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Chapter 1: Everything is an Argument
Transcript of Chapter 1: Everything is an Argument
is an Argument
Introduction to Rhetoric
Goals: Students will learn what argument is and the different forms of argument.
They will be able to differentiate between arguments to convince and arguments to persuade.
Students will gain a basic understanding of the rhetorical situation.
They will write a brief composition and evaluate it for its use of rhetoric.
1. Basic definition of argument
While the word argument can mean a loud disagreement, rhetoricians see argument as any text or image that expresses a point of view.
2. Reasons to argue:
To explore a topic
To make decisions
To meditate or pray
3. Difference between convince and persuade
Arguments to convince lead audiences toward conviction, toward agreeing that a claim is true or reasonable.
Arguments to persuade aim to move audiences from conviction towards action.
4. Occasions for argument
Arguments about the past
Arguments about the future
Arguments about the present
5. Kinds of argument
Stasis theory suggests that arguments can be categorized according to what kinds of issues they address through a series of sequenced questions.
Did something happen? Arguments of fact
What is its nature? Arguments of definition
What is its quality or cause? Arguments of evaluation
What actions should be taken? Arguments of proposal
6. Rhetorical Situation and Appeals
Rhetorical situation is usually expressed as a triangle, with message, audience, and author as the three points. Rhetoric is the way a particular message is put together for a specific audience at a specific time by a specific author for a specific purpose. The rhetorical appeals are ways authors appeal to their audiences based on credibility, logic, and emotion (called ethos, logos, and pathos).