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2017 MA class

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Oiwan Lam

on 21 February 2017

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Transcript of 2017 MA class

COMM5735: New media and Society 2017
Week one:
What is media? What is new about new media?
How does our society evolve?
What is the relation between media and social transformation?
Theories and concepts
(sociology, political science,
culture and media studies)
- Network society
- Technological power
- Public sphere and civil society
- Social movement theories
- Democracy and populism
- Identity, pleasure and etc.

New practices, debates & phenomena
- Alternative and citizen media
- Social media tools
- Online shopping
- Game and spoof
- Privacy and surveillance
- and etc.

Practical knowledge
- online tools
- Internet governance
- Management of "Self"
Media paradigm
Media power
Media cloud
- functional
- structural (embedded in pre-existing systems - FB/WeChat)
- ideological (knowledge and belief)
- interactional (users / subjects - appropriation & negotiation)
(New Media, Advocacy and Social Change: Local and Global Perspectives)
Theories & approaches
on the relation between
media and society
Week 2:
- How to analyze a technology?
Further references:
Do artifacts have politics? by Langdon Winner (1980) http://innovate.ucsb.edu/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/Winner-Do-Artifacts-Have-Politics-1980.pdf
1. New media's function
How do we categorize the function of new media?
2. Medium is the message
Light blub as a medium.
What is its message?

Grammar and cultural matrix
- extension and ampution
- social relation
- psychology and perception
- human organization
what's the meaning of function here?
Why light blub is a medium?
Why McLuhan uses light blub as an example?
What's is the meaning of message?
3. Technology as politics
Castells' Internet Galaxy: Network is the message
Do artifacts have politics? by Langdon Winner (1980) http://innovate.ucsb.edu/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/Winner-Do-Artifacts-Have-Politics-1980.pdf
4. Historical contingency: Castells' Internet galaxy
Lessons from Castells historical narrative:
What are the forces and actors that shaped the Internet?
Giant computer for data processing 1946 ENIAC
1957- remote processing and time sharing of machines
Oct 1957 USSR launch its satellite - nuclear missile crisis
Feb 1958 US military established Defense Advanced Project Agency - http://www.darpa.mil/ - ARPA net - military network
RAND corporation (1946) - Paul Baran packet switching via phone line in 1964. http://www.rand.org/
Oil crisis 1973 / 1979
1969 First ARPANET nodes
Interface message processor (IMP) for computer connection 1967 -1969
Network Control Program for sub-network
1983 separation of MILNET (military) and ARPA-INTERNET (research). The University of Wisconsin created Domain Name System (DNS); NCP transition to TCP/IP
1976 European Informatics Network developed by CYCLADES (France) with 20 nodes
1977 International organizations for Standardization (ISO) - Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) - ITU
First Modem: Ward Christensen and Randy Suess.
1978 International packet switched service - a collaboration between UK's General Post Office, Western Union International (Finance) and the US' Tymnet.
- First BBS: Ward Christensen and Randy Suess
1980 The IPSS network extended from Europe to U.S, Canada, Hong Kong and Australia.
1984 (ARPA -> NSFNET) National Science Foundation commissioned an international university network - 56kb/s - 1.5mb/s
End of Cold War 1981-1992
1986 The Internet Engineering Task Force or IETF to coordinate ARPANET, US Defense Data Network (DDN), and the Internet core gateway system.
1981 BITNET (IBM funded network) and CSNET (The Computer Science Network) - USA university computer network -usenet
1990 ARPANET disbanded and replaced by NSFNET;
Tim Berners-Lee and CERN implements hypertext system
1989: Network construction obstructed
1990: China registered .CN
1992 Internet Society chartered; CERN released WWW
1993 NSF set up internet governance body interNIC (network information center) - network solution for domain name registration. Handover to ICANN in 1998.
Historical convergence of big science,
military research and the culture of freedom
1984: Richard Stallman from MIT's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory founded Free software foundation: UNIX
1991: Linux
Linus Torvalds, a 22- year-old student at the University of Helsinki.
1994. Yahoo! launched (Jan) Amazon launched (Jul) First commercial browser: Netscape Navigator based on Marc Andreessen (Mosaic) vs Microsoft;
1975 ARPANET operational and transfer to Defense Communication Agency.
Open architecture - allows bottom-up network
Self-evolution - interactions of forces
Class exercise: What's the function of alipay?
What's missing in functional analysis?
Week 3: Network Society
How does new media affect the organization of the society?
Manuel Castells and Karl Marx
Network society vs Class society

- Technological paradigm and means of production
(informationalism - ICT vs. industrialism - machine)

- Mode of production
informational capitalism vs industrial capitalism / China and Russia statism

- Organization of production (Time and Space)
space of flows and timeless time vs. assembly line and factory; global vs. national
- labour and control
flexible, self program (rating) and generic labour (pro fordism) vs. rule, management, fordism

- alienation
caught in the net vs. disconnected and isolation

- Social structure
network (global) structure, no center, nodes, horizontal vs. hierarchical, vertical

- Power operation
inclusion and exclusion vs. exploitation
- Resistance
value, identity and culture (reprogramming the network goal) vs class struggle

- State
Transnational vs. national (?)

1962 - first Walmart store; 1970 - IPO
1975 - data computerized
1977 - company wide computer network for ordering from suppliers.
1979 - first computer center as terminal for the network.
1981 - first buying office in Hong Kong
1983 - bar codes for scanning POS data.
1987 - make use of the largest private satellite communication system in the United States to link all operating units of company and headquarters.
Late 80-early 90s - launch "buy American campaign" to save local manufacturer, but more than 40% of the goods was imported from Asia.
1989 - Plan to enter China disrupted by the Tiananmen incident
1990 - data warehouse to store sales record (who buy what?)
1991- Set up Pacific Resources Export Limited (PREL) to "buy" for Wal-mart;
1992 - Deng Xiaoping visited Shenzhen and introduced a set of policy to attract foreign investment (such as tax exemption). Taiwan manufacturers relocated to Pearl Delta.
1992 - Wal-Mart deploys the retail link system to strengthen supplier partnerships (control supplier). The system provides vendors information on sale trends and inventory levels. "Buy American campaign" ends.
1994 - first retail store in hk, ran away in two years.
1995 - retail businesses entered China, partnership with Shenzhen International Trust Investment Corporation (SITI) with approval from the state council.
1996 - retail link and EDI (electronic data interchange) available via the Internet. First online store.
2002 - direct import rather than going through the PREL. Work with factories directly. Brand products vendors force to abandon factories in the U.S and work with Chinese factories.
2003 - the joint venture is renamed as Walmart Shenzhen International Trust Investment Corporation. Wal-mart hold 65% while SITI hold 35%. SITI formed another company (SZITI / SCPG) to take care of land/rental arrangement for store.
2004 - forced suppliers to use RFID (controversy) - imports more than 18 billion goods purchased in China which equals 10% of all U.S imports from China.
2005 - deploy radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to track the whereabout of the goods.
2006- starts experimenting with Web 2.0 and social networking tools, applies price-optimization and Business Intelligence retail applications. USD22 billion imports from China, account for 12% of US total import. First Wal-Mart Union appears in China.
2007 - Wal-Mart launches Site to Store service, enabling online customers to pick up merchandise in stores.

2014 - Alitrip / Ant financial Services Group / Listed in New York / Bought Auto Navi / Alibaba pictures group / Ali Telcom (app) / Tmall global
2014 - Jack Ma becomes the richest person in Asia
2015 - acquired South China morning post
2016 - acquired Lazada Group entered southeast asia online market. surpassed Walmart as the world's largest retailer. Internet car delivery tech.

Why Hongkonger? and What define a Hongkonger?
The self and the net - practical dimension
where are you located in the net? and the reprograming of the self and the networks (goal).

In group draws a network graph and analyzes its limitation:
- information and news
- money spent and recieved
- (big trouble) support network
- friends and affinities - weak tie - bridging network
What do you learn from alibaba's story in relation to the development of network society in China? What is Alibaba's network goals? What are the forces that reprogramme its goals? Wha are caugh in Alibaba's network? How they are caught and how they resist?
Week 6: The transformation of public sphere - Facebook
- What is a public sphere?
- Why public sphere matters?
- How public sphere is transformed in the new media era?
- A public space for discussing politics or issue of public interest as opposed to private.
- Free man / citizen - on issue related with city state
- Background for Plato's "Republic" and Aristotle's "Rhetoric"
- Excluding women and slaves
- Not so "rational", market place
Upper class bourgeois culture

Polite and rational

Polished language, well articulated

Elite with political awareness

Common people excluded
Ideal speech situation
- Equal rights to speak
- Social background (race, gender, etc) bracketed
- Right to assert, defend or question any factual or normative claim - well-informed?
- Motivated solely by desire to reach a consensus about the truth of statements and the validity of norms - good faith
- Communicative competence - consensus building process: differentiate subjective, inter-subjective and objective statements
- The standard for assessing the validity of claims is subject to rationality
- Catholic vs Protestant (1550s)
- Glorious Revolution in UK (1688-89)
- American Revolution (1765-1788): Thomas Paine - common sense (1776)
- French Revolution - Voltaire, Rousseau, Thomas Paine: Rights of Man (1791-92)
- Communist Revolution in the 19th Century - Rhenish Gazette - Karl Marx worked as editor in 1842
- Mass printing - political propaganda and commercialization after the WWII
- Media monopoly and re-feudalization (privatization) of public sphere
- Pubic relation replacing debate and deliberation
- invasion of life world
Criteria for new public sphere
- Disregard social status
- Common concern (public)
- Inclusiveness (equal rights)
- hegemonic dominance and exclusion, power embedded in language and culture
- ignoring inequalities, emotions and differences in expression: gender, class and culture
- "common concern" based upon the dichotomy of public vs private
- public sphere as a discursive space where different counter-publics dialogue across differences and contest for consensus (universal claim as contested process)
Local and identity resistance in network society
Who decide the network goal of the society?
- HK as financial center
- HK as a node in the new silk road
How can ordinary people change the setting?
Class exercise:
How is the election of the chief executive being discussed by Hongkongers?
Group 1. Wise news
Group 2. Social media: FB and Twitter
- what are the opinions? whose? any mainstream opinions? common understanding?
- how the issue is deliberated? how consensus is built?
- Scientific Revolution 1500-1600 - Steam engine 1606; Galileo 1632 & Newton: 1687
- Enlightenment and age of reason (1700-1800)
Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679 (the Leviathan)
John Locke 1632-1704 (natural rights)
Rousseau 1712-1778 (social contracts)
Baron de Montesquieu 1689-1755 (Separation of Legislative, Judicial and Executive power)
Voltaire 1694-1778 (Individual freedom)
- French Revolution 1789-1799
E.g. Nancy Fraser
Week 7: Subject and subjected to
Descartes: "I think, therefore I am."
- The self / I / Acting subject
- A construct / Subject to
(cultural and lingustic order, legal, knowledge/power - materialization)
- Subjectivity: sense of life / reality
(subjective experience)
- In relation to objects and objectified others
Castells - The Net and the Self
the self as organization / resistance unit
New media researches and theories on subjectivities
Multiple subjectivities:
disembodied space for the repressed to emerge.
- Narrating and othering our selves
- cyber-bullying, slut shaming
- Reproduction of ideology
- (discourse) knowledge / power and its materialization
- subculture
- performativity
- structure of feeling
(residue of lived experience)
- collective memory - ritualistic performance
Lacan: Linguistic subject
Localized Crowds: Causal, conventional, expressive, acting, protest => mobs
Collectivity: localized, dispersed
Theories: Contagion, convergence, emergent-norm
Different forms of dispersed mass behavior: Rumor, Gossip, Public Opinion, Propaganda, Panic, Mass Hysteria, Fashion and Fab.
Collective Behavior
Condition for mass behavior: Structural conductivities, structural strain, generalized beliefs, coordinated group, precipitating factors, social control.
Organization approach: resource mobilization & political opportunity
Resources: capital, manpower, technology, legitimacy, social support
Individual Choice: incentive - material, solidarity, goal, free rider / prisoner dilemma - sanction
Role of organization: resource, channel discontents, strategy and plan
Process: public politics --> protest norm and strategies: confrontational, disruptive or established channel?
Political opportunity - institutional structure / change mechanism / open or close
From peaceful to confrontational protest norm: Umbrella Revolution, Anti-sumgglers protest / Fishball riot
New Social Movement
Transformative - critical towards hegemony, bureaucracy and social order, the reproduction of status quo.
Social solidarity based on alternative value and practice => autonomous space
Critique over the marginalization of the majority minorities
Redefinition of the political - the personal is the political - identity and value vs material and class struggle - feminism and environmentalism
Critical and reflective subject
Week 8:
How does new media facilitate and transform social mobilization?
Post-WWII theories: functionalism, rational choice (U.S), cultural marxism (EU) vs. revolution
Framing (Erving Goffman) and agenda setting
Mass Self Communication
Transformation of communication power from mass media (propaganda and PR) to mass self-communication: framing and orchestration pattern (experience - info - social action - symbolic) HK since 2003

Transformation of social movement (resource) organization form to individual based projected group

Time - flash mob mobilization

Space - geographical boundary - local --> regional --> global (e.g Jasimin Revolution 2011. Tunsia -- Arab -- echoed in Wall street)

Rise of the grassroots --> transformation of political interaction / process, grassroots action and resergence of "revolution" (System failure e.g HK: end of colonal elite consultation politics)

Transformation of public sphere -- > public consensus to communication / political negotiation with the grassroots
more from Kacey Wong: https://www.facebook.com/kacey.wong.319/media_set?set=a.10152749673435281.1073741853.681960280&type=3
Collins Yeung support movement with sketching
more from Collins: https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.1474635682800665.1073741835.1404744813123086&type=3
Marxwell's “Mr and Little Miss Hong Kong People”
more from: http://globalvoicesonline.org/2014/10/22/learn-whos-who-in-hong-kongs-umbrella-revolution-with-mr-and-little-miss-hong-kong-people/
Kacey Wong's call for umbrella logo
Class discussion: how does new media transform and contribute to social mobilization? three groups: collective behavior, resource mobilization and new social movement
Week 9:
Independent from what?
Alternative to what?
Why citizen matters?
History of modern / corporate media (the U.S.A)
Pamphleteering tradition

- publick Occurrences (25 sep 1695) 1st U.S (Boston, English Conlony) newspaper - by Benjamin Harris (1673-1716)

- Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790): Pennsylvania Gazette (1728-1800)

- Stamp Duty (1765): colonial repression of press freedom, background of American revolution (1775-1783)

- Thomas Paine (1730-1809) - Common sense (1776) - 1791 "rights of man" and 1798 - french revolution
Political and technical infrastructure for newspapers to emerge

- independence of U.S.A (1776)

- 1st Amendment (Bill of Rights) by democrats (1787): press freedom

- 1800s: Postal system for newspaper distribution

- 1814: Times's printing machine 500 x 4 page / hr
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
Early newspapers

- 1833: New York Sun by Day Benjamin H (Crime and Scandal)

- 1835: New York Herald by Bennett, James Gordon (Social reform)

- 1832: Electrical Telegraph invented - Long distance report, factual information

- 1848: Associate Press founded (6 newspapers in the network) - non profit cooperative

- 1861-1865: U.S civil war: Information based; no more anonymous report (military concern)

- 1885: Printing machine: 25,000/hr
The World War and the rise of Corporate era

- 1900 Associate Press (690 newspapers) - 1912 1st journalism school - fair and objective rather than localism

- WWII (1939-45) and propaganda

- Post war Corporate era - 1960-70s - monopoly of big media. e.g cable - cross media ownership (mobile + cable)
General Electric
Time Warner
News Corporation
Walt Disney
The West vs. the East
Case 1: Alternet
NGO model vs. corporate mode:
Alternative to corporate news; an autonomous subject.

Case 2: Global Voices
Volunteer and foundation model: https://globalvoices.org
Bottom up news production alternative to western news hegemony
The Global citizen subject
China's media history
First printed report in Tang Dynasty
Ancient Chinese Empires
Missionaries and political publication
1815 first chinese magazine in malaysia.
1858 (1842 ﹣ Nanking treaty)
1915 by Chen Duxiu ﹣ 1919 (May 4th) - 1925 CCP take over.
1896-98 Liang Qichao (1911 Wuchan)
Soviet Model and Party media
1925/6/4 - Qu Qiubai
1941 ﹣ 1942 rectification movement
1966 Cultural Revolution
Deng's media reform
Class work:
Each group picks a case of independent / alternative / citizen media and addresses the questions: independent from what? alternative to what? and its implication on citizenship.
Independent from the state
... from state & capitalist collusion
Sustainability... people, money and excellency
Technological empowerment and disempowerment:
Facebook, content farms and hacking
Week 10:
Democracy, political process and rise of populism
Class exercise: Yes or No?
1. The rise of populism is because of people having more power?
2. Too much democracy will bring populism?
3. More control needed so as to prevent the spread of online populism - fear, hatred, and etc.?
-- word cloud game: populism and democracy.
- physical and geographically bounded community --> virtual community
Deliberative Democracy
- active and participatory citizens
Three Approaches to Democracy
- based on individual interest, aggregation of individual choice
- informed decision --> right to information
- individual empowerment --> access, rights to communication
- representation and institutional democracy
- social contract --> state and individual (consent, constitutional, law, rights.)
- shared value and "good" based on identity & purpose
- community based decision making process
- freedom of association
- persuasion rather than community norm
- collective decision guided by agenda, organization purpose, norms
- public (inter-subjective) vs. private and collective
- rational and critical discourse vs. smear, hate speech, rumor and distortion
- universal claim vs. social contract and collective norms
- individual cannot be detached from community
- community / collective is more than the sum of individual choices
Origin: Narodniks - Russian intellectual movement after the emancipation of serfs in 1861
in the name of people (ideological)
Cas Mudde (2004)
Logic of populism

- a charismatic leader

- simple solution

- action frame

- thin-centered ideology that addressed power structure

- antagonistic relation between "people" and "elite"

- popular sovereignty - people

- politics of will and decision

- people as homogenous entity

- people vs enemy (class or ethnic)

1. pre-organization: La Tuerka (2010) - pablo iglesias as anhor
2. website members = party members 368.773: http://podemos.info/
3. plaza podemos: public debate
4. participation: social networks and webpage; real circles for face to face meeting (sectional and territorial branch) currently 900
5. e-voting system
Class discussion:
Does new media facilitate the spread of populist sentiment? How?

Government of the people, by the people, for the people -- Abraham Lincoln
People: diverse or homogenous?
Populism and China
Week 11: Digital enclosure of the Free and the Public
Infrastructure & culture of the net

- open network
- public funding: NSF
- collective coding
- evolution (user)
- free culture
- sharing culture
- collaborators and prosumers
Free software vs. 1976 copyright Act
(from right-to-copy to restriction on usage)
Second enclosure movement

- who are the landlord that enclose the public?
- what has been privatized?
- how it changes the pre-existing production relationship?
- what are the characters of the new economy?
- who is at the top / at the bottom of the economy?
- who are being marginalized? and how?
- what are the new beliefs of the economy?
The erosion of public domain: Digital millennium act 2000 and SOPA 2012
From sharing to shared - data as asset / big data and privacy crisis
New monopoly model: dot-com bubble 2000 and web 2.0 survivors / radical change in the notion of asset and price

Bundling of produce and service
- Microsoft - window and internet explorer vs netscape
- Google - searching and Ads promotion
- Amazon distribution network - ebook

Bundling of tangible and intangible (social) networks
- Apple / android phones - apps
- Facebook social network - apps

Winner take all
- Youtube (natural)
- Taobao (diminishing of marginal profit) 2011 investigation

Policy driven monopoly
- BAT - China's Great Firewall
Who owns our data? and can we decide how our data is used?
The new and the old monopolizers - the case of airbnb
Max Schrems
The web we want (www)
Open and free infrastructure vs. content privatization
Network enclosure and new monopoly model
Citizen initiatives
Panopticon and the prisoners' subjectivities
Personal strategies in managing your online data
Free culture vs. copyright
Architecture, law and norms (1903/1945)
Old vs new panopticons
- spatial & tempo extension
- deep analysis - psychological / ideological profile
- sense of freedom
- decentralized gaze & reflex (call of the crowds)
- visibility (i tweet therefore i am)
share a tech strategy in managing your privacy / prevent surveillance.
The leap between sharing culture and economy of sharing
Week 12: Internet governance
- Governments vs. corporates vs. users
- International vs. local: multi-stakeholder approach vs. national soveregnity / security approach
Apple / user vs. FBI
Search engines / user vs. EU / user
HK Chinese context vs. EU
National security vs. user and corporate
Local vs. global
you can see it coming...
you can understand its coming...
you can make it coming...
new media explorer
How about you?
- expectation
- specific topics
- communication platforms
Why? Tales from WeChat
Pedagogy of story telling
1. Narrative report - tales from WeChat (mid term)
2. Conceptual analysis of narrative reports (final)
Feudal state
Rhetoric / performance / rumor / folklore
Rise of modern nation state
See: Benedict Anderson - Imagined communities
Popular culture and consumption society
How does our society evolve?
And the relation between media and society change?
Functionalism - journalist's dream of the 4th estate
Materialism - technological revolution
Where ideology at work
Class exercise I
Class exercise II: Nuclear or Solar
2011. Arab spring - Twitter and FB
2001 911 incident and anti terrorist era
2003 Net neutrality principle
2004 Facebook online
2006 Twitter online
2000 dot.com bubble; Aaron Swartz co-creates RSS
1998 Google search launched; ICANN founded
1987 China sent out 1st email: Across the Great Wall We can reach every corner in the world (Beijing to Germany - Academic network.
1993. National Computing and Networking Facility of China started.
Beginning of 12 Golden Projects: Bridge, Commerce, Finance, and etc.
1994. Academic network started operated in China and connected to U.S and EU
1995 May. First ISP providing public internet service.
1996. Interim Provisions Governing Management of Computer Information Networks
1998 March: the Ministry of Information Industry
1998: Tecent launched; go public in HK 2004.
August: the Ministry of Public Security - initiated Golden Shield
1999 Jan. Government online project (e-government)
1999 July: China dot com listed in the U.S.
1999: Alibaba established; go public in the U.S in 2014.
1999 Information security center established. Crackdown on FalunGong
2000 International cybersecurity exhibition - Fang Binxing engineered Golden Shield project
2000 March 1st political prosecution - Lin Hai (leaking email info)
2000 June. 64 Tianwang.
2000 July: Sina, Sohu, Netease listed in the U.S;
Baidu established and go public in the US in 2005.

2001 China Internet Society founded
2002 Nov. First China Internet Conference hosted by CN ISoc
2002. First blocking of Google.
2003. National launch of the Golden Shield Project. SARS - Sun Zhigang
2008. Olympic year and Sichuan earthquakes. Social Networking sites proliferating disaster release. 253 million internet users. 2009. Sina Weibo launched.
2009. Vulgar content crackdown - filtering and white listing of domestic sites via registration system
2009. 3G licensed to China Mobile, China Telecom and China Unicom
2011 May. Third party internet payment license issued.
2012 Real name registration - social media
2013 Dec. 4G license. Internet user 618 millions
2014 Feb. Internet security and informatization leading group headed by Xi Jinping
2015 - real name registration email
2016 - real name registration taobao
2017 - cybersecurity law passed - bubbles and security problem
2005 Sep. Yahoo Shi Tao incident
2006. Blocking major sites: google, youtube, FB.
2007. Fanfou online and shutdown in 2009
2013. Snowden revelation
1975 Microsoft founded; Apple founded 1976
2016. EU implemented user data protection law
What's coming next?
Key actors: state, scientists, business sector, users
Class Exercise: Do the Internet have politics? How do the internet interacts with the political systems?
Let's analyze the experiences
1. What is Taobao's organization structures? (compared with walmart)
2. What kind of investment it has made to create capital? / how it generates revenue?
3. Who works for Taobao? How does Taobao control labours and the labour process? How do their labour experienced alienation?
4. How does taobao organize its business in term of time and space? What's the effect of such compression on the society or our culture?
5. How can people resist against Taobao's control?
6. What is the role of state in Taobao's business development?
7. What is the purpose of the network? (among participants of the networks)
2008 - more than 7000 Wal mart in the world, 99 stores in China, 95% product comes from China from more than 20,000 manufacturers, annual Export from China: USD18 billion; regional headquarter in Hong Kong.
2013-15 - Walmart lab - online business (cloud infrastructure, data center and search engine) - started reducing stores.
2015 - Walmart pay app - lab and online business team merged.
2016 - with IBM using blockchain to track pork in China.
among the 11,000 worldwide stores, more than 393 stores in China (200 plus stores closed in the U.S since 2012.
1995 - jack ma visited USA for translation business
1996 - joint venture with China Telecom on China Pages. (taken over)
1998 - with 17 friends building an English online marketplace: Alibaba.com (exporters' product listing) attract foreign capital investment US25 millions from Goldman Sachs, SoftBank.
1999 - 1688.com (domestic version of Alibaba.com
2001 - Alibaba U.S office closed (dotcom bubble)
2003 - Ebay acquired Eachnet; Jack Ma team up and launched Taobao
2004 - Alipay - grey area legally (controversy - restructured as domestic com in 2010 later ant finance in 2015)
2005 - cooperation with Yahoo and take over Yahoo China.
2006 - ebay left china
2007 - Alimama, Alibaba.com listed in HK
2008 - Tmall established
2009 - cloud computing, Aliyun
2010 - Aliexpress: connecting exporters and consumers / mobile Taobao App / launched e Tao / acquisition of One-Touch (export service logistic)
2011 - juhuasuan (group buying), mobile Aliyun OS, Beijing retail store
2012 - de-listed from Hong Kong, support visa and other payment,
2013 - invest Sina Weibo and merged Taobao with Weibo. Launched Yu erbao. Yahoo China email service shutdown.
Group one: Taobao consumer
why do you visit taobao's site? what do you do when you go to the site? how do you decide on which shops or items to buy? how do you place your order, what tool? what if you have inquries? how do you check the whereabout of your item? can you choose your own delivery service? how? where do you go when you want to make a complain?
Group two: shop manager.
what item do you sell? how do you set up the store? how much money do you need to kick start your business? how do you mark your price? you do you promote your business? how do you deal with an order? how do you make sure that your good be delivered to the consumer? what is your relation with taobao?

Networks of networks
Week 4 - 5: Workshop on WeChat
What exactly is Wechat?
- functions: tech and social function (what's the difference between QQ and WeChat?)
- messages: extension, amputation, social relation, perception, human organization
- historical contingency and politics
- network purpose: economic, socio-cultural and political
- 1998 Nov: incorporated in Cayman Island
- 1999: QICQ - a copy of ICQ - QQ(2000)
- 2001: Naspers purchased 45% of Tecent
- 2004: Listed in Hong Kong
Investment: online game; virtual goods (QQ coins); search engine, social media, portal, cloud, online payment and e-commerce, multi-media entertainment; wechat.
- 2009 Whatsapp
- 2011 Jan - WeChat 864 million users in 2016
- 2011 March - Line app.

Historical force against the background of China's internet governance
1. one inspiration from reading tales from Facebook
2. a WeChat story - why you found it significant?
Online speech situation

Meta-technical setting
Political control...
Open public space --> Virtual, networked, self-defined border
Passive news consumers --> active
Deliberative / linguistic --> diversified: visual, multimedia, emotive
Organization form centralized (news) --> decentralized
Dialogical, intersubjective --> massive self-communication
Factual, Informed decision --> free-combination of information
Truth (communication) --> post-truth
Agenda setting (public, social political) --> bottom-up / multi-dimensional
Rational, genuine, citizen --> cyborg, new identity politics (emotive)
Common sense --> multiple frames of understanding
Consensus --> political contest
Transformation of public sphere (new media tech aspects )
Further discussion:

mainstream vs. social media

- who control and distribute?
- how the distribution pattern differs btw the two?
- what is the dominant media form?
- which one reflects / reproduces the reality better?
- how opinions are manipulated differently?

Which of the above concepts should you like to analyse the phenomena of Tiny Pink?
Full transcript