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2016 MA class
Transcript of 2016 MA class
What is media? What is new about new media?
How does our society evolve?
What is the relation between media and social transformation?
Theories and concepts
- Network society
- Technological power
- Public sphere and civil society
- Social movement
- Democracy and populism
New practices, debates & phenomena
- Alternative and citizen media
- Online advocacy case studies
- Internet governance
- Privacy and surveiliance
- Analysing new tools
- Sharing economy
- Advocacy workshop
- Management of "Self"
- structural (embeddedness)
- interactional (interpellation, appropriation & negotiation)
So what's new about new media?
(New Media, Advocacy and Social Change: Local and Global Perspectives)
writer-activist, educator and mother
NAH 204: Mailbox + every Wed morning 10am
#Jan 27: Communication technology and new media incident workshop
pls register: http://ebooking.com.cuhk.edu.hk/events/
Theories & approaches
on the relation between
media and society
- How to analyize a technology?
Do artifacts have politics? by Langdon Winner (1980) http://innovate.ucsb.edu/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/Winner-Do-Artifacts-Have-Politics-1980.pdf
1. New media's function
How do we categorize the function of new media?
2. Medium is the message
Light blub as a medium.
What is its message?
Grammar and cultural matrix
- extension and ampution
- social relation
- psychology and perception
- human organization
what's the meaning of function here?
Why light blub is a medium?
Why McLuhan uses light blub as an example?
What's is the meaning of messge?
3. Technology as artifacts
What would archaeologists tell you about the Terracotta Army?
The embeddedness of technology.
What's the difference between historical and archaeological approach to the development of technology?
Castells' Internet Galaxy: Network is the message
Do artifacts have politics? by Langdon Winner (1980) http://innovate.ucsb.edu/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/Winner-Do-Artifacts-Have-Politics-1980.pdf
4. Castells' lesson on the Internet
Lessons from Castells historical narrative:
What are the forces and actors that shaped the Internet?
Giant computer for data processing 1946 ENIAC
1957- remote processing and time sharing of machines
Oct 1957 USSR launch its satellite - nuclear missile crisis
Feb 1958 US military established Defense Advanced Project Agency - http://www.darpa.mil/ - ARPA net - military network
RAND corporation (1946) - Paul Baran packet switching via phone line in 1964. http://www.rand.org/
Oil crisis 1973 / 1979
1969 First ARPANET nodes
Interface message processor (IMP) for computer connection 1967 -1969
Network Control Program for sub-network
1983 separation of MILNET (military) and ARPA-INTERNET (research). The University of Wisconsin created Domain Name System (DNS); NCP transition to TCP/IP
1976 European Informatics Network developed by CYCLADES (France) with 20 nodes
1977 International organizations for Standardization (ISO) - Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) - ITU
First Modem: Ward Christensen and Randy Suess.
1978 International packet switched service - a collaboration between UK's General Post Office, Western Union International (Finance) and the US' Tymnet.
- First BBS: Ward Christensen and Randy Suess
1980 The IPSS network extended from Europe to U.S, Canada, Hong Kong and Australia.
1984 (ARPA -> NSFNET) National Science Foundation commissioned an international university network - 56kb/s - 1.5mb/s
End of Cold War 1981-1992
1986 The Internet Engineering Task Force or IETF to coordinate ARPANET, US Defense Data Network (DDN), and the Internet core gateway system.
1981 BITNET (IBM funded network) and CSNET (The Computer Science Network) - USA university computer network -usenet
1990 ARPANET disbanded and replaced by NSFNET
1990 Tim Berners-Lee and CERN implements hypertext system
1992 Internet Society chartered; CERN released WWW
1993 NSF set up internet governance body interNIC (network information center) - network solution for domain name registration. Handover to ICANN in 1998.
Historical convergent of big science,
military research and the culture of freedom
1984: Richard Stallman from MIT's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory founded Free software foundation: UNIX
Linus Torvalds, a 22- year-old student at the University of Helsinki.
1994. First commercial browser: Netscape Navigator
based on Marc Andreessen (Mosaic)
1975 ARPANET operational and transfer to Defense Communication Agency.
Grassroots user-bottom-up network
Self-evolution - users
What about China?
What lessons you have learned from it?
Class exercise: Facebook; Wechat; Taobao; powerpoint; population control (eg one or two child policy or contraceptive or reproductive science) as messages. Other suggestions?
what's missing in functional analysis?
Week 3: Recap
One idea that you learn or inspired by the workshop
Week 4: Network Society
How does new media affect the organization of the society?
Castells and Marx
Network society vs Class society
- Technological paradigm and means of production
(informationalism - ICT vs. industrialism - machine)
- Mode of production
informational capitalism vs industrial capitalism / China and Russia statism
- Organization of production (Time and Space)
space of flows and timeless time vs. assembly line and factory; global vs. national
- labour and control
flexible, self program (rating) and generic labour (pro fordism) vs. rule, management, fordism
caught in the net vs. disconnected and isolation
- Social structure
network (global) structure, no center, nodes, horizontal vs. hierarchical, vertical
- Power operation
inclusion and exclusion vs. exploitation
value, identity and culture (reprogramming the network goal) vs class struggle
Transnational vs. national
1975 - data computerized
1977 - company wide computer network for ordering from suppliers.
1979 - first computer center as terminal for the network.
1981 - first buying office in Hong Kong
1983 - bar codes for scanning POS data.
1987 - make use of the largest private satellite communication system in the United States to link all operating units of company and headquarters.
Late 80-early 90s - launch "buy American campaign" to save local manufacturer, but more than 40% of the goods was imported from Asia.
1989 - Plan to enter China disrupted by the Tiananmen incident
1991- Set up Pacific Resources Export Limited (PREL) to "buy" for Wal-mart;
1992 - Deng Xiaoping visited Shenzhen and introduced a set of policy to attract foreign investment (such as tax exemption). Taiwan manufacturers relocated to Pearl Delta. Wal-Mart deploys the retail link system to strengthen supplier partnerships. The system provides vendors information on sale trends and inventory levels. "Buy American campaign" ends.
1995 - retail businesses entered China, partnership with Shenzhen International Trust Investment Corporation (SITI). The state council approved the joint venture of Wal-Mart and SITI.
1996 - retail link and EDI (electronic data interchange) available via the Internet.
2002 - direct import rather than going through the PREL. Work with factories directly. Brand products vendors force to abandon factories in the U.S and work with Chinese factories.
2003 - the joint venture is renamed as Walmart Shenzhen International Trust Investment Corporation. Wal-mart hold 65% while SITI hold 35%. SITI formed another company to take care of land/rental arrangement for store.
2004 - imports more than 18 billion goods purchased in China which equals 10% of all U.S imports from China.
2005 - deploy radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to track the whereabout of the goods.
2006- starts experimenting with Web 2.0 and social networking tools, applies price-optimization and Business Intelligence retail applications. USD22 billion imports from China, account for 12% of US total import. First Wal-Mart Union appears in China.
2007 - Wal-Mart launches Site to Store service, enabling online customers to pick up merchandise in stores.
2008 - more than 7000 Wal mart in the world, 99 stores in China, 95% product comes from China from more than 20,000 manufacturers, annual Export from China: USD18 billion
2012 - among the 10,000 worldwide stores, more than 370 stores in China
1995 - jack ma visited USA for translation business
1996 - joint venture with China Telecom on China Pages
1998 - with 17 friends building an English online marketplace: Alibaba.com (exporters' product listing) attract foreign capital investment US25 millions from Goldman Sachs, SoftBank.
1999 - 1688.com (domestic version of Alibaba.com
2001 - Alibaba U.S office closed
2003 - Taobao: eBay competition US 85 millions capital investment
2004 - Alipay
2005 - cooperation with Yahoo and take over
2007 - Alimama
2008 - Tmall
2010 - Aliexpress: connecting exporters and consumers / mobile Taobao App / acquisition of One-Touch (export service)
2011 - juhuasuan (group buying)
2014 - Alitrip / Ant financial Services Group / Listed in New York / Auto Navi / Alibaba pictures group / Ai Telcom / Tmall global
Why Hongkonger? and What define a Hongkonger?
The self and the net - practical dimension
where are you located in the net? and the reprograming of the self and the networks (goal).
In group draws a network graph and analyzes its limitation:
- information and news
- money spent and recieved
- (big trouble) support network
- friends and affinities - weak tie - bridging network
What do you learn from alibaba's story in relation to the development of network society in China? What is Alibaba's network goals? What are the forces that reprogramme its goals? Wha are caugh in Alibaba's network? How they are caught and how they resist?
Week 4: New media and public sphere
- Why public sphere matters?
- How public sphere is transformed in the new media era?
- A public space for discussing politics or issue of public interest as opposed to private.
- Free man / citizen - on issue related with city state
- Background for Plato's "Republic" and Aristotle's "Rhetoric"
- Excluding women and slaves
- Not so "rational", market place
Upper class bourgeois culture
Polite and rational
Polished language, well articulated
Elite with political awareness
Common people excluded
Ideal speech situation
- Equal rights to speak
- Social background (race, gender, etc) bracketed
- Right to assert, defend or question any factual or normative claim - well-informed?
- Motivated solely by desire to reach a consensus about the truth of statements and the validity of norms - good faith
- Communicative competence - differentiate subjective, inter-subjective and objective statements
- The standard for assessing the validity of claims is subject to rationality
- Opinionated political news. E.g Rheinish Gazette - Karl Marx worked as editor in 1842; Diversified views in exchange and debate.
- Mass printing - political propaganda and commercialization after the WWII
- Media monopoly and re-feudalization (privatization) of public sphere
- Pubic relation replacing debate and deliberation
Criteria for new public sphere
- Disregard social status
- Common concern (public)
- Inclusiveness (equal rights)
- hegemonic dominance and exclusion, power embedded in language and culture
- ignoring inequalities, emotions and differences in expression: gender, class and culture
- "common concern" based upon the dichotomy of public vs private
- public sphere as a discursive space where different counter-publics dialogue across differences and contest for consensus (universal claim as contested process)
Local resistance in network society
Who decide the network goal of the society?
- HK as financial center
- HK as a node in the new silk road
How can ordinary people change the setting?
How do we characterize today' online public sphere? (word cloud after break)
Why bouregois public sphere: Rousseau, Locke, Kant, Marx
E.g. Nancy Fraser
Week 6: Subject and subjected to
Descartes: "I think, therefore I am."
- The self / I / Acting subject
- Subjectivity: sense of life / reality
- A construct / Subject to
(cultural and lingusitic order, legal, knowledge/power - materialization)
- In relation to objects and objectified others
Castells -the self organization / resistance unit
New media researches and theories on subjectivities
disembodied space for the repressed to emerge.
- Narrating and other our selves
- cyber-bullying, slut shaming
- Ideological interpellation
- (discourse) knowledge / power and its materialization
- structure of feeling
(residue of lived experience)
- collective memory - ritualistic performance
Land supply: city, rural, park
Gov strategy: NT development
NT politics - small house, farmland
Econ integration rather than residential need
Led by private property developer
Urban gentrification & ghettoization
- Create a shared experience on the use of new media tool on public affairs and develop a better and more concret understanding of concepts
Bare in mind:
- how you are empowered / restricted by tech setting?
- diff btw online and offline interaction
- personal or social changes that occur in the process. how and why?
- dialogue btw experience and concepts
3. Step by step guide
- pick a topic
- define specific objective
- define target audience
- select your tools with more specific obj
- design content acc to topic obj & tool function
- interaction and observation
- reflection with concepts
Suggested tools and platform:
- Facebook page
- Photo presentation via instagram or other photo platforms
- Weibo or wechat
- Citizen media sites (reports e.g inmediahk; or globalvoices; or any other)
- Data visualization tools
- Video via youtube or youku
- Mapping - google map
- Comic presentation
Initial thoughts on topic?
Other potential topics:
- cross border dialogue over land prob
(one side or mutual)
- youth story
- compartmental room, mapping and visual presentation
- two generation relocation history
- citizen report on west railway debate (land use)
Lacan: Linguistic subject
How do we manage our "selfhood" in the new media environment?
Localized Crowds: Causal, conventional, expressive, acting, protest => mobs
Collectivity: localized, dispersed
Theories: Contagion, convergence, emergent-norm
Different forms of dispersed mass behavior: Rumor, Gossip, Public Opinion, Propaganda, Panic, Mass Hysteria, Fashion and Fab.
Condition for mass behavior: Structural conductivities, structural strain, generalized beliefs, coordinated group, precipitating factors, social control.
Organization approach: resource mobilization & political opportunity
Resources: capital, manpower, technology, legitimacy, social support
Individual Choice: incentive - material, solidarity, goal, free rider / prisoner dilemma - sanction
Role of organization: resource, channel discontents, strategy and plan
Process: public politics --> protest norm and strategies: confrontational, disruptive or established channel?
Political opportunity - institutional structure / change mechanism / open or close
From peaceful to confrontational protest norm: Umbrella Revolution, Anti-sumgglers protest / Fishball riot
New Social Movement
Transformative - critical towards hegemony, bureaucracy and social order, the reproduction of status quo.
Social solidarity based on alternative value and practice => autonomous space
Critique over the marginalization of the majority minorities
Redefinition of the political - the personal is the political - identity and value vs material and class struggle - feminism and environmentalism
Critical and reflective subject
How does new media facilitate and transform social mobilization?
Post-WWII theories: functionalism, rational choice (U.S), cultural marxism (EU) vs. revolution
Framing (Erving Goffman) and agenda setting
Mass Self Communication
Transformation of communication power from mass media (propaganda and PR) to mass self-communication: framing and orchestration pattern (experience - info - social action - symbolic) HK since 2003
Transformation of social movement (resource) organization form to individual based projected group
Time - flash mob mobilization
Space - geographical boundary - local --> regional --> global (e.g Jasimin Revolution 2011. Tunsia -- Arab -- echoed in Wall street)
Rise of the grassroots --> transformation of political interaction / process, grassroots action and resergence of "revolution" (System failure e.g HK: end of colonal elite consultation politics)
Transformation of public sphere -- > public consensus to communication / political negotiation with the grassroots
more from Kacey Wong: https://www.facebook.com/kacey.wong.319/media_set?set=a.10152749673435281.1073741853.681960280&type=3
Collins Yeung support movement with sketching
more from Collins: https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.1474635682800665.1073741835.1404744813123086&type=3
Marxwell's “Mr and Little Miss Hong Kong People”
more from: http://globalvoicesonline.org/2014/10/22/learn-whos-who-in-hong-kongs-umbrella-revolution-with-mr-and-little-miss-hong-kong-people/
Kacey Wong's call for umbrella logo
Class discussion: how does new media transform and contribute to social mobilization? three groups: collective behavior, resource mobilization and new social movement
Independent from what?
Alternative to what?
Why citizen matters?
History of modern / corporate media (the U.S.A)
- publick Occurrences (25 sep 1695) 1st U.S (Boston, English Conlony) newspaper - by Benjamin Harris (1673-1716)
- Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790): Pennsylvania Gazette (1728-1800)
- Stamp Duty (1765): colonial repression of press freedom, background of American revolution (1775-1783)
- Thomas Paine (1730-1809) - Common sense (1776) - 1791 "rights of man" and 1798 - french revolution
Political and technical infrastructure for newspapers to emerge
- independence of U.S.A (1776)
- 1st Amendment (Bill of Rights) by democrats (1787): press freedom
- 1800s: Postal system for newspaper distribution
- 1814: Times's printing machine 500 x 4 page / hr
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
- 1833: New York Sun by Day Benjamin H (Crime and Scandal)
- 1835: New York Herald by Bennett, James Gordon (Social reform)
- 1832: Electrical Telegraph invented - Long distance report, factual information
- 1848: Associate Press founded (6 newspapers in the network) - non profit cooperative
- 1861-1865: U.S civil war: Information based; no more anonymous report (military concern)
- 1885: Printing machine: 25,000/hr
The World War and the rise of Corporate era
- 1900 Associate Press (690 newspapers) - 1912 1st journalism school - fair and objective rather than localism
- WWII (1939-45) and propaganda
- Post war Corporate era - 1960-70s - monopoly of big media. e.g cable - cross media ownership (mobile + cable)
The West vs. the East
Case 1: Alternet
NGO model vs. corporate mode:
Alternative to corporate news; an autonomous subject.
Case 2: Global Voices
Volunteer and foundation model: https://globalvoices.org
Bottom up news production alternative to western news hegemony
The Global citizen subject
China's media history
First printed report in Tang Dynasty
Ancient Chinese Empires
Missionaries and political publication
1815 first chinese magazine in malaysia.
1858 （1842 ﹣ Nanking treaty)
1915 by Chen Duxiu ﹣ 1919 (May 4th) - 1925 CCP take over.
1896-98 Liang Qichao (1911 Wuchan)
Soviet Model and Party media
1925／6／4 - Qu Qiubai
1941 ﹣ 1942 rectification movement
1966 Cultural Revolution
Deng's media reform
Each group picks a case of independent / alternative / citizen media and addresses the questions: independent from what? alternative to what? and its implication on citizenship.
Independent from the state
... from state & capitalist collusion
Sustainability... people, money and excellency
Technological empowerment and disempowerment:
Facebook, content farms and hacking
Democracy, political process and rise of populism
Class exercise: Yes or No?
1. The rise of populism is because of people having more power?
2. Too much democracy will bring populism?
3. More control needed so as to prevent the spread of online populism - fear, hatred, and etc.?
-- word cloud game： populism and democracy.
- physical and geographically bounded community --> virtual community
- active and participatory citizens
Three Approaches to Democracy
- based on individual interest, aggregation of individual choice
- informed decision --> right to information
- individual empowerment --> access, rights to communication
- representation and institutional democracy
- social contract --> state and individual (consent, constitutional, law, rights.）
- shared value and "good" based on identity & purpose
- community based decision making process
- freedom of association
- persuasion rather than community norm
- collective decision guided by agenda, organization purpose, norms
- public (inter-subjective) vs. private and collective
- rational and critical discourse vs. smear, hate speech, rumor and distortion
- universal claim vs. social contract and collective norms
- individual cannot be detached from community
- community / collective is more than the sum of individual choices
Origin: Narodniks - Russian intellectual movement after the emancipation of serfs in 1861
in the name of people (ideological)
Cas Mudde (2004)
Logic of populism
- a charismatic leader
- simple solution
- action frame
- thin-centered ideology that addressed power structure
- antagonistic relation between "people" and "elite"
- popular sovereignty - people
- politics of will and decision
- people as homogenous entity
- people vs enemy (class or ethnic)
1. pre-organization: La Tuerka (2010) - pablo iglesias as anhor
2. website members = party members 368.773: http://podemos.info/
3. plaza podemos: public debate
4. participation: social networks and webpage; real circles for face to face meeting (sectional and territorial branch) currently 900
5. e-voting system
Does new media facilitate the spread of populist sentiment? How?
Government of the people, by the people, for the people -- Abraham Lincoln
People: diverse or homogenous?
Populism and China
Week 11: Digital enclosure of the Free and the Public
Infrastructure & culture of the net
- open network
- public funding: NSF
- collective coding
- evolution (user)
- free culture
- sharing culture
- collaborators and prosumers
Free software vs. 1976 copyright Act
(from right-to-copy to restriction on usage)
Second enclosure movement
- who are the landlord that enclose the public?
- what has been privatized?
- how it changes the pre-existing production relationship?
- what are the characters of the new economy?
- who is at the top / at the bottom of the economy?
- who are being marginalized? and how?
- what are the new beliefs of the economy?
The erosion of public domain: Digital millennium act 2000 and SOPA 2012
From sharing to shared - data as asset / big data and privacy crisis
New monopoly model: dot-com bubble 2000 and web 2.0 survivors / radical change in the notion of asset and price
Bundling of produce and service
- Microsoft - window and internet explorer vs netscape
- Google - searching and Ads promotion
- Amazon distribution network - ebook
Bundling of tangible and intangible (social) networks
- Apple / android phones - apps
- Facebook social network - apps
Winner take all
- Youtube (natural)
- Taobao (diminishing of marginal profit) 2011 investigation
Policy driven monopoly
- BAT - China's Great Firewall
Who owns our data? and can we decide how our data is used?
The new and the old monopolizers - the case of airbnb
The web we want (www)
Open and free infrastructure vs. content privatization
Network enclosure and new monopoly model
Panopticon and the prisoners' subjectivities
Personal strategies in managing your online data
Free culture vs. copyright
Architecture, law and norms (1903/1945)
Old vs new panopticons
- spatial & tempo extension
- deep analysis - psychological / ideological profile
- sense of freedom
- decentralized gaze & reflex (call of the crowds)
- visibility (i tweet therefore i am)
share a tech strategy in managing your privacy / prevent surveillance.
The leap between sharing culture and economy of sharing
Week 12: Internet governance
- Governments vs. corporates vs. users
- International vs. local: multi-stakeholder approach vs. national soveregnity / security approach
Apple / user vs. FBI
Search engines / user vs. EU / user
HK Chinese context vs. EU
National security vs. user and corporate
Local vs. global
End of the term hiking: lamma island or tai o (via tung chung) or back to the classroom