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Copy of Theories of Personality Development

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Matthew Knight

on 14 September 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Theories of Personality Development

Heavily influenced by the work of Sigmund Freud
Emphasized by the influence of the unconscious mind & childhood experiences
Include: psychosexual stage theory (Freud) and
stages of psychosocial development (Erikson)

Theories of Personality Development
Carl Rogers
hierarchy of needs
Abraham Harold Maslow (April 1, 1908–June 8, 1970) was an American professor of psychology. One of the founders of humanistic psychology. Maslow (1943) stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs. When one need is fulfilled a person seeks to fulifil the next one, and so on.
The earliest and most widespread version of Maslow's (1943, 1954) hierarchy of needs includes five motivational needs, often depicted as hierachical levels within a pyramid.

The humanistic approach states that the self is composed of concepts unique to ourselves. The self-concept includes three components
Self worth (or self-esteem) – what we think about ourselves
Self-image – How we see ourselves and
Ideal self – This is the person who we would like to be

Humanistic Theories
The humanistic approach states that the self is composed of concepts unique to ourselves. The self-concept includes three components
Self worth (or self-esteem) – what we think about ourselves
Self-image – How we see ourselves and
Ideal self – This is the person who we would like to be

Psychodynamic Theories
Trait Theories
NOTE: Numbers are only relevent
as a guide at this stage. We can change
the numbers.
Hans Eysenck, (1916-1997) believed that ones personality could be broken down into only three traits, being:

-Extraversion (The act of directing one's interest outward)
-Neuroticism (The state of having traits or symptoms of neurosis)
-Psychoticism (The state of having traits or symptoms of pyschosis)
(Eysenck, 1993)

This came under scrutiny after other theorists believed that it could not be so simple to define one's personality under only three titles. (Haggbloom, 2002)

Lewis Goldberg thought differently to Eysenck. Instead of concentrating on just three fields to encompass personality traits, Goldberg believed in the theory know as 'The Big Five'. (Saucier, G & Goldberg, L.R., 1996)
DRAFT : 2.1a
Approaching one's personality through their traits allows one to look at the differences between individuals. (Cherry, 2013)
Each human being is made up of various characteristics creating a framework of traits that forms an indiviual personality making us unique and allowing us to identify differences between each others behaviours and personalities. (Cherry,2013)
Many theorists believe that the definition of ones personality comes from these traits; even though traits work as if they are bipolar. For example someone may be friendly whilst another may be unfriendly therefore the two traits are polar opposites (friendly vs unfriendly).
'The Big Five' is a five-part personality model broken down into:

1. Openness to Experience ( e.g. Curious, innovative)
2. Conscientiousness (e.g. Vigilant, order)
3. Extraversion (e.g. Talkative, energetic)
4. Agreeablness (e.g. Talkative, energetic)
5. Neuroticism (e.g. Anxious, unhappy)

(Srivastava, S. 2013)
Trait Theories-
1.Engel568.section 26 F11 PSY 1001. (2011). The Big Five Model of Personality. Retrieved (7.9.13) from blog.lib.umn.edu/reife014/myblog/2011/11/the-big-five-model-of-personality.html- The Big Five Model of Personality - section 26 F11 PSY 1001.
2. Eysenck. (1993). Dimensions of Personality: 16: 5 or 3? Criteria for a taxonomic paradign. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 773-790.
3. Haggbloom, S. J. (2002). The 100 most eminent psychologist of the 20th century. Review of General Psychology, 6, 139-152.
4. Saucier, G. & Goldberg, L.R. (1996). The Lanuage of Personality: Lexical perspectives on the five-factor model. In J.S. Wiggins (Ed.), The five-factor model of personality: Theoretical perspectives. New York: Guilford.
5. Srivastava. S. (2013). Measuring the Big Five Personality Factors. Retrieved (9.9.13) from https://psdlabs.uoregon.edu/bigfive.html.
6. Tracy_d74. (2011). Personality III: Trait Theory. Retrieved (7.9.13) from tracy-d74.livejournal.com/86221.html- All About The Three R's- Personality III: Trait Theory

A goal central to psychology is understand one person’s uniqueness to any other persons’ uniqueness. Psychologist Maslow, Rogers, Erskine and have explored personality in depth. When exploring personality it is important to have an understanding of what personality is, the different theories that address the issue of personality and how a person’s personality might be developed.
“Humanistic theories focus on the normal human psyche and the belief that every individual is seeking self-realization” (Personality Theories, 2001). In a humanistic view refining an individual’s unique potential “is a deliberate act by the individual who gains a clear concept of self through a constant process of interaction with oneself and others” (Personality Theories, 2001, para. 4).
The need for the humanistic approach in psychology developed as some psychologists found limitations in behaviourist and psychodynamic psychology. The humanistic approach is thus often called the “third force” in psychology after psychoanalysis and behaviourism (Maslow, 1968).
Maslow published an influential book about humanistic psychology, Toward a Psychology of Being, in 1962. He studied healthy, productive, creative individual’s lives and careers, finding that there are characteristics successful individuals shared these included openness, respect for other individuals and self-acceptance. In order to develop personality and become self-actualised, Maslow created the ‘pyramid of needs’.
The Terms used in the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs describe the pattern that human motivations generally move through. Maslow believed to become self-actualised, one must follow stage by stage from the most basic needs such as food, shelter, warmth onto the next stage, the need to feel secure, to be loved and accepted and so on… working their way up the hierarchy of the pyramid towards self-actualisation.
American psychologist Carl Ransom Rogers (January 8, 1902 to February 4, 1987) was a key figure of the humanistic approach to psychology. Work by Rodgers illustrates an emphasis on human potential.

The earlier work of Maslow and his hierarchy of needs was mostly agreed with by Rogers, he built on Maslow’s work and added that in order to move on to the next stage of development there are three conditions that are necessary for a human to ‘grow’ on to the next stage.

The id: responsible for needs and urges
The superego: responsible for ideals and morals
The ego: controls the extremes of the id and superego with reality
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