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The Digital Learning Object

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Rebecca Yowler

on 6 September 2018

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Transcript of The Digital Learning Object

The Digital Learning Object
as Co-Teacher

Any digital resource that can be reused to support learning.
DLO's are modular, flexible, portable, transferable and accessible. May be used to teach a particular skill or concept, or to provide stimulating thinking and learning experiences for the teacher or student.
DLO’s are usually digital and web-based and are used to support a diverse range of learning.
Have a pedagogical strategy—they attempt to teach.
Other considerations
Include an evaluation component
Focus on one single concept per tutorial
Will using this object improve the teaching and learning of materials?
Can this DLO be reused?
Can this DLO both stand alone and be used in conjunction with others?

Example- Commentaries
If students viewed this video before class, how would it fit into Bloom's taxonomy?


Our plan for today's session:
Defining Digital Learning Objects
Pedagogical Implications
Practical Advice, Techniques, and Tools
Websites and Repositories
Why use DLO's at all?
It is a familiar technology: 80% of Millenials have watched online videos, 98% of undergraduates surveyd at University of Maryland had watched YouTube videos, and over 55% of adult internet users have accessed "how-to" videos online.
Millennials prefer to get information by grazing-- gathering knowledge in bits and pieces.
Allow librarians to provide point-of-need instruction to students without relying on the course instructor to relinquish class time.
Can provide pre-exposure to topics when introduced before class time.
Can provide a review of materials covered during an instruction session for students who need more time with the information or who didn't get it the first time.
Goes beyond the physical boundaries of the classroom/campus.
Can address different learning styles, needs, and preferences.
Look and Feel
Entertainment value is not important
Music isn’t necessary
Graphics should be clean and professional looking
Students prefer simple and straightforward
Some students prefer text only, but captioning can also help
Make sure words and graphics are easy to see and read

Rev. Rebecca (Butler) Mendelson, MDiv, MLIS
Library Fellow and Visiting Assistant Professor
Valparaiso University

Wiley, “Connecting Learning Objects to Instructional Design Theory: A Definition, a Metaphor, and a Taxanomy,” 6.
Southern Regional Education Board, “Principles of Effective Learning Objects: Guidelines for Develpoment and Use of Learning Objects for the SCORE Initiative of the Southern Regional Education Board,” 1.
Mestre et al., “Learning Objects as Tools for Teaching Information Literacy Online,” 6; Russell et al., “Creating, Sharing and Reusing Learning Objects to Enhance Information Literacy,” 64.
Hamel and Ryan-Jones, “Designing Instruction with Learning Objects,” 3.
• Interoperability- they interact with each other, regardless of platform, developer, or learning management system.
• Accessibility- available anywhere, anytime- can be discovered and reused across networks.
• Reusability- can be used in a variety of courses, can be assembled and reassembled
• Granularity- “Small but pedagogically complete segments of instructional content that can be assembled as needed to create larger units of instruction, such as lessons, modules and courses”
Keown, “Learning Objects: What Are They, and Why Should We Use Them in Distance Education?,” 75;
Memmel et al., “Approaches to Learning Object Oriented Instructional Design,” 290
Morgan, “Learning Objects and Online Library Instruction,” 3.
Hamel and Ryan-Jones, “Designing Instruction with Learning Objects,” 2.
Hodgins, “The Future of Learning Objects,” 76.

Key Components
Types of Learning Objects
• Integrated- includes mini-tutorials, case studies, and simulations
• Informational- summaries, definitions, descriptions, demonstrations, models, examples, cases, stories, overviews
• Practice-problems, case studies, simulations, drills, review exercises, assessments

Every DLO needs to be at least one of these, but cannot be all at once. It is important to know what type of object you are looking for or creating.

Shepherd, “Objects of Interest.”
What can be a learning object?
• Instructional modules
• • Instructional games
• Blogs
• Research guides
• Narrated PowerPoint (or other slide based technology) presentations
• Podcasts
• Photos
• Images

• Surveys
• Tutorials
• Videos
• Can also include: lectures, lecture handouts, tests and quizzes, interactive assignments, images, slides, cases, models, virtual experiments, simulations and reference materials
Mestre et al., “Learning Objects as Tools for Teaching Information Literacy Online,” 237.
Sadykova and Meskill, “The Language of Digital Learning Objects: A Cross-Disciplinary Study,” 240.
Buzetto-More and Pinhey, “Guidelines and Standards for theDevelopment of Fully Online Learning Objects.”
“Do-It-Yourself Information | Pew Research Center.”
Zickuhr, “Major Trends in Online Activities | Pew Research Center.”
Halpern and Tucker, “Leveraging Adult Learning Theory with Online Tutorials,” 114.
Palfrey and Gasser, Born Digital.
Weller, Pegler, and Mason, “Putting the Pieces Together: What Working with Learning Objects Means for the Educator,” 6.
Shank and Bell, “Librarianship [Re]Envisioning the Role of Librarian as Educator in the Digital Information Age,” 195.
Hunsaker et al., Digital learning objects: a local response to the California State University system initiative., 110 151 (2009).
Considerations for Classroom Use
Best used to fill in gaps in knowledge rather than replacing instruction.
Augment what an instructor is already doing, without sacrificing valuable classroom time.
There must be a connection to the material itself and this connection is best provided by the instructor
Should mirror best practices of in-person instruction
Meet the immediate information need of the student
Weller, Pegler, and Mason, “Putting the Pieces Together: What Working with Learning Objects Means for the Educator,” 6.
Bowles-Terry, Hensley, and Hinchliffe, “Best Practices for Online Video Tutorials in Academic Libraries,” 18.

“Melding Bloom’s Taxonomy and Universal Design for Learning.”
How would students
Practical Advice, Techniques
and Best practices
Some important considerations
Students are rarely interested in introductory material.
Students want videos broken into short segments so they can “view just the parts relevant to their information needs.”
Keep it simple: students prefer streamlined videos without a lot of flashy graphics or “entertainment value.”
“Students view library tutorials in a utilitarian light and want to get the necessary information and move forward with the information-seeking process.”

Graham and Secker, “Finding Sharing OERs,” 6.
Have a Plan
Know the goals and objectives before you start. What do you want students to learn? What level of Bloom’s taxonomy are you working with?
Who will be the “talent”? Do you need voiceovers? Actors? Anyone with special skills?
Who is your audience?

Blummer and Kritskaya, “Best Practices for Creating an Online Tutorial,” 212–213;
Perry, “Lights, Camera, Action!”
Have a map of where you are going and how you will get there.
Use a script
Start with the most important information first
Does it present valid concepts, models, and skills?
Does it have logical sequence?
Does it actually supply the needed content?

Perry, “Lights, Camera, Action!”
Bowles-Terry, Hensley, and Hinchliffe, “Best Practices for Online Video Tutorials in Academic Libraries,” 26–27.
Morgan, “Learning Objects and Online Library Instruction,” 14.

Bowles-Terry, Hensley, and Hinchliffe, “Best Practices for Online Video Tutorials in Academic Libraries,” 26–27
Morgan, “Learning Objects and Online Library Instruction,” 15.
Pace and Timing
Speak only slightly more slowly than in regular conversation.
Videos should be 90 seconds or less if possible
Students prefer 30 second to one minute lengths.
Break up into 1-minute or 30 Second segments listed on a table of contents for students to choose the needed segments.

Bowles-Terry, Hensley, and Hinchliffe, “Best Practices for Online Video Tutorials in Academic Libraries,” 26.
Perry, “Lights, Camera, Action!”

Blummer and Kritskaya, “Best Practices for Creating an Online Tutorial,” 213.
Morgan, “Learning Objects and Online Library Instruction,” 14.

Contact: beccaminister@gmail.com
Tricks and
Websites for finding DLO's
Digital Learning Objects- California State
University of Illinois Library at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
University of New Mexico
Slide Share
UNC Chapel Hill Libraries
University of Houston Library
Valparaiso University Library
Wisc-Online OER

Useful Equipment for DLO Creation
• HDV Camera
• Green screen and frame
• Video lights
• Microphone
• Audio mixer board
• Editing software
• Cue cards or story boards
Perry, “Lights, Camera, Action!”
Tools for Creating DLO's
Articulate Studio ’13
Camtasia: http://libguides.valpo.edu/content.php?pid=47490&sid=350081
Tagul - Word Cloud Art
Tiki-Toki http://www.tiki-toki.com/timeline/entry/43489/Church-History-outline-0-1600/#vars!date=0085-05-01_00:00:00!
What other tools you have used?
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