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International sport events and tourism

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Adriana Kiss-ová

on 30 January 2014

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Transcript of International sport events and tourism

International sport events and tourism
There should be only an application if….
There is a future demand for newly built facilities

Companies involved in construction activities have a clean record, as well as an excellent reputation.

Improvement and additions to infrastructure happen in an environmentally sustainable way.
“The 2010 FIFA World Cup is much more than a game: it symbolises the power of football, which can bring people together from all over, whatever their language, colour, political beliefs or religious faith”

Thank you for your attention!
Benefits of International Sports Events
4 dimensions:
Socio-Economic Benefits
Improve the social status of the host community

Increase the awareness of the city or region as a tourism destination

Increase knowledge potential investment and commercial activity in the region

Socio-Economic Benefits
Attract more investment
Attract more visitors

And consequently
Create new jobs
Contribute the economic growth of the city or region
Job Creation
Generate large number of jobs
Directly associated with the organization of the event
Tourism & Retail industry
--- Increase of spectators/tourists
Construction industry
--- Infrastructural development

Job Creation
Barcelona 1992
General rate of unemployment fell from from 18.4% to 9.6% from October 1986 to July 1992
* Generated only a limited number of new permanent jobs since most of the Olympic related jobs were temporary

Socio-Cultural Benefits
Increase the local interest and participation in sporting activities

Strengthen regional traditions and values

Increase local pride and community spirit

Generate world recognition

Contribute transforming the host city
Quality of life of individuals and community

Sense of well-being through fun and enjoyment 
--- Self-fulfillment and achievement

Encourages social interaction and cohesion

Sport Participation
Sport participation
Barcelona 1992
46,000 new users in sport centers
Women participation from 35% in 1989 to 45% in 1994
1994 - 300,000 people took part in sport events and festivals
Physical Benefits
Construction of new and restoring old sports facilities

Improve physical environment & appearance of the host city

Trigger for large-scale urban planning and improvement

Integrate technology

Sustainable - greener city or region

Infrastructural development
Sports facilities
Roads & Accessibility
Transport networks & systems
Leisure facilities
Open spaces
Commercial centers
Barcelona 1992
New transport systems
Increase of accommodation offer
Rejuvenation of coastal areas (Olympic Village)
Huge sport facilities area (Vall d’Hebron)
Organizing chaotic urban space

Political Benefits
Government economic contribution
Covering costs
Potential to pay them back

Justifying the use of tax money
Transform into a “world-class” city

Image of politicians and parties associated with the event

Political Benefits
Political authorities & Business corporations
Profitable alliances
To boost construction, retail and tourism industry
Cooperation with international federations, governments, sponsors and media
Obtaining experience for organizing future events
Sport managerial experience
Public administration practices
Barcelona 1992
Improve management and organizational capacity methods
Link up with international sports networks
Sports Experience
Benefits for Tourism
Opportunity to shape the future of the region

Promote and regenerate the destination due to the vast investment

Multiplier effect of the tourism economy

Potential for destination growth and development

Extensive media coverage of the destination
Benefits for tourism
Barcelona 1992
Tourism now accounts for 12% of the city’s GDP, compared to 1-2% before the Olympics
Increased its hotel bed capacity by 34.9%, which has continued many years after the event
Between 1992 and 2002 bed space expansion of 47%
Increase overnight stay in the city by 110% between 1990 and 2001
The effect of Barcelona 1992
Created an attractive destination for both domestic and international visitors
Still prevalent today as the city has been able to evolve and continue urban transformation
To maintain the identity of a vibrant and attractive destination
Twenty years on, Barcelona was the 12th most popular city destination in the world and was ranked 5th amongst European cities

Benefits for Tourism
Benefits for tourism
"It’s not about football, it’s about nation building. South Africa has been chosen to not only stage the World Cup in 2010 but also to carry the hopes, dreams and aspirations of Africa and especially African football. This provides a golden opportunity to change perceptions about Africa and to influence public opinion around the globe. We must demonstrate through this event that we are equal to the best (FIFA WORLD CUP) countries in the world – equal to Germany, equal to France, equal to the United States, equal to Japan. If we can be equal to them we must be amongst the best. And that we can transfer into our business approach in investment, in tourism. Through the 2010 FWC we can leave a legacy of growth, unity and pride.”

Dr. Danny Jordaan, CEO of South Africa’s 2010 Organising Committee
There should be only an application if….
Negative economic effects, such as higher real estate prices, and inflation, can be ruled out.

Jobs are also created in the long term.

Public investments are transparent, and the use of public funds is justified, and restricted to infrastructure projects.

Budget and financial planning is realistic, and bribery and corruption is ruled out by transparency and monitoring.
There should be only an application if….
Media coverage about the Games puts the region in the spotlight, and awareness for the region as a place to visit is increased.

Locals are encouraged to see sport events and are involved in various activities surrounding the games.

Safety can be ensured, without applying rigid measures, like banning beggars, restricting mobility of residents, or any other measures that restrict civil liberties.

Back-Up plans exist in the case of unforeseen circumstances.
Strengthen the interconnection with other industries - Strong linkage with other industries
Contribute to the national GDP - Potential contribution to the national GDP

Domestic + international tourists to participate in sport/recreational activities
Foreigners for visiting country as spectators/participants in sporting events
Visitors with the help of a sport event
First-time visitors leading to their return or further recommendations

Benefit from the international media coverage
#1 Terror attacks
Sotchi 2014
Many people are scared, even athlets
Terror attacks in Volgograd, Russia, 30 died
30 % tickets still available
6000 athlets from 85 countries
40,000 security officers

Munich 1972
11 members of Isreal Olympic team as hostage
Palestinian group of 8 people (5 died)
Reason: Prisoners in Isreal
Risks faced by sporting organisations and event organisers
Physical risks
Injuries by participants, health
Financial risks
Income, revenue, expenses, investments
Event risks
Event cannot take place as planned
Ethical risks
Affecting reputation
Legal risks
Liabilities, activity specific legislation, discrimination law

Homosexual rights
Sotchi 2014
New anti-gay law
Should not affect the athletes
No demonstrations or protests regarding homosexuality during the Winter games
Gay athletes are scared

Health risks
World Cup Brazil 2014
Football fans going to the World Cup in Brazil should be aware of the risk of dengue fever, a UK expert warns
Spread by mosquito bites in 3 of 12 hist cities
No vaccines or drugs against dengue
High criminality rate
Many slums

South Africa 2010
Up to 37.4%
Building stadiums
Brazil World Cup 2014
Two workers died in Brazil stadium accident
A crane operator lost metal roof

Qatar 2022 World Cup
Workers treated like cattle
Migrant labours (Pakistan, India, Nepalese)
Up to 4000 workers will die
Modern form of slavery
12H/day with 45C

Brazil World Cup 2014
Romario says that furious billions are being spent on stadium instead of crumbling hospitals and schools

South Africa World Cup 2010
Stadiums costs 6€ million per year
200 participants during football games
Teams avoid new stadiums because of high costs
How secure is Austria?
Are we able to protect everybody?
The press will focus on you!
Is the Austrian environment ready for such a huge visitor number?
Does Salzburg have the right construction companies and employees?
Should we invest in such huge sport event? Do we have other priorities? Does the population of Salzburg want that?
Catalans drift into mass-community events
Boosted by media coverage
Catalans as the most "celebrative" people in Europe
Infrastructural development
Prepared to serve daily sports requirements
Sport federations & companies benefit from the accumulated know-how
Workers involved in with the organizing committee of the Olympic Games
Sport events:
Mega events are able to affect a city as well as the whole nation to a large extent.
Global audience
Attractive destination
Using the event for future benefit
Positive/negative effect on the hosting city
Very strict requirements
DUMA Consulting, ag.
“Let us plan your dreams in detail!”
International Sports Events
Maximize economic, social, health and environmental benefits for Salzburg region through regeneration and sustainable development

Achieve a sustained improvement in Austria´s sport before + during + after the event

Using OG as a platform for acceleration of the country´s development

Generate new jobs

Investments in projects and services that will remain as a legacy (infrastructure, etc.)

Use innovation in minimizing the carbon and environmental footprint

Refresh a sense of national pride and patriotism
Facilities & Infrastructure:
Economy & Budget:
Society & Safety:
2006 OETA Olympic Report
Impacts of the Olympic Games as mega-events
Malfas et. al (2004)
Barcelona, The New Districts
Pairolero (2004)
Impacts of the Olympic Games as mega-events
Malfas et. al (2004)
The economic impact of the Barcelona Olympic Games, 1986-2004
Brunet (2002)
The economic impact of the Barcelona Olympic Games, 1986-2004
Brunet (2002)
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