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The Civil War

A time line on 15 events
by

Anna Ristvey

on 17 September 2012

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Transcript of The Civil War

By: Anna R, Jazmin Figz, & Elshaddai M The Civil war The Election of 1860 Surrender at Appomattox Formation of the Confederate States of America Emancipation Proclamation Battle of Gettysburg Battle of Vicksburg Sherman's March Work Cited Danzer , Gerald, Larry Krieger, Louis Wilson , Nancy Woloch, and Jourge Klor de Alva J . The Americans Reconstruction to the 21st Centry. United States of America: McDougal Littell, 2007. Print. The elections of 1860 were of superior importance because of a group of 3 main components:

The time: These elections were held nearly in the midst of the Civil War (1861-1865) and the candidate elected had to be one of great knowledge of the states and there policies. They would be responsible for the recovery of the country and in retrospect, The future of The United States as a whole. The states were slowly separating and it was up either Douglas, Breckenridge, Bell or Lincoln to meand the bonds between them.

The people: The men elected by their parties at the time to represent them were certainly ones of a well deserving nature. The Northern Democrats came to elect Vice President at the time; John C. Breckenridge, The South (After much dispute over his views on slavery and popular souveignty) elected John Douglas as their man up. The Constitutional Union Party nominated John Bell (A wealthy slaveholder from Tennessee) and lastly, the Republican Party nominee came to be Mr. Abraham Lincoln; The self made man and Icon from Illinois. These powerhouse rivals came to produce a great election but in the End, our 16th President came out to be possibly one of the most influential men of his time; Abraham Lincoln.

The Results: After the tight called elections, Lincoln came out victorius with 40% of the popular vote ( but only 180 of the electoral votes) meaning about 60% of the American People voted for someone OTHER than Abraham Lincoln. Though whatever th reason, this was a major victory for the Repulicans and Lincoln himself, it also turned out to be one of the biggest controversies in Our Hitory As a nation becaue just a few weeks after Lincolns slim win; The South seceded from the Union. The Thirteenth Amendment The thirteenth amendment was passed by congress on January 31, 1865 and was ratified December 6, 1865. The purpose was mainly, to abolish slavery.In other words confirmed that slavery does not exist in the united states, and thus punishable as a crime. This amendment cannot be Broken unless " Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation." ( Danzer, Alva, Krieger, Wilson & Woloch, 99) This amendment was easily passed by congress because it was established after the war. It was added to the Republican party platform because Abraham Lincoln insisted It. The thirteenth, along with the fourteenth and fifteenth amendment expanded the civil rights of Americans and contributed in ceasing slavery in America. On April 9, 1865 at the appomattox court house in Virginia, the Confederate States army's General Robert E Lee of Northern Virginia's army surrendered to the union army led by Commander Ulysses S Grant. Grant's terms in the surrender were simple, "officers allowed to retain side arms, men to keep horses and baggage, and that was that. Lee thought the offer generous, and said so, and wrote out an acceptance, and then with some embarrassment, asked for rations for his men."(Stokesbury, 319). The battles was one if the last battles in the civil war. The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln . "Battel of Appomattox Court House." wikipedia . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sep 2012. <www.wikipedia.org>. . "Vicksburg." CWSAC battle summaries. National Park Service, 29 07 2011. Web. 9 Sep 2012. <www.nps.gov>. Stokesbury, James. A Short History of the Civil War. New York: William Morrow and Company,Inc, 1995. Print. Triumph, Jackson. "The Battle of Vicksburg: The Turning Point of the US Civil War." Yahoo. Yahoo, 09 10 2005. Web. 9 Sep 2012. <http://voice.yahoo.com/battle-of-vicksburg>. The Battle of Vicksburg was important because it was the key of finding a strategy in the Civil War for the North. "On July 4, Vicksburg surrendered after prolonging siege operations."(www.nps.gov)."Vicksburg is the nail head that holds the South two halves together"(Alexandra, 10). President Davis knew that holding the city for the Confederacy will help the city survive. President Lincoln wanted the strategic to help gain control and divide the south. This battle is what changed the Civil War, both sides needed the Mississippi River to help supplies and products transfer from the North to the south. As Civil war went on people realized that even the battle of Gettysburg was not as important as the Battle of Vicksburg. The Significance . "The Battle of Vicksburg." Hubpages. Hubpages, 10 09 2008. Web. 9 Sep 2012. <http://balisunset.hubpages.com>. Strategy & results North South The North had an advantage of winning because Ulysses S. Grant helped the North go through the Mississippi river. The main strategy to defeat the Confederacy was called the Anaconda Plan. This Plan would block the communication with foreign countries, so that the South could not gain necessary weapons and supplies. This ans many more strategies are what helped the North take over and win this battle Timeline Lieutenant John Pemberton (The commander of Confederate forces in Vicksburg) "spent the previous months developing Vicksburg into an almost impregnable bastion, ringed with miles of trenches. Had he left that position and contested Grant more forcefully at Grand Gulf he might have prevented a Union crossing, but news of a major cavalry raid through Mississippi drew his attention. He sent his cavalry and some of his infantry toward Jackson, Mississippi, to intercept it." This is how the North was able to get through and eventually win the battle. Strengths & weaknesses of the North & South ushistory.org, . "Strengths and weaknesses: North vs. South." U.S History Online Textbook. Independence Hall Associationin , 2012. Web. 10 Sep 2012. <www.ushistory.org>. 1863 1860 1865 North The main strength of the North was that they had a great industrial advantage "the North manufactured 97 percent of the country's firearms, 96 percent of its railroad locomotives, 94 percent of its cloth, 93 percent of its pig iron, and over 90 percent of its boots and shoes." (www.ushistory.org) The weakness of the North was that the soldiers did not have as good of an education in the military as the South. The North also did not have the same amount of food supplies as the south. South Since the South's environment was mainly plantation work and hard labor they had plenty of food and crops to keep them afloat. They also had a great amount of trained officers, seven of the eight military colleges were located in the South but the biggest advantage by far that the South held close was the fact that the Civil War was held mainly on there soils. This major advantage helped them because they were familiar with the landscape and the materials around it. The south's confederacy was not without resources will power. 1865 The South's hate toward Abraham Lincoln became out of control when Lincoln was elected president. The South felt "that they had lost their political voice in the national government" and in December 1860 southern states started seceding. Then in February 1861, delegates from secessionist states met in Montgomery, Alabama where they formed the Confederate States of America, or the Confederacy. The Confederacy "protected and recognized" slavery in new territories. The South also elected Jefferson Davis as President of the Confederate States This event sparked the start of the Civil war. On the Evening of April 14th, 1865, Abraham Lincoln was attending the matinee production of the comedy; Our American Cousin along with his wife Mary Todd Lincoln, Major Henry R. Rathbone and his fiancée Clara Harris. During a laughter climax, his assassin, John Wilkes Booth crept his way into Lincolns Booth, Pistol in hand, and single handedly shot the President just below his left ear. The loader Derringer’s 7/16th lead ball entered the defenseless mans scull, shot itself through his brain and plugged directly behind his right eye. Booth escaped after fighting off Major Rathbone and leaped from the 3rd story booth, landing on the stage and completely smashing his left ankle. He dashed off with a broken limb.

Booth’s accomplishes Lewis Paine later entered the home of William Henry Seward; The Secretary of State and while he was recovering from a carriage incident, slashed the man’s throat 2 times. Luckily after much medical attention, Seward survived and lived a healthy life until his unfortunate death just 7 years later. To little surprise, Paine along with the other accomplices: George Atzerodt, David Herold, and Mary Surratt were hung on the site of present-day Fort McNair, on July 7, 1865 Television Network, . "Prelude to the first Battle of Bull Run." First Battle of Bull Run. LLC, 2012. Web. 11 Sep 2012. <www.history.com>. The Battle of Bull Run 1861 The battle of Bull Run was held near Manassas Junction, Virginia, along a small river known as the Bull Run. this battle went on throughout the whole day. The North was led by Thomas J. Jackson. The North wanted o battle the Confederate army (South). The North attacked the Confederate left flank on Matthews Hills. Although the North attacked the Rebels came back strong and were able to break the Union's right flank. The North started off good with more troops, outnumbering the South, but later on that day the number of the south increaced this is how they were able to break the Union. Since the Union lost, President Jefferson Davis removed McDowell from command and replaced him with George B. MeClellan, which he then made an army known as, the Army of the Potomae. Many Northerners were not surprized that the South had secedeed. However the North did feel that the act of was unconstitutional and that "the U.S should be one country working out their issues, not two fighting." The Question was did the North want the South part of the previous United Stated enough to fight them for it, or should the leave them alone. 1860 Novi Meadows Elementry School, . "Secession." Oracle Think Quest. Oracle, 14 10 2011. Web. 12 Sep 2012. <library.thinkquest.org>. . "The Norths Reaction to Southen States' Secession." northalc. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Sep 2012. <http://northalc.wikispaces.com>. Kelly, Martin. "Battle of Fort Sumter." American History. About.com, 2012. Web. 12 Sep 2012. <http://americanhistory.about.com>. The Battle of Fort Sumter On April 10th, 1861 General Beuregard (of the confederacy) demanded the Union Garrison to surrender. Comander Anderson (Of the apposed) refused and so on the 12th of April, 1861, the Confederats began open fire and start the battle. On April 13th, 1861 commander Anderson finally surrendered Fort Sumter which and then evacuated The Garrison. This battel was not as deadly as the others but it did cause a lot of hatered between the two groups (North/South) and The Battle of Fort Sumter was in the end, just one of the many driving forces behind the Civil War. Cushman, Stephen. "Surrender at Appomattox." Encyclopedia Virginia. Ed. Brendan Wolfe. READ_DATE. Virginia Foundation for the Humanities. 7 Feb. 2012 <http://www.EncyclopediaVirginia.org/Surrender_at_Appomattox>. North South Commanders A.P Hills and Richard Ewell were the leaders of the North Union. One of their strategies was to hold ground and defend a fish hook shaped range of hills. On the third day the Unions rifles ans artillery fire gave a big advantage to the North. Although both sides were injured badly they had a good fight, but on July 5 Lee withdawed from Gettysburg. Commander Robert E. Lee was the one who led the south in the battle of Gettysburg. His intention was to collect supplies from the pennsylvania farmland and take the fighting away from Virginia. Lee's strategie was to weaken the northern soldiers and win a battle in the North. When they saw that the North was holding ground the confederats surrounded them, then took control. The point if this was that: ''Lee had decided to invade the north in order to replenish his supplies and to forestall further federal advances on Richmond."(ianhugg.47) Hogg, Ian. Great American Generals: Robert E. Lee. New York: W.H. Smith Publishers, 1990. Print. The Battle of Gettysburg was important beacuse it was one of the turning points of the Civil War. Even though it was top two bloodiest battles of the nation's history, It got the victors power to control all of the United States government. And thus, why our Country today is the one and only United States of America. The Importance Sherman’s March; also known as the “Total War March” came to be known as one of the largest and bloodiest times in America. It was during this time (In 1864) that William Tecumseh Sherman lead the Union Armies in the ‘March to the Sea’ spanning the journey from Chattanooga to Atlanta and the later march through both North and South Carolina.

Him and his trooped stormed into the South and blazed the conflicted states. Causing widespread mayhem throughout the South, this battle of sorts not only harmed the regions forces, but also their core strengths. Even too this day, Sherman’s name is still frown upon in many parts of the South but also praised in others; though he was a man of destruction, he was a genius of war all the same. 1864 The Battle of Antietam The Battle of Antietam was faught in Sharpsburg, Marylan dof September 16th, 1862. The Union of George B. McClellan had a powerful asult on Lee's left flank and this in turn was the initial start off to the battle. The attacks went back and forth, each group getting a chance to beat the other.

A very common weapon used in this battle was the 69 Caliber (Smooth Musket). At least one federal used this weapon and it was very common in the Confederate infantry units. This battle; from a military prospective was concidered a draw but in the end the Union did claim victor and hensforth lead to Abraham Lincoln's dilivery of the Emancipation Proclamation. 1862 The Underground Railroad The Battle of Friedricksburg 1862 The Battle of Friedricksburg was fought December 11th - 15th of 1862 and occured when Ambrose E. Burnside (A Union General in the American Civil War) sent a corps Or Group of Soldiers to help in the vicinity of Falmouth near Friedricksburg, Virginia.

A technological innovation that was used in the time were the 5 Pontoon Bridges Used by The Union. THese bridges gave the Soldiers a place to work and get their gun powde armed and ready. Durring this battle, Confederate generals Thomas R.R Cobb and Maxey Gregg were killed and it wwas named one of the most thoughest and deadly battles of the Civil War while also having the largest concintration of soldiers of all. THe strategies of both sides did not change throughout the battle and as an indirect result, both suffered great losses in men. Although it was a clse and rough fight, the Confederate were the ones to see their victories unfold. The Underground Railroad, contrary to popular belief... is not underground... or even an actual railroad for that matter but more so a devised system and map of dedicated "Conductores" Set with the centeral goal of helping Slaves of the South escape to new found freedom in The North and Canada. This ingenius system was first used in the late 17oo's but not officially implimented or named until around 1810-1830's. The hopeful path lead by the "Magic Light of the North Star" Was one of the only possible opportunities that slaves encountered for their freedom and when it came, you can be dang sure they took it! Though the toughest part was escaping from the slavemaster's land, it sure does not mean that the journey North in itself was not a challenge! Traviling a required average of 10-30 miles ON FOOT to the next "Station", Slaves were forced to move quickly by their guides, hid out in lite houses, barns, ditches and anything else they could use to keep out of sight and out of mind, but if they were to give up and attempt to surrender, they themselfs would be threatened for their lives by the other slaves... so In the end, they were all in it together, weather they liked it or not! Though many challenges may have been faced and conquered while on the Underground Railroad, in the end it was all in good reason. From 1810-1850, the Railroad helped over 100,000 slaves escape to freedom and came to be one of the most effective and morable events of the Century! 1863 1863 1865 1861 1810-1830's On January 1st, 1863; The Emancipation Proclamation was issued under the Presidency of Abraham Lincoln in the midst of the 3rd year of the Civil War and it was by far, one of the most influential documents in American history. Initially, the purpose of this war was to preserve the Union of the States and to do only that.. But it was all changed after the release of the Emancipation. It stated that “All persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free." And due to these simple words, the entire this sudden message alone, held the county in suspense.

Though by law and word of the free world leader all slaves were “Free”, these bold words; as expected and were certainly not accepted by everyone in the nation but in more ways than one, struck light of new possibility in the American people. It is due to this momentous document that we as a country are where we are now and after much struggle and many years of controversy, it eventually paved the way for equality amongst ALL Americans. Black, White or Otherwise. 1860
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