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Ancient Greece (1750-133 BC)

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Ashley Carter

on 11 October 2016

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Transcript of Ancient Greece (1750-133 BC)

Ancient Greece (1750-133 BC)
4.4 The Glory That Was Greece
How did Greek thinkers, artists, and writers explore the nature of the universe and people's place in it?
4.5 Alexander the Great and
The Hellenistic Age

How did Alexander the Great expand his empire and spread Greek culture throughout the realm?
4.1 Early People of the Aegean
How did the Minoans and Mycenaeans shape early Greek civilizations?
Webquests
What characteristics defined Greek culture and what were their lasting impacts?
Standard
Using this website and your guided questions...
You will learn about the many aspects that make Greek culture unique and intriguing.
Part 1 and 2: Answer the questions based on information on the website.
Part 3: Create questions of your own (with answers) to cover the remaining sections.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/ancient_greeks/
Honors
http://www.ancientgreece.co.uk/
Using this website and your guided questions...
You are going to take an indepth look at what makes Greek culture purely "Greek."
Complete the packet of questions for each section of the website.
For the last three tabs, create your own questions and answers for the information given.
Tic Tac Toe
After you have completed the webquests, we will make a chart of the information you learned.

As a group and individually, you will chose to complete a project based on what we have learned about Ancient Greece.
Vocabulary 4.4
philosopher
logic
rhetoric
tragedy
comedy
Vocabulary 4.5
assassination
assimilate
Alexandria
heliocentric
4.4 The Glory that was Greece
Why might some of the philosophers' ideas be a threat to Greek tradition?
How did Greek art reflect the idea of ideal form?
How was drama used to influence Greek society?
How did Greek thinkers, artists, and writers explore the nature of the universe and people's place in it?
Why did Plato reject democracy?
What standards of beauty did Greek artists follow?
How were Greek plays performed?
Why is research and avoiding bias important to the writing of history?
Witness History: Aristotle Meditates on Thought
Aristotle is considered one of the greatest philosophers of all time. After studying under Plato for twenty years, Aristotle eventually became a teacher himself. His interests varied greatly and he studies numerous subjects including biology, political theory, and logic. In Metaphysics, Aristotle theorized on the nature of divine thinking:
"It is of itself that the divine thought thinks (since it is the most excellent of things) and its thinking is a thinking on thinking."
Greece
Although Greece was often at war, it still took time to focus on what it truly meant to be human. This is reflected in their art, architecture, writing, and thinking. This time period in Greece is looked back at as the height of human development in the Western world. One poet even referred to this as "the glory that was Greece."
Philosophers: Lovers of Wisdom
Instead of believing that events were caused by the whims of the gods, Greeks searched for cause through observation and reason.
Philosophers
The Greeks called these thinkers philosophers, "lovers of wisdom"
Explored subjects likes math, music, logic (rational thinking)
Through observation, they would discover the laws that governed the universe

Modern science can trace its roots to Greek principles
Some philosophers debated morality and ethics
What is the best form of government?
What standards should rule human behavior?
Debating Morality and Ethics
In Athens, they questioned accepted ideas
Success was more important than moral truth
Developed skills in rhetoric (art of skillful speaking) to use clever and persuasive speech to make their opinions known and become successful
Older citizens accused them of undermining traditional Greek values
Debating Morality and Ethics
Socrates
Socrates was an outspoken stonemason and philosopher
Much of what we know about him comes from his student Plato
He wrote no books, but spent his time asking people about their beliefs
The Socratic Method - he would pose a series of questions to a student and challenge them to examine the implications of their answers
Allowed others to seek truth and self-knowledge
Many saw it as a threat to their core values
Socratic Method
Trial of Socrates
At age 70, Socrates was put on trial
Accused of corrupting the cities youth and failing to respect the gods
Before a jury of 501, Socrates offered a calm and reasoned defense.
Jurors condemned him to death, which he accepted and drank hemlock (a deadly poison).
...but you have to love this!
Plato
Leaves Athens
Socrates' execution left Plato with a distrust for democracy.

He fled Athens for ten years and returned to establish the Academy, a school where he taught and wrote of his own ideas.
He felt that through rational thought, people would discover unchanging ethical value, see perfect beauty, and learn how to best organize society.
The Republic
Plato's book that describes his vision for an ideal state
Rejected democracy
The state should regulate every aspect of its citizens' lives in order to provide for their best interest
Divided society into three classes
Workers (produce the necessities of life)
Soldiers (defend the state)
Philosophers (to rule)
Trained to lead and ensure order and justice
The wisest philosopher would be Philosopher-King and have ultimate authority
Felt men surpassed women in mental capabilities and in physical tasks
Some women were superior - talented women could be educated to serve the state.
Men and women should take military training together and raise their children in communal centers for the good of the state.
Aristotle
Plato's student
Analyzed all forms of government and found good and bad examples of each
Suspicious of democracy because he felt it could lead to mob rule
Favored rule by a single and virtuous leader
Good conduct means to pursue the "golden mean" - a moderate course between extremes
Promoted reason as a guiding force for learning
Set up the Lyceum, his school, for the study of all branches of knowledge.
Wrote on politics, ethics, logic, biology, literature, and many other areas.
When European universities were created 1,500 years later…they were largely based on the works of Aristotle
Idealism in Architecture and Art
Plato said every object had an ideal form…artists and architects tried to show this balance and order with beauty.
Wanted to convey perfect balance to represent harmony and order with the universe

The Parthenon is a wonderful example of this
Monumental Architecture
Rectangular shape with tall columns supporting sloping roof
Adds dignity and grace
Today many public buildings throughout the world incorporated Greek architecture into their design (columns)
Early sculptors were in rigid poses like the Egyptian style

By 450 BC, a new style of sculpting developed that was more natural
Artists Craft Life-like Human Forms
More natural…but idealistic
Showed gods, goddesses, athletes, and famous people in their perfect, graceful form
Not true to life
The Dying Gaul
Pottery
Only pottery survives, no painting
Shows daily life
Each design is made to fit the shape of the pot
Greek Literature
Developed their own style of writing
Later became known to Europeans as the model of perfection
The "classical style" of writing - balanced and elegant
Began with the epic poems of Homer
Inspired later writers
Sappho, poet, later influenced of love and beauty
Possible most important contribution to literature
First plays came from religious festivals to honor Dionysus
Performed outdoors with no scenery
Wore elaborate costumes and stylized masks
A chorus sang on stage
Often based on legends and myths
Dicussed moral and social issues or explored relationship between people and gods
Famous playwrights: Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides
Wrote tragedies (plays that told stories of human suffering and usually ended in disaster
Purpose: stir up and relieve emotions of pity and fear
Antigone: Sophocles explored what happens when moral duty conflicts with laws of the state
Antigone, a young woman, wishes to bury her brother who has died leading a rebellion, but King Creon forbids anyone to bury the traitors body. When she buries the body she is sentenced to death.
Greek Comedy
Some wrote comedies ( humorous plays that mocked people or customs)
Almost all surviving are written by Aristophanes
Tragedies would focus on the past and comedies would make fun of people of the day
Criticized society through ridicule (like political cartoonists)
Recording Events as History
Applied observation, reason, and logic to the study of history

Herodotus is called the "Father of History" in the Western world because he went beyond listing names or retelling ancient legends…
He visited lands and collected information from people who remembered events.
Wrote The Persian Wars

Greek word historie means inquiry
Herodotus noted bias (a mental leaning; prejudice; slant) and conflicting accounts
However, he entered his own opinions into the writing

Early historians set standards for future historian. They showed the need to research and avoid bias when writing
4.5 Alexander and the Hellenistic Age
1. Why was Alexander the Great able to conquer the Persian empire?
2. How did Alexander encourage the blending of cultures?
3. How did Alexander's conquests lead to a new civilization?
4. Why do you think the Hippocratic Oaths is considered a medical advancement?
5. How did the Hellenistics make advancements?
Alexander the Great
Alexander was a young man when he inherited the Macedonia empire from his father, Philip II. He grew the empire larger than any in history, and did not do it alone. In this speech, he rallies the troops to continue on in conquest...
"I could not have blamed you for being the first to lose hear if I..had not shared in your exhausting marches and your perilous campaigns..You and I...have shared the labor and shared the danger, and the rewards are for us all..whoever wishes to return home will be allowed to go..I will make those who stay the envy of those who return."
The Empire of Alexander the Great
In 338 BC, Athens fell to the Macedonian Army.

Athens lost its independence, but its culture spread all over the Mediterranean by the conquering of land by Alexander the Great.
The Greeks viewed the Macedonians as rough, backward people.
The leaders were Greek in origin, however.
Philip II grew up in Thebes and even hired Aristotle to tutor his son, Alexander.

338 BC - Athens and Thebes joined forces against Philip II
He defeated them in the Battle of Chaeronea...gave him all of Greece under his control.
He planned to take over the Persian empire but was assassinated at his daughter's wedding
One of his wives, Olympias, outmaneuvered his other wives to put her son, Alexander, in power.
Alexander was 20 years old but was a good soldier and shared his father's ambitions
By 334 - Alexander had enough ships to cross the Dardanelles, the strait separating Europe from Asia Minor
Alexander captures Persia
The Persian emperor, Darius III, was weak and many provinces were in rebellion.
Alexander was able to capture Palestine, Egypt, and Babylon by 331 BC
Before he could capture Darius, the emperor was murdered.
Advance into India
crossed the Hindu Kush and into northern India in 326 BC.
His troops faced war elephants for the first time.
Tired and weary, they refused to go further. Alexander turned back and planned his new campaign in Babylon
Alexander's Early Death
Before setting out again, Alexander became sick with fever and died at age 32.
Commanders asked who he would leave empire to...he is said to have whispered, “To the strongest.”
Alexander's Early Death
No one was strong enough, and after three years his generals split the empire into three parts.
Macedonia and Greece
Egypt
most of Persia
Their descendants competed over this land for over 300 years
The Legacy of Alexander
Hellenistic Arts and Sciences
cities had armies of architects and artists to create buildings grander than those during classical Greece
Stoicism
Political turmoil led to a new rise of philosophy
The founder, Zeno, urged others to avoid desires and disappointment by accepting what life gave them
Stoicism
High moral standards, like protecting other humans
women and slaves were unequal socially, but were equal morally because they had the ability to reason.
influenced Romans and Christians later
Math and Astronomy
built on ideas of Greeks, Persians, and Egyptians
Pythagoras created a formula to calculate the relationship between the sides of a right triangle
Euclid wrote the textbook that became the basis for geometry
Math and Astronomy
Aristarchus argues that the Earth rotated on an axis and orbited the sun
This heliocentric idea, the sun at the center of the universe, was not accepted until 2,000 years later.
Math and Astronomy
Eratosthenes showed the earth was round and accurately calculated its circumference
Math and Astronomy
Archimedes applied physics to make practical inventions using the lever and pulley.
used a lever to draw a ship over the land before a crowd
Math and Astronomy
Improving Medicine
Hippocrates studied causes of illness around 400 BC and looked for cures.
Doctors take a Hippocratic Oath in order to protect the patients and set ethical standards.
I swear by Apollo the physician, and Asclepius, and Hygieia and Panacea and all the gods and goddesses as my witnesses, that, according to my ability and judgement, I will keep this Oath and this contract:

To hold him who taught me this art equally dear to me as my parents, to be a partner in life with him, and to fulfill his needs when required; to look upon his offspring as equals to my own siblings, and to teach them this art, if they shall wish to learn it, without fee or contract; and that by the set rules, lectures, and every other mode of instruction, I will impart a knowledge of the art to my own sons, and those of my teachers, and to students bound by this contract and having sworn this Oath to the law of medicine, but to no others.

I will use those dietary regimens which will benefit my patients according to my greatest ability and judgement, and I will do no harm or injustice to them.

I will not give a lethal drug to anyone if I am asked, nor will I advise such a plan; and similarly I will not give a woman a pessary to cause an abortion.

In purity and according to divine law will I carry out my life and my art.

I will not use the knife, even upon those suffering from stones, but I will leave this to those who are trained in this craft.

Into whatever homes I go, I will enter them for the benefit of the sick, avoiding any voluntary act of impropriety or corruption, including the seduction of women or men, whether they are free men or slaves.

Whatever I see or hear in the lives of my patients, whether in connection with my professional practice or not, which ought not to be spoken of outside, I will keep secret, as considering all such things to be private.

So long as I maintain this Oath faithfully and without corruption, may it be granted to me to partake of life fully and the practice of my art, gaining the respect of all men for all time. However, should I transgress this Oath and violate it, may the opposite be my fate.
The Hippocratic Oath
his most lasting achievement was the spread of Greek culture in most of the world
Alexander founded cities (often named Alexandria) throughout the lands he captured.
Traders, soldiers, and artisans settled these cities.
Cities were filled with Greek temples, athletic contests, and Greek statues
Cultures Combine
Cultures Combine
The people assimilated into Greek culture and they picked up the native traditions
Alexander married a Persian woman, adopted their dress and encouraged soldiers to do so.
Cultures Combine
Created a culture that combined Egyptian, Persian and Greek aspects.
Alexandria: Cultural Capital
Alexandria, Egypt had a wide range of goods at market (Greek marble, Arabian spices, East African ivory…)
Marvelous sight was a lighthouse that stood 440 feet in the air
Museum
center of learning with laboratories, lecture hall, and a zoo
the library had thousands of scrolls representing all the accumulated knowledge of the ancient world, but it was destroyed by fire.
Hellenistic Women
women were no longer restricted to their homes during the Hellenistic period
more learned to read and write
some were philosophers and poets, or had considerable power alongside their husband and sons who were rulers
Cleopatra VII
Hellenistic Women
Vocabulary
Trojan War
Shrines
Fresco
Crete
was home to a bright early civilization.
The
Minoans
, who lived here, were successful between 1600-1500 BC
The people here were based on trade (not attacking others) and set up outposts around the
Aegean
Sea
Traded with Egypt and Mesopotamia. Through this contact they learned about writing and
architecture
they would later adopt for their own.
Minoan Art at Knossos
The leaders lived in
Knossos
in a vast palace full of rooms for family and parties
Shrines
were dedicated to honor the gods and goddesses
walls covered in
frescoes
: watercolor paintings done on wet plaster
these tell us a lot about the daily life and society:
dolphins
show importance of sea, religious images of the bull, women had freedoms in public and had rights
Minoan Civilization Disappears
1400 BC: Minoans have
disappeared
Perhaps an
earthquake
or volcanic eruption moved the people away.
The Mycenaeans invaded and took over the area. They were the first
Greek-speaking
people there is written record of.
How does the art at Knossos reflect Minoan culture?
The Knossos artwork illustrates the importance of the sea to the Minoan culture and provides details of the culture’s daily life.
Minoans Trade and Prosper
Trade and War in Mycenae
The
Mycenaeans
were from Indo-Europe and overtook the Greek mainland, then moved to the island of Crete.
Sea Trade Bring Wealth
Dominated
the Aegean world from 1400 to 1200 BC
Sea traders and traded with
Sicily
, Italy, Egypt and Mesopotamia.
learned how to write and customs that were later passed on to the
Greeks
Lived in city-states on the
mainland
where a warrior king would built a thick-walled fortress. Wealthy rulers were able to gather riches of fine gold that archaeologists have found
buried
with them
The Trojan War
The Mycenaeans are best remembered for the
Trojan
War
Took place around 1250 BC
Actual cause may have been
trade
and economic control of the straits connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.
Fought between the Mycenaeans and
Trojans
The Trojan War
Legend: The Trojan prince,
Paris
, kidnaps Helen, the beautiful wife of the Greek king. The Mycenaeans sail to Troy to rescue her.
She is said to be the face that launched a
thousand
ships, because she was so beautiful that all those men were willing to fight for her.
For
ten
years they battled. The Greeks finally win (via the Trojan Horse) and burn Troy to the ground.
It was originally thought to be legend, but there is
evidence
suggesting that battles and a fire actually took place.
How did trade shape Mycenaean society?
Trade brought wealth and prosperity in addition to contact with the ideas and skills of other cultures. However, trade also brought conflict.
Homer and the Great Legends of Greece
Soon after success at Troy, the Mycenaeans came under attack by the
Dorians
(a Greek-speaking people from the North).
Their power began to
fade
and the people abandoned the cities.
trade declined and people forgot many skills (such as writing).
The Greek civilization seemed to go
backwards
from 1100-900 BC
Much of what we know about this period and the Trojan War comes from the epic poems of the
Iliad
and the
Odyssey
These were credited to have been written by the poet
Homer
who lived around 750 BC. Homer was a blind poet who wandered from village to village singing.
His tales were passed on
orally
for generations before they were written down.
The Iliad: full of gods and goddesses, talking
horses
and tells of the Trojan War.
Achilles
: mightiest of Greek soldiers withdraws from battle when his commander offends him and is begged to return. Only when his best friend is killed does Achilles return to battle. Other
episodes
from the war are told, as well as the discussion among the gods and goddesses that causes the war to begin.
The
Odyssey
: the struggles of the Greek hero Odysseus and his return from the war to his wife, Penelope. One his long voyage, he encounters sea monsters,
cyclopes
, beautiful goddesses and other exciting things.
Both show the
values
and what is important to ancient Greeks: honor, courage, eloquence.
For 3,000 years these works have inspired writers and artists.
What did Homer’s epics reveal about Greek culture?
The epics reveal the values of the ancient Greeks with their depictions of honor, courage, and eloquence as well as details of their religions beliefs and warfare.
Looking Ahead
After centuries of living in isolated villages, the Greeks created a new civilization that would dominate the region and influence most of the Western world.
4.1 Assessment Questions
Write a sentence explaining the significance of each vocabulary word. (This is not a sentence stating the definition.)
How did the Minoans and Mycenaeans shape early Greek civilizations?
How did trade contribute to the development of the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures?
What values of the ancient Greeks are found in the poems of Homer?
Do you think the epics of Homer are reliable sources of information on the history of the ancient Greeks? Why or why not?
4.2 The Rise of Greek City-States
Vocabulary
Polis
Monarchy
Oligarchy
Democracy
Tyrant
How did government and culture develop as Greek city-states grew?
Geography Shapes Greece
Greece did not grow out of a
fertile
river valley like other early civilizations.
Mainland Greece is a
peninsula
cut off from the mainland by mountains and a collection of hundreds of
islands
that are rock.
The Greeks who settled here would
farm
in the valleys and shorelines. They were cut off from others and
fiercely
defended their homes again others who would attempt to
overpower
them.

Greece did not become a
unified
empire, but rather a
collection
of small rival city-states, or
polis
The
seas
provided connection to the outside world through deep harbors for
ships
.
skilled
sailors and traders
Learned
ideas
to help their needs
The
Phoenician
alphabet was adapted to fit their needs
Overcrowding led to spreading out into
colonies
all along the
Mediterranean
and the spreading of their ideas.
Governing the City-States
As Greece grew, they developed a
unique
idea of the city-state….the
polis
.
Polis
:
The city/
town
and its surrounding areas
The city was built on two levels. An
acropolis
was built on a hill (high city) and would have
temples
built for gods or goddesses.
The lower level had
markets
, theaters, public buildings and
homes
.
Populations were small:
Allowed people to have a sense of
responsibility
for its success
Men would
debate
issues of their lives
Whole
communities
would join in the festivals honoring the
gods
or goddesses
Men and
landowners
held all the power
Types of Government Evolve
Between 750-500 BC different
governments
emerged.
At first the polis rulers were
hereditary
kings.
Monarchy
: a government in which the ruler is a
king
.
Later, power moved to class of
noble
landowners who were the
military
defense for the king. Won
power
for themselves and took over.
Aristocracy
: rule by a hereditary military
elite
.
Trade expanded and a new
middle
class arose of farmers,
merchants
and artisans. They came to dominate the city-states.
Oligarchy
: power is in the hand of a small group of
wealthy
elite
New Warfare Methods Shape Greece
650 BC
Iron
weapons replaced
bronze
ones
iron was
cheaper
and ordinary people could
afford
helmets and swords
The
phalanx
, a new method of fighting, massive
technical
formation of heavily armed
foot
soldiers.
difficult to
master
and hours of training formed
unity
among the soldiers
Defending the city fell to
citizen-soldiers
which broke down social class boundaries
Led to Athens and Sparta creating two very
different
styles of life
How was a city-state shaped by its people?
Sparta: A Warrior Society
4.2 Assessment Questions
What do the vocabulary terms at the beginning of this section have in common? Explain.
How did culture and government develop as Greek city-states grew?
In what was was Athenian democracy limited?
Despite these limits, Athens is still admired as an early democracy. Why do you think this is the case?
Create a sensory figure based upon one of the choices. The sensory figure must be wearing clothing from this time, and have at least five complete sentences coming from the picture. These are to be based on the five senses (see, smell, taste, hear, and feel). You have done one before.
A Spartan Male
A Spartan Female
An Athenian Male
An Athenian Female
Athens Evolves Into a Democracy
Forces for Unity
Greeks shared a common
culture
(same language, same heroes, same gods), although they had many
differences
local
identification
(We are AHS, boo NSHS!), independent spirit,
economic
rivalries
Religion:
Polytheistic
Gods lived on Mount
Olympus
in northern Greece
Zeus was most powerful
Ares
(god of war)
Aphrodite (goddess of love)
Athena
(goddess of wisdom) gave her name to Athens
Honored with
temples
and festivals, sacrifices, feasts, dramas,
singing
, athletic competitions

Consulted
oracles
and priests who the people thought the
gods
would speak to

Some believed the
universe
was ruled by natural laws and not religion
Greek View of Foreigners
Greeks came in
contact
with others while trading and traveling.
All who did not speak Greek were
called

barbaroi
, which was later changed to
Barbarians
.
Felt uniqueness and
superiority
which later helped them become a mighty power in the Mediterranean.
What factors united the city-states of Greece?
Athens is north of
Peloponnesus
and east of Sparta.

Government grew from
monarchy
to aristocracy. By 700 BC
landowners
had power and chose
chief
officials, judged court cases and dominated the assembly
Demands for Change
Early control was by right
nobles
.
Merchants
, soldiers, foreign people, and farmers argued they had no
rights
and say in the government. Foreigner could not even become citizens.
During hard times the people had to sell their
land
to nobles or even themselves and their
families
into slavery.
Slowly, Athens began to move toward
democracy
.
Solon Reforms Government
Solon
, a wise and trusted leader was appointed head of the
council
in 594 BC, and the people allowed him to change
whatever
he needed to.
He
outlawed
debt slavery, and freed those in debt slavery
Opened
offices
to some citizens
granted
citizenship
to some foreigners
gave
assembly
say in important decisions
Economic
reforms
and encouraged exports
Still limited the power of the majority of people and lead to a rise of
tyrants
.
They won support of merchants and
governed
well, although it now has a negative
connotation
.
Citizens Share Power and Wealth
507 BC: Cleisthenes created a Council of
500
, whose members were chosen among all citizens over the age of
30
.
The council made laws and
supervised

day
to day life.
Became a
legislature
: debated laws, approved and rejected them
All
male
citizens were expected to participate
A Limited Democracy
Only
citizens
could participate and citizenship was restricted to land owning men
Women,
merchants
, slaves and foreigners were excluded
Regardless, they gave more people a say in
government
than other ancient
societies
.
no
political
life, many accepted that women should be
guided
by men
Aristotle: A man is by nature
fitter
for command than the
female
just as an older person is
superior
to a younger, more immature person.
Played public role in
religion
, with their participation in certain
rituals
and ceremonies to be necessary to the
well being
of society
Women would manage
households
, weave, spin, care for children,
prepared
food.
Many were
rarely
seen in public. Their slaves or
children
were sent to the market or the well.
Poor women worked
outside
the home as spinners or potters
Women in Athens
Educating the Youth
Girls: little or no
education

Boys: attended school if family could
afford
reading
and writing
music and poetry,
rhetoric
for democracy
military training and exercise, but unlike
Sparta
...encouraged knowledge in other areas
How was democracy limited in Athens?
The
Dorians
who conquered the Mycenaeans, settled and built the city-state of
Sparta
. The conquered people were turned into slaves (called
helots
) and made to farm the land.
The helots were more
numerous
than the Dorians and therefore, they set up a
brutal
system of control.
Government: two kings and a council of elders; an assembly of male citizens over 30 gathered to approve major decisions
Five of these ran day-to-day affairs
Daily Life Ruled by Discipline
Participation
in the military state governed all aspects of their
lives
.
Newborns
were inspected and sickly ones were left in the street to
die

Future soldiers and
mothers
were expected to be
healthy
Age
7
: boys began military training
moved to
barracks
where they has a coarse diet, hard
exercise
and rigid discipline that created
excellent
soldiers
to supplement their diet, boys were encouraged to
steal
food. If
caught
, they would get in trouble.
Age
20
: a man could
marry
but had to continue to live on barracks. He could not live with his
wife
, but stayed in the barracks another
ten
years.

Age
30
: took his place in the
assembly
to protect and make laws for
Sparta
Girls
were expected to produce healthy warriors when they
married
, so they had to exercise and strengthen their bodies

they had to
obey
their fathers and husbands, but had the right to
inherit
property

Some women would run family
estates
while
fathers
and husbands were at war
Women of Sparta
Sparta Stands Alone
Isolated
themselves:
look down on
trade
and wealth
forbid citizens to
travel
and had no use for the arts

Spartans
are willing to die for their city, because they have no reason to
live
.”
Why was discipline important to the Spartans?
4.3 Conflict in the Greek World
How did war with invaders and conflict among Greeks affect the city-states?
Direct Democracy
Jury
Ostracism
Vocabulary
Honors:
You will need to complete the activity on "The Funeral Oration of Pericles".

This is a primary source document that can be found under the Links to Documents tab on the blog.
Write a sentence explaining the significance of the terms at the beginning of this section. (This is not a sentence of the definition.)
How did war with invaders and conflict among Greeks affect the city-states?
How did the Persian Wars affect the Greek city-states?
How did Pericles contribute to Athenian greatness?
How did Athenian growth lead to war?
4.3 Assessment Questions
The Peloponnesian War
The Age of Pericles and Direct Democracy
The Persian Wars
The Greek city-states often fought one another in
bitter
rivalries. However, when the
Persian
forces began to advance, they put aside their
differences
and joined forces to defend themselves.

The Persians conquered a huge
empire
that stretched from Asia Minor to the border of
India
.
A Greek city-state,
Ionia
, was under Persian rule. They are self-governing but
resented
their situation.
499 BC: Ionia rebelled and
Athens
sent ships to help them.
Athens Win at Marathon
Persians easily
crushed
the rebels at Ionia, and
Darius
was furious that Athens had helped.

490 BC: Darius sent a fleet across the Aegean to punish Athens and landed at
Marathon
(a plain to the north of Athens).
Asked
but did not get help from neighbors
The Persians greatly
outnumbered
the Athenians who fought bravely amid
arrows
raining down.

They broke though the line and
fought
in hand to hand combat which overwhelmed the Persians and sent them into
retreat
.

Themistocles
knew the victory would be short lived and ordered the
Athenians
to build warships and prepare the defenses.
Athens Win at Marathon
Greek City-States Unite
480 BC:
Xerxes
(Darius’ son) gathered a large force of troops to attack
Greece
.

Athens had
persuaded
other city-states (like Sparta) to
fight
with them against Persia.
The Persians landed in northern
Greece
, at the mountain pass of
Thermopylae
.
Leonidas (
Spartan
warrior-king) fought with a small group of men to hold off the Persian forces. They were defeated and the
Persians
continued on to burn Athens, which had been
evacuated
.
The Athenians lured the
Persian
navy into the narrow strait of
Salamis
where they attacked with battering rams as the fleet sank.
481 BC: Greeks
defeated
Persians in a land battle near Asia Minor. This marked the end of Persian
invasions
and Greek unity.
Athens Leads the Delian League
Victory in the wars made
Athens
the most powerful city-state in Greece

Athens organized an
alliance
among city-states to come to the aid if another were under attack
called the
Delian
League (met on the island of Delos)

Athens used this alliance to gain power and
influence
to use over the other city-states
What factors led to the Persian defeat?
After the Persian
War
, Athens entered a golden age under the leadership of Pericles.
economy thrived and
government
was more democratic
Athenian Democracy
Direct
Democracy: citizens take place directly in the day to day affairs of the government
Today: most citizens take part in
democracy
indirectly through representatives
The Council of
500
met daily to conduct government business. The
Athenian
assembly met several times a month.
Pericles
paid each one on the Council of 500 a
stipend
(fixed salary) so the poor could afford to be part of government as well.
Athenians were expected to serve on
juries
of possible a hundred or thousand other people during legal
trials
.

Athenians could vote to
banish
public figures who threatened democracy through
ostracism
.
The person with votes cast
against
him was forced to live outside the city walls for usually
ten
years.
Culture Thrives in Athens
Pericles ordered the rebuilding of the
Acropolis
.

Turned Athens into a
cultural
center for Greece
encouraged arts through
festivals
, dramatic competitions, building programs
These created jobs for
artisans
and builders
Those outside Athens resented their
power
and influence through the Delian League.

Sparta and other rival city-states created the
Peloponnesian
League.

431 BC: war broke out between
Athens
and Sparta
soon included all of
Greece
and lasted for 27 years
Sparta Defeats Athens
Athens had a better
navy
, but Sparta was
inland
.

Sparta’s powerful army could march
north
to attack Athens.

To protect those outside the city, Pericles urged them to move into the city
walls
where a terrible
plague
broke out, killing many...including
Pericles
.
Both did
awful
things to each other

404 BC:
Sparta
allied with Persia (Greek enemy) and used their
navy
to help capture Athens.
Took Athens power and
empire
, but did not destroy the city and people
Greek Dominion Declines
Athens lost its
domination
over the Greek world, but eventually regained
economic
power and remained a cultural center.

Greeks
battled
among themselves and power rose in
Macedonia
(a kingdom to the north of Greece)

359 BC: an ambitions ruler was ready to
attack
Greece
The Origins of the Olympics
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