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Andromeda Constellation

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Ellie DeMarco

on 12 May 2015

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Transcript of Andromeda Constellation

Andromeda Constellation
The Constellation as a Whole
The Andromeda constellation has seven main stars, two star clusters, and a galaxy. The brightest star is Alpha Andromedae or Alpheratz. The second brightest is Beta Andromedae or Mirach. There’s also Gamma Andromedae or Almach, Delta Andromedae, Upsilon Andromedae, Iota Andromedae, and Xi Andromedae or Adhil. The galaxy is Messier 31, M31, NGC 224, Andromeda Galaxy, or sometimes The Great Andromeda Nebula. The Andromeda Constellation is known as The Chained Princess.
Alpheratz, meaning “the naval of the horse,” is Andromeda’s head. It is located almost exactly on the Prime Meridian of the Heavens. Alpheratz is 97 light-years away and is a spectroscopic binary. Alpheratz connects Andromeda and Pegasus. It is a B8 blue subgiant that has a surface temperature of 13,000 degrees C and a magnitude of 2.06. It is also 200 times brighter than the sun. Its radius is also 3 times the size of the sun’s radius.
Beta Andromedae
Mirach, meaning “girdle,” is Andromeda’s left hip. It’s a red giant 200 light-years away from Earth. It has a magnitude of 2.05. Mirach’s mass is four times greater than the sun’s mass and is 100 times larger. It is occasionally brighter than Alpheratz, but since its brightness is variable, it is not officially the brightest star of the constellation.
Gamma Andromedae
Almaak, or “the caracal.” A caracal is a medium sized wild cat. Almaak is part of a quadruple star system where two of the stars are contrasting colors. Those colors are blue and orange. Almaak is the orange, which is a K3II orange supergiant. It has a magnitude of 2.26 and is 350 light-years away.
Andromeda Galaxy
A.K.A. M31 or NGC 224. It is about two and a half million light-years away. It is a type Sb spiral galaxy and is the closest galaxy to our own galaxy the Milky Way. It can be seen without a telescope, but it looks like a "little cloud." At first, it was thought that its disk spanned 228,000 light-years in width, but in 2005, they discovered that it spans at least 260,000 light-years. 10% of its light comes from the outer disk which contains metal-poor stars that were taken from other, smaller galaxies that got too close. A team of astronomers announced on January 7, 2007, the discovery of low-metallicity, red giant stars up to some 500,000 light-years from Andromeda's core, which suggests that the galaxy is much larger than originally thought. This means that Andromeda's luminous halo may actually overlap with that of the Milky Way. The Andromeda Galaxy may be bigger than the Milky Way, but it is less dense. Andromeda has a total of around 700 billion to 1.2 trillion Solar-masses compared to 0.93 to 1.9 trillion or more for the Milky Way. On May 31, 2012, astronomers announced that based on statistics, the Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy will collide in about 4 billion years. A bridge of hydrogen gas connecting
the Andromeda and Triangulm galaxies
suggests that the two had a near miss
in the distant past.
Observation
The galaxy has been observed by the Hubble telescope and astronomers have used simulations to find out what might happen to it in the future. All of the stars and the galaxy are visible to the naked eye. The Andromeda Constellation is best seen, from the Northern Hemisphere, in August.
Mythology
The mythology is The Chained Princess. Andromeda is the daughter of the weak King Cepheus and the vain Queen Cassiopeia. Cassiopeia claimed that she was more beautiful than the Nereids, who were beautiful sea nymphs, and they got angry and claimed that her vanity had finally gone too far. They went to Poseidon and asked him to teach Cassiopeia a lesson. Poseidon then sent Cetus, a sea monster, to ravage the coast of King Cepheus’ territory. Cepheus went to the Oracle Ammon for a solution. The oracle told him that he has to sacrifice his virgin to appease the monster. Andromeda was chained to a rock on the coast so that she could atone for the sins of her mother. As Cetus charged at Andromeda, Perseus, coming back from slaying Medusa, swooped in on Pegasus and showed Cetus Medusa’s head. When Cetus saw the head he turned to stone and sank into the sea. Perseus was immediately in love with Andromeda and the two of them got married.
Place
The constellation’s objects are scattered throughout the universe. Some stars are in our galaxy, some are not and the one object is a whole other galaxy that has millions and millions of stars in it, so you could say that the Andromeda constellation is home to millions of stars because it has the Andromeda galaxy in it.
History
The Andromeda Constellation was one of the earliest constellations named. It was most likely discovered by the ancient civilizations of the Tigris-Euphrates region. The woman Andromeda is mentioned in writings from 17th century B.C. and 5th century B.C. The mythology of the constellation is from the Greeks.
Andromeda Council
It is "an intergalactic, interstellar & interdimensional governance & development body of aligned benevolent star systems & planets of sentient intelligent life for worlds in both the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies." They claim to come from different planets such as Tishtae, Terial, Pitolla, Nikotae, Legola, Kaena, Percula, Pershea, Ventra, Toleka, Ritol, Xeta, Degaroth, and Etorth. They are "responsible for setting precedence, protocols, and conditions of behavior regarding planetary exploration & first contact, new membership, and trade relations among its member planets. Think of it as a deep space United Nations."
Upsilon Andromedae
Upsilon Andromedae is also part of a binary system. It is the primary star and is an F8 yellow-white dwarf. The secondary star is an M4 red dwarf and is 70 million miles from Upsilon. Upsilon has a magnitude of 4.09 and is 43.9 light-years away. It also has four planets orbiting it.
Xi Andromedae
Xi Andromedae or “Adhil,” which means “the train” (of a dress) is near the bottom of Andromeda’s right leg, which is where her dress ends. Adhil is a KoIII yellow-orange giant and has a magnitude of 4.87. It is 215 light-years away.
Two Less Known Stars
Delta Andromedae is part of a triple star system. Iota Andromedae is a blue-white dwarf.
Alpha Andromedae
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