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Marine and Coastal Processes

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Shekinah Baquial

on 8 October 2016

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Transcript of Marine and Coastal Processes

Coastal Processes
Erosion
What is
coastal erosion?
Causes of Coastal Erosion
Corrasion
is when waves pick up beach material (e.g. pebbles) and hurl them at the base of a cliff.

Abrasion
occurs as breaking waves which contain sand and larger fragments erode the shoreline or headland. It is commonly known as the sand paper effect.

When waves hit the base of a cliff air is compressed into cracks. When the wave retreats the air rushes out of the gap. Often this causes cliff material to break away. This process is known as
hydraulic action
.

Attrition
is when waves cause rocks and pebbles to bump into each other and break up.

Corrosion/solution
is when certain types of cliff erode as a result of weak acids in the sea.
What is coastal transportation?
Transportation is the movement of material in the sea and along the coast by waves. The movement of material along the coast is called
longshore drift
.
Longshore Drift
Longshore drift is the movement of material along the shore by wave action.
How does the sea transport material?
Although longshore drift is the main process of transportation the material moves in four different ways. These are:

Traction - large material is rolled along the sea floor.

Saltation - beach material is bounced along the sea floor.

Suspension - beach material is suspended and carried by the waves. .

Solution - material is disolved and carried by the water.
Coastal Deposition
Coastal deposition
is the laying down of material on the coast by the sea.
Thank You!
Marine and
Coastal Processes

by: The Late Comers
Transportation
Deposition
Longshore drift happens when waves moves towards the coast at an angle. The swash (waves moving up the beach) carries material up and along the beach. The backwash carries material back down the beach at right angles. This is the result of gravity. This process slowly moves material along the beach. Longshore drift provides a link between erosion and deposition. Material in one place is eroded, transported then deposited elsewhere.
It occurs when waves lose energy or when large inputs of sediment are made into the coastal system - perhaps due to the arrival of fluvial sediment at a river estuary. Wave refraction in bays also encourages deposition due to the dispersal of wave energy. Lower-frequency constructive waves often contribute to deposition due to their strong swash, moving beach material inland.
Hazards caused by Coastal Processes
Coastal hazards are caused by dynamic processes such as waves, tides and currents and rock weathering along the coast.
Beach storm erosion (immediate erosion hazard)
Coastal recession (long term erosion hazard)
Coastal inundation - flooding caused by storm waves and storm surge
Dune instability and sand movement - when sand blows inland across private property and parkland
Geotechnical hazards (for example, rock fall and landslides).
Hazards that occur in the wake of:
1. Tropical Cyclone
Strong Winds
Storm Surge
Heavy Rainfall
2. Monsoons
Heavy Rainfall
Floods
Landslide
3. Tornado
Violent Winds
Flying Debris
Strong Winds
can damage or destroy vehicles, buildings, bridges, personal property and other outside objects, turning loose debris into deadly flying projectiles. It can often destroy key bridges, overpasses, and roads, complicating efforts to transport food, clean water, and medicine to the areas that need it.
Hazards in the wake of Tropical Cyclone
Storm Sturge
typically the worst effect from landfalling tropical cyclones, historically resulting in 90% of tropical cyclone deaths The storm surges and winds of hurricanes may be destructive to human-made structures, but they also stir up the waters of coastal estuaries, which are typically important fish breeding locales.
Heavy Rainfall
- It eventually flows into coastal estuaries, damaging marine life in coastal estuaries.
Hazards in the wake of Monsoons
Heavy Rainfall
- It eventually flows into coastal estuaries, damaging marine life in coastal estuaries.
A
flood
is an overflow of water that submerges land which is usually dry.The European Union (EU) Floods Directive defines a flood as a covering by water of land not normally covered by water.
A
landslide
, also known as a landslip, is a form of mass wasting that includes a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep failure of slopes, and shallow debris flows.
Hazards in the wake of Tornado
Strong winds
are the most common means of destruction associated with hurricanes. Their sometimes continuous barrage can uproot trees, knock over buildings and homes, fling potentially deadly debris around, sink or ground boats, and flip cars.

Flying Debris
are remains of something broken or destroyed that is scattered and moves in the air.
Areas in Nasipit that are prone to Tropical Cyclone, Monsoons, Flood & Tornado
Brgy.1, Nasipit, ADN
Near Apagan Seawall
Kinabjangan River
District 1, Brgy. Punta, Nasipit, ADN
District 2, Brgy. Punta, Nasipit, ADN
District 3, Brgy. Punta, Nasipit, ADN
District 7, Brgy. Punta, Nasipit, ADN
Practical Ways of Coping with:
1.
Tropical Cyclones
:
Check with your local council or your building control authority to see if your home has been built to cyclone standards.
Check that the walls, roof and eaves of your home are secure
Trim treetops and branches well clear of your home (get council permission).
Preferably fit shutters, or at least metal screens, to all glass areas.
Clear your property of loose material that could blow about and possibly cause injury or damage during extreme winds.
In case of a storm surge/tide warning, or other flooding, know your nearest safe high ground and the safest access route to it.
Prepare an emergency kit containing:
-a portable battery radio, torch and spare batteries;
-water containers, dried or canned food and a can opener;
-matches, fuel lamp, portable stove, cooking gear, eating utensils; and
-a first aid kit and manual, masking tape for windows and waterproof bags.
Keep a list of emergency phone numbers on display.
Check neighbours, especially if recent arrivals, to make sure they are prepared.
Practical Ways of Coping with:
2.
Monsoons
:
Check that the walls, roof and eaves of your home are secure
Trim treetops and branches well clear of your home
Evaluate your Home’s Drainage
Install or Clean Out Rain Gutters and Downspouts
Clear your property of loose material that could blow about and possibly cause injury or damage during extreme winds
Prepare an emergency kit
Practical Ways of Coping with:
3.
Tornado
:
During any storm, listen to local news or a NOAA Weather Radio to stay informed about tornado watches and warnings.
Know your community's warning system. Communities have different ways of warning residents about tornadoes, with many having sirens intended for outdoor warning purposes.
Pick a safe room in your home where household members and pets may gather during a tornado. This should be a basement, storm cellar or an interior room on the lowest floor with no windows.
Practice periodic tornado drills so that everyone knows what to do if a tornado is approaching.
Consider having your safe room reinforced. Plans for reinforcing an interior room to provide better protection can be found on the FEMA web site.
Prepare for high winds by removing diseased and damaged limbs from trees.
Move or secure lawn furniture, trash cans, hanging plants or anything else that can be picked up by the wind and become a projectile.
Watch for tornado danger signs:
*Dark, often greenish clouds – a phenomenon caused by hail
*Wall cloud – an isolated lowering of the base of a thunderstorm
*Funnel cloud – a visible rotating extension of the cloud base
*Cloud of debris *Large hail *Roaring noise
-the end-
The Late Comers:
Baquial, Shekinah Mae L.
Detera, Liahona M.
Genon, Marielle M.
Fajardo, Mariane S.
Rojo, Jemima Mae P.
Luz, Melanie P.
Daulat, Glenn Mary G.
Nitsche, Alfen C.
Coastal Processes occur when waves break on a shore, not only on ocean or sea coasts but also on lakes and ponds.
Coastal Processes
Coastal Erosion
is the wearing away of the land by the sea. This often involves destructive waves wearing away the coast.
There are five main processes which cause coastal erosion. These are corrasion, abrasion, hydraulic action, attrition and corrosion/solution.
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