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Political Polarization and a Democracy in crisis
Transcript of Political Polarization and a Democracy in crisis
A World divided
After world war II ended in 1945, the world had two superpowers, the United States (U.S) and the Soviet Union (USSR). These countries had very different social models. Capitalism (U.S) and Socialism (USSR). During this period, known as the COLD WAR, both countries searched for allies and formed blocks to fight in localized conflicts like Vietnam War (1964-1975) and the Cuban Revolution (1959).
The concept of Cold war refers to the fact that there was never a direct conflict between these two superpowers. However, there were conflicts between their allies because of the great difference between the countries forming the two blocks.
The Right, the center and the left
The extreme political division in the world, or polarization, also influenced Chilean politics. There were three large sectors with different beliefs that were becoming more and more exclusive. All three groups wanted to solve the nation´s problems, but they could not agree on how to do so.
Why was it called the cold war?
What two superpowers took part in it? What social models did they want in effect?
Political Polarization and a Democracy in crisis
From the mid 1950s until the beginning of the 1970s, Chilean history was marked by democratic reforms that were made to strengthen democracy and end inequality in our country.
The right wing
This party reflected the ideas of people who were in economic power, such as businessmen and land-owners. However, it also included people from the middle and lower classes. The main criticism of this group was the role of the state in the economy. They held the belief that only private companies could help the economy and solve people´s problems. This group came into power when Jorge Alessandri Rodriguez, a member of the Partido Nacional (National Party), was elected president and governed from 1958 to 1964.
This party represented the middle class, workers lower class, women and businessmen. It respected private property but preferred the participation of the State in important economic activities, such as the production of copper. This group´s policies were mainly represented by the "Partido Demócrata Cristiano" (Christian Democratic Party), which played a role in the social reform of the Catholic Church. This candidate was Eduardo Frei Montalva, who was elected president and held office from 1964 to 1970
The left wing
Industrial workers, miners, students, and middle class professionals were main members of this group. They wanted the State to be responsible for a large majority of natural resources and industries. They thought that the unequal distribution of wealth was the main cause of the nation´s problems .
This groups was mainly represented by the Communist and Socialist Parties, which formed an alliance. Their candidate for the presidency, Salvador Allende Gossensm was elected in 1970 and held office until 1973. He was supported by the political alliance of the Unidad Popular (UP- Popular Unity)
A new Youth Culture
Between 1960 and 1970, Chile was aspiring to create society with more liberty and equality. Around 1960 most people lived in cities where there was more access to education, services and entertainment. Cinema became one of the main cultural activities and the radio allowed people to hear new styles of music that were popular in the United States and Europe. From 1962 and on, television became a window to the rest of the world for Chileans.
Young people rejected the society they had inherited from their parents, and instead wanted change. Influenced by the culture of hippies and leaders such as Che Guevera and Jhon Lennon, the youth wanted more freedom, equal rights for women, social justice for the poor, and a peaceful world without war
The musical movements that developed in the 60s and 70s reflected the changes in society and interest of the social groups of that time. In Chile, there were two main movements.
The new wave: Was influenced by rock and roll´s themes, its musical style, and use of the english language. However, lyrics were later written in spanish. This type of music was very popular with young people, which led to the creation of the first fan clubs and the rise of the Chilean popular music insdustry.
The new song: Was based on folkloric roots and instrumental and harmonious elements. Lyrics were a big part of this movement, which denounced social injustice and identified with the interests of the lower class. The members of this movement believed the world could be change and improved through art and culture.
Indicate 2 characteristics of Chilean society during the 1960s to 1970s.
Think in one difference between the New Wave and New Song movements in Chile.