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Milestones in Public Health -- Cancer

Global Public Health Group Presentation

Eizayah Bull

on 30 November 2014

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Transcript of Milestones in Public Health -- Cancer

Milestones in Public Health
Frenchman Marie Francois Xavier Bichat
Transition from swollen and inflamed tissue to an overgrowth of cellular tissue
20th Century
American Association for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute and American Cancer Society all founded
History of Cancer and Cancer Research
Lung Cancer
In developed countries, average incidence rate 66.4 out of 100,000 people
In developing countries, average incidence rate is 27.3
Most common cancer worldwide
13% of deaths in 2012 were attributed to lung cancer
Lung Cancer Globally
History of Cancer and Cancer Research, Continued
National Cancer Act
Signed by President Nixon in 1971
Government research funding went from $1 million to $5 billion
Mobilized resources and research
14.1 million adults in the world were diagnosed with cancer in 2012
In the same year, there were 8.2 million deaths from cancer around the world
Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer
Not smoking
Having a BMI below 30
At least 3.5 hours a week of physical activity
Eating a diet high in fruit, vegetables and whole grains, and low in meat
Where was the first tumor detected in history?
Which cancer has the lowest rate of survival?
A. Breast
B. Lung
C. Prostate
D. Skin
Statistics of Lung Cancer
Accounts for about 27% of all cancer deaths.
It's the second most common cancer in both men and women.
The 5 year survival rate for lung cancer is 16.8%
Each year, more people die of lung cancer than breast, colon and prostate cancers combined
Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread to lymph nodes or other organs in the body, such as the brain
Small Cell vs. Non-Small Cell
Non-Small cell lunch cancer is more common than small cell
Prostate Cancer
SEER 9 Incidence & U.S. Mortality 1975-2011, All Races, Both Sexes. Rates are Age-Adjusted.

Prostate is a cancer that occurs in a man's prostate.
Early signs include frequent urination, difficulty urinating, blood in the urine, or pelvic pain.
About 99% of cases occur in men over the age of 50.
Risk Factors of Lung Cancer
Smoking/Secondhand Smoke
Occupational Carcinogens
Radon, Asbestos, and other Carcinogens
Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer
Primary risk factors include
family history/genetics
Men with high blood pressure are more likely to develop prostate cancer
Don't smoke
Avoid secondhand smoke
Get home tested for radon and other carcinogens
Follow health and safety guidelines in public places (ex. work, school, etc.)
Preventative Measures for Lung Cancer
Incidence rates and mortality rates have both decreased over time since 2001
These trends are expected to decrease
5 year survival rate is steadily increasing since 1975
Future Trends of Lung Cancer
Prostate Cancer Stats
Fibrocystic condition causes noncancerous changes in the breast that can make them lumpy, tender and sore
Cysts are small fluid-filled sacs that can develop in the breast and be cancerous
Many different kinds of cancer
Ductal carcinoma
Lobular carcinoma
Breast Cancer
Who has the largest group of cancer survivors?
A. Breast
B. Colon
C. Pancreatic
D. Ovarian
Second most common cancer overall, most common cancer for women
Less than 1% of breast cancers occur in men
89.2% 5 year survival rate of breast cancers cases
About 6.8% of cancer deaths this year will be due to breast cancer
Statistical History of Breast Cancer
An estimate of 233,000 new cases of prostate cancer in 2014.
An estimate of 29,480 deaths will occur in 2014.
being female
High breast tissue density
Radiation in the chest area
Hormone therapy
Risk Factors of Breast Cancer
In 2011, there was an estimate of 2,707,821 men living with prostate cancer in the U.S.
98.9% of men who have prostate cancer reach the 5-year survival mark.
While less common in developing countries, it is still the most common cancer in women
Breast Cancer Globally
Early detection
Genetic testing
Self testing
Preventative Measures
Future Trends of Breast Cancer
Death rates are falling about 1.9% every year
There will be an estimated 230,000 new cases by the end of 2014
BRCA1 and BRCA2 Test Screening allows for more early detection
Preventing Prostate Cancer
Future Trends of Prostate Cancer
Prostate Cancer Globally
Prostate cancer highest in U.S. among African American males

Age-standardized incidence of prostate cancer (per 100,000) in the world

Africa Congo 29.0
Kenya 16.6
Senegal 7.5
Uganda 38.0
Zimbabwe 27.4
North America Canada 78.2
US 124.8
US, White 107.8
US, Black 185.4
Asia China 1.7
Taiwan 3.0
Israel 47.5
Japan 12.6

Korea 7.6
Thailand 4.5
Europe Austria 71.4
Austria, Tyrol 100.1
Austria, Vorarlberg 66.4
France 59.3
Hungary 34.0
Iceland 75.2
Norway 81.8
Spain 35.9
Sweden 90.9
Switzerland 77.3
UK 52.2
Oceania Australia 76.0
New Zealand 100.9
Many risk factors you can't prevent. Ex- age, race, family history

Can lower risk by watching body weight, physical activity, and diet

Eat at least 2½ cups of a wide variety of vegetables and fruits each day.
Be physically active.
Stay at a healthy weight.
Estimated new cases in 2014: 233,000, 14% of all cancers

Estimated deaths in 2014: 29,480, 5% of all cancer deaths

What is the five-year survival rate of a patient with prostate cancer as of 2010?

A. 67%
B. 27%
C. 98%
D. 78%
Year 1975 1980 1985 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006
5-Year 66.0% 70.2% 75.0% 88.5% 94.6% 98.2% 99.8% 99.6%
Relative Survival
Cancers on a Global Scale
United States has the 7th highest cancer rate
Denmark, Ireland and Australia lead
Causes of cancer are different in developing vs. developed countries
HPV in developed countries
Cervical cancer prevalence in developing countries
Interventions in General Cancer Control and Prevention
World Cancer Day -- February 4th
WHO recommends four approaches:
Primary Prevention
nutrition, physical activity, smoking, etc.
Early Detection and Secondary Prevention
cervix, colon and rectum, breast
Diagnosis and treatment
surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy
Palliative Care
pain medications, opiates, aspirin
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