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Inca Civilization:Religion,Social Structure and Daily Life
Transcript of Inca Civilization:Religion,Social Structure and Daily Life
Inti was the sun and was considered the most
important god to the Inca.
The emperor, or Inca, of the empire and his family
were considered demi gods and direct descendence from
The only god with temples built after him. Other gods: Viracocha: The god who created the world and also the father
of the sun god Inti. Mama Quilla: The moon goddess. Pachamama: Mother Nature Mamasara: Corn Goddess Mamaqocha: Mother of the ocean Religious Aspects The Inca believed in three spiritual dimensions that made up the world: Uku Pacha Kay Pacha Hanan Pacha They also believed in polarity which was represented as: Hanan: Right, high, male and superior Hurin: Left, low, female, inferior Religious Practices Divination Incas believed they could read signs from the gods in order to learn how to please them or to understand their advice. Divination was used to consult the gods for almost any activity or event. This way the Inca could decide if it was a good day to farm their crops,marry,go to war etc. Huaca Along with gods, Huaca were also worshipped. Huaca were places or objects considered sacred. This could be a mummy,tomb,temples and more. Sacred parts of nature like caves and springs were called "Apu" Sacrifices Sacrifices were common in relgious rituals. Animals sacrifices were common. Llamas and alpacas were often sacrificed to appease the gods. While not often, children were sometimes sacrificed. Being chosen for sacrifice was an honor for a child. After Life Inca worshipped their ancestors and respected them greatly. The dead were mummified and burried with belongings,food,tools etc. The tombs were usually places near those of their descendents An Inca(emperor's) body after mummified was left in their palace, the new emperor would build a new a palace for him self. Daily Life Family Chidren under the age of 5 were considered "playing children" and
did not have responsibilities or chores.
After age 5 children were expected to assist in chores such as feeding animals, helping
their mothers etc.
From ages 9 to 20 most Inca children served as shepperds for the city's llamas.( llama michecs) From the ages of 20 to 25 men would serve roles such as leaders of younger Llama michecs, messengers etc. Men over 25 had to take part in "Mit'a". After age 50, men did not have to partake in Mit'a and usualy did non physical work such as a librarian, historian, storeowner. At age 60 men were only expected to do work if they were able. Their work was small and not physically straining. Their food and clothes were given to them by the government. Men married around ages 25-30
Women married between ages 14-18.
The approval of both the male and female's relatives
A "permit" or "license" from the government was also required.
Gifts were exchanged and a new house was built for the couple. When a child
was born the couple received more land from the state. Education Women Younger Inca girls gathered plants,fruits and vegetables
for household use.
Once they marry, Inca girls were expected to look after the
household, their families and help their husbands however
possible. There were no professions available for women. Upper class boys were educated in the Inca capital of Cuzco in
The House of Teaching, Yachahausi. The education lasted 4 years with each year focusing on one subject Quechua, the Inca language was studied, along with religion, history and Quipu making. Quipu was the only form of non verbal Inca communication. Different couloured strings were tied together with different knots. Records,information and even stories could be kept this way. Living All cities were based around the same format
as Cuzco the imperial capital.
The cities included temples for the sun god, palaces for the emperor,governor, store houses, city squraes etc.
Cities were used by the military and usually only upper class people lived in them. Common people lived in rural towns outside the city.
Towns were made of groups of family compounds. Homes were single roomed and rarely if ever had furniture. Geographical Context Social Structure of Inca Inca's Government
Inca's Society Inca's Government Pachacuti reorganized the kingdom of Cuzco into an empire
He converted his empire to a new governmental system which was known as Tahuantinsuyu
They had a federal government and four provincial governments
The federal system was headed by Sapa Inca himself.
Inca noble men were the head of the other provincial governments. Social Structure There were four Inca classes:
1. Inca- Sapa Inca
2. Royalty -
Son of the Sapa Inca - The Auqyi
Wife of Spa Inca - The Coya
First generations of royal relatives
Nobility of Blood: Other members of Royal realatives - Royal Panacas (las Pañacas).
Nobility of Privilege: They who achieved distinction from educational and training fields.
General People - Hatun Runa
Peoples of newly conquered races- Mitamaes
Servers of the Inca and Empire, including prisoners - Yanaconas They had four quarters headed by four Apos, who were just below the King.
Every quarter were made up of several provinces run by officials.
Head of every provinces were the governors.
There were 80 provinces around Inca empire system.
Every provinces were made of around 20,000 households.
Below each government there were two Curacas, who were in charge of 10,000 households each.
Each of these curacas were again in charge of two curacas of 5,000 households.
Then curacas (5,000) was the in charge of five curacas of 1,000 households, who were again in charge of two curacas of 500 households.
These two curacas (500) were in charge of five curacas of 100 households.
Main job of the curacas was to make sure proper function of Mita system.