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Chemistry, Chapter 6 Review

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Rebecca Beverly

on 20 February 2014

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Transcript of Chemistry, Chapter 6 Review

Ionization energy
decreases from top to
bottom and increases
from left to right.
Chapter 6 Review
The Periodic Table
Trends in the Periodic Table
Classifying the Elements
Electron Configuration
Elements can be sorted into noble gases, representative elements, transition metals, or inter transition metals based on their electron configurations.
Trends in Electronegativity
Electronegativity is the ability of an atom of an element to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound.
How should we group these new
elements?
Halogens
These are the elements found in group 7A
on the periodic table.
Alkali Metals
These are the elements found in group 1A
on the periodic table of elements.
Brainstorming
Results
Realization
Sketches
Searching for an Organization Idea.....
Metals
Metals make up about 80% of the elements. They are good Conductors of heat and electricity. They have a high luster. They are solid at room temperature, except for mercury. Many metals are ductile and malleable.
Chemist thought there was more elements than what had been discovered. They knew they needed a way to organize them by their properties. So, they began to brainstorm..........
Mendeleev's Periodic Table
Mendeleev's Discovery!
He was working on a textbook for his students and needed a way to show relationships of elements.
He made each element a card and organized them by increasing atomic mass.
Periodic Law!
Mendeleev's table was created before scientist knew about the structure of atoms.
He didn't know that each element
had a certain number of protons (atomic number). Henry Mosley, determined that the periodic table should be arranged by increasing atomic number instead of mass.
When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties.
So, What is Periodic Law?
Bibliography
http://www.google.com/imgres?num=10&hl=en&authuser=0&biw=1536&bih=728&tbm=isch&tbnid=3Dw_S3cMRTHQSM:&imgrefurl=http://www.elementalmatter.info/periodic-table-mendeleev.htm&docid=OwvmuE9imCoL-M&imgurl=http://www.elementalmatter.info/images/dimitri-mendeleev.jpg&w=345&h=403&ei=KC6LUOftOoGQ9gSrl4C4DA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=452&vpy=370&dur=76&hovh=243&hovw=208&tx=118&ty=196&sig=113242392733039348796&page=3&tbnh=145&tbnw=109&start=52&ndsp=34&ved=1t:429,r:53,s:20,i:316
Chemistry Book
Three different groups, metals
nonmetals, and metalloids.
Nonmetals
Metalloids
Upper right corner of periodic table.They have a greater variation among properties than metals. They are mostly gases at room temperature but some are solid. Their properties are usually opposite of metals. They are poor conductors and brittle.
They generally have properties similar to metals and nonmetals. These elements are found on the border between the metals and nonmetals due to their behavior. For example, an element may act like a metal in some cases, and a nonmetal in others.
http://www.google.com/imgres?num=10&hl=en&authuser=0&biw=1536&bih=728&tbm=isch&tbnid=JsfFP8TdgDCmFM:&imgrefurl=http://www.ptable.com/&docid=dOfeZddtTjcy2M&imgurl=http://www.ptable.com/Images/periodic%252520table.png&w=1440&h=1080&ei=40OLUMujBY_Y8gSowICIDQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=183&vpy=187&dur=1281&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=210&ty=116&sig=113242392733039348796&page=1&tbnh=141&tbnw=188&start=0&ndsp=24&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:138
Periodic Table Set-up
The periodic table tells the symbol, names, and information about the structure of each element.
Alkaline Earth Metals
These are the elements found in
group 2A on the periodic table.
http://www.google.com/imgres?hl=en&authuser=0&biw=1536&bih=728&tbm=isch&tbnid=BKt2npRPAG_nFM:&imgrefurl=http://www.chem4kids.com/files/elem_alkalimetal.html&docid=5Z-78JO3pShp8M&imgurl=http://www.chem4kids.com/files/art/elem_alkalimetal1.gif&w=240&h=180&ei=ZkeLUN68EI2c8gT264CoDQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=624&vpy=211&dur=3430&hovh=144&hovw=192&tx=38&ty=83&sig=113242392733039348796&page=1&tbnh=139&tbnw=192&start=0&ndsp=26&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0,i:141
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=alkali+metals&hl=en&authuser=0&biw=1536&bih=728&tbm=isch&imgrefurl=http://www.chem4kids.com/files/elem_alkalineearth.html&tbnid=-ZMm5fOXMgIf4M&docid=JeZZpr0L3ngeMM&ved=0CEQQhRYoAA&ei=ZkeLUN68EI2c8gT264CoDQ&dur=2344
Special Groups of Elements
Chalcogens
These are the elements in group 6A
of the periodic table.
http://www.google.com/imgres?hl=en&authuser=0&biw=1536&bih=728&tbm=isch&tbnid=QU71Lc9beQcDPM:&imgrefurl=http://www.chem4kids.com/files/elem_halogen.html&docid=X5-cGuhyl1y9qM&imgurl=http://www.chem4kids.com/files/art/elem_halogen1.gif&w=240&h=180&ei=PkmLUNPRI4Tm8gTg84HABw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=196&vpy=210&dur=570&hovh=144&hovw=192&tx=138&ty=70&sig=113242392733039348796&page=1&tbnh=117&tbnw=147&start=0&ndsp=27&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:135
http://www.google.com/imgres?hl=en&authuser=0&biw=1536&bih=728&tbm=isch&tbnid=KuEp60ulvU704M:&imgrefurl=http://chemistry.about.com/od/periodictables/ig/Printable-Periodic-Tables/Blank-Periodic-Table.htm&docid=il31MLi93UwbnM&imgurl=http://0.tqn.com/d/chemistry/1/0/F/a/BlankPeriodicTable.jpg&w=2015&h=1261&ei=WEuLUOnLE4XY9ASYvYCoAw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=180&vpy=263&dur=3388&hovh=177&hovw=284&tx=182&ty=130&sig=113242392733039348796&page=1&tbnh=129&tbnw=207&start=0&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:115
Noble Gases
These elements are found in group 8A
on the periodic table.
http://www.google.com/imgres?hl=en&authuser=0&biw=1536&bih=728&tbm=isch&tbnid=bJ8sGq2wYZeNoM:&imgrefurl=http://www.chem4kids.com/files/elem_noblegas.html&docid=j_eDzuiUAAnlpM&imgurl=http://www.chem4kids.com/files/art/elem_inertgas1.gif&w=240&h=180&ei=-0yLUMrwO4TY9QT9t4FQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=979&vpy=400&dur=2275&hovh=144&hovw=192&tx=82&ty=67&sig=113242392733039348796&page=1&tbnh=144&tbnw=192&start=0&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:9,s:0,i:98
Atomic Size increases
from top to bottom
and decreases from
left to right.
How to do an Electron Configuration
First look at the atomic number, this tells you how many protons an electrons the atom contains.
Then, fill up each energy level with electrons. And copy down your formula.
Example on board
Ions
Positive and negative ions form when electrons are transferred between atoms.
An atom with a positive charge is call a cation.
The charge is usually written with a number followed be a plus sign (1+). They are found in 1A, 2A, or 3A.
An atom with a negative charge is called a anion. The charge is usually written with a number followed by a negative sign (2-).
Cations are always smaller than the atoms from which they form. Anions are always larger than the atoms from which they form. As you move from left to right the Ionic size decreases. From top to bottom it increases.
Electronegativity values decrease from top to bottom, and increase, on average, from left to right.
Atomic Size decreases
Metallic properties decreases
Atomic number increases
Ionization energy decreases
Atomic size increases
Metallic properties increase
Atomic number increases
Ionization energy increases
http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=AcS3NOQnsQM&feature=related
Full transcript