needs help!
The
angry
waiter lost his temper with the customers.
Dirk Nowitzki's
special
move made Shaquille O'Neal look
silly
.
The
new
president's
calm
response to the
frightened
crowd impressed reporters.
The
enormous
space ship lit up the sky with a
bright,

orange
flame as it crashed into the earth
Connect words, phrases, and clauses within a sentence.

3 Types: Coordinating, Subordinating, and Correlative
Conjunctions
Interjections
Answer the questions When? Where? Why? How?
Examples:

usually
quickly
easily
angrily
sarcastically
honestly
well
Graham did
well
on his math test.

Jorge
sleepily
ate his bowl of cereal.

Emma is
always
coming late to class.
Quietly
,

she

slips through the door and sits down.

Emma, the student
always
late to class,
quietly
slips through the door.

Emma, the student
always
late to class, slips
almost silently
through the door and sits down.
Adjective + ly = adverb
Things:
cat, basketball, house, pencil, nuclear reactor, aircraft carrier, wind
Ideas:
love, happiness, loyalty, friendship, experience
Often, nouns have
articles.

A
parakeet
An
emotion
The
spaceship
Nouns can be concrete or abstract.
Concrete: a flower, a bowl, the wind
(Think 5 Senses)

Abstract: happiness, strength, an idea
(usually an idea, not a person, place, or thing)
"Personal" Pronouns

I, you, he, she, it, we, they

me, him, her, our, your, them, their



John laughed at Cindy.
He
laughed at
her
.

Batman flew down from the rooftops.
He
flew down from the rooftops.
"Demonstrative"
Pronouns

this
that
these
those

I don't want
those
.
Then here, take
this
.
That
isn't what I want either!
"Indefinite" Pronouns

anyone, anything
everyone, everything
no one, nothing
someone, something

Someone
just knocked on the door.

No one
believes me.

I need to tell you
something
.
"Relative" pronouns

who
which
what
that
whom

The bank
that
I robbed was unguarded.

Cristian,
who
prefers soccer over basketball, stayed home to watch the match on TV.

The existence of aliens,
which
scientists dispute, remains undocumented.
Almost always combined with other words to make a "prepositional phrase."
up, to, through, between, around
near, by, beyond, below, behind
Prepositions are always followed by a noun or a pronoun, which is called the OBJECT of the preposition.

A verb CANNOT be the object of the preposition.
The old fence between the two houses near the lake ran along the edge of the woods until the shoreline.


How many prepositions are there?

Find the prepositions and the object of each.
Challenge:

Write a sentence which adds prep. phrases to the sentence "I ran."

Example with sentence "He laughs":

In the movie theater, in the silver light of the large screen, he laughs in a uproarious way at the joke of the comedian in the film.

Add AS MANY Prep. Phrases as you can!
The candle of the priest's vigil burns each night in the window.
The trees of the forest resemble tall, silent figures in the night.
In the hallway, the HAP student slips on a banana peel which lay in the middle of the newly polished floor.
Prep. Phrase = In the hallway
Subject (noun) = the HAP student
Verb = slips
Prep. Phrase = on a banana peel
Relative Pronoun = which
Verb = lay
Prep. Phrase = in the middle
Prep. Phrase = of the newly polished floor
Sentence "Imitation"
The HAP student slips carelessly on the banana peel in the middle of the hall.
Subject
Verb
Adverb
Prep. Phrase
Prep. Phrase
Prep. Phrase
Prep. Phrases function in two ways:
like adjectives (which one, what kind?)
like adverbs (when, where, why, how?)
Write a sentence of your own, which has this structure, but is about something else.

The topic of your new sentence:
Option 1: Something funny that has happened during HAP

Option 2: LeBron James (love him or hate him!)
"Coordinating" Conjunctions connect two independent clauses.

For
And
Nor
But
Or
Yet
So


("FANBOYS")


Coordinating = think 2 INDEPENDENT Clauses
John threw the ball and Andre caught it.
I wanted to go but my mom wouldn't let me.
He hesitated, for he was unsure about what to say.
The dog ran to the park or it hid somewhere else.
Subordinating Conjunctions

Words like because, if, although, when, since

Connect a DEPENDENT clause to an INDEPENDENT one.

Examples:

Because you were late, you missed a lot of the movie.

Karl sent out the text message when he arrived.

Although Mr. Berry likes sports, he's sure not very good at them.

While the guppy ate his little snack, the shark eyed him hungrily.
Correlative Conjunctions

Can join IND. clauses, DEP. clauses, and phrases:

Either...or
Neither...nor
Not only...but

Can only join DEP. clauses and phrases:

Both...and
whether...or
not...but
Not only did Christian eat his lunch, but he also enjoyed it. Mm-mm.

Either you listen to your coach or you sit on the bench--your choice.

Neither his watch nor the clock on the wall gave the correct time.

She runs both track and cross-country.

He's not a hero but a fake.

Whether Darth Maul kills me or not, he's one ugly guy.
Parts of Speech.
How many can you name?

How many can you define?
Nouns Pronouns

Verbs Prepositions

Adjectives Conjunctions

Adverbs Interjections

Full transcript