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shreya opeddi

on 31 March 2014

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Transcript of mountains!!

Mountains!! (:
What are mountains?
Mountains are formed by movements of huge tectonic plates that make up the Earth's crust. Mountains were formed over a million years ago. During mountain building, flat-lying sedimentary
and volcanic rocks are often bent into a series of wavelike formations called folds. In the summer the rain falls and the ice melts. The water seeps into the surface cracks of the mountain. When the water freezes again, it expands and prides the rocks apart. The rocks are split away from the mountains, and fall into the valleys. The ridges and peaks that are left can be steep and jagged with knife edge points. Mountains have shiny white surfaces because of the ice and snow. These surfaces reflect the sun's heat which helps to keep the temperature freezing even through the summer.
How Mountains Are Formed

Mountains are landforms that stretch above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. Many mountain landscapes have sharp peaks,ridges, and valleys. They are formed by frost, ice, and glaciers.
Well, how are mountains formed and what are their features?

When mountains were formed
The world's youngest mountains were formed 30-35 million years ago. Mountains formed in this period are called Alpine Fold Mountains.These mountains are very high and steep. They have not yet worn down as much as other fold mountains. Some of the highest mountains are at the bottom of the sea.
The largest range of mountains are in the Atlantic Ocean. The biggest mountain on earth is Mount Everest. It is 8,848 meters above sea level! There are more than 11,000,000 mountains in outer space.
Mount Olympus Mons is the biggest mountain in outer space! It can be found on Mars and is 22km in height!

Fun facts on mountains!
Mountains may look a pyramid with a pointy top but there are many interesting things to know about them. Here are some fun facts about them:
1. 12% of the world's population lives on mountains.
2. Mountains exist on every continent.
3. 109 of the world's tallest mountains are located in Asia.
4. 80% of the world's freshwater originates in mountains.
5. Because of the movement of the Earth's tectonic plates Everest grows 4mm each year.
6. All the world's major rivers start on a mountain.
7. The highest mountain on Mars is also the highest mountain and volcano in the entire solar system. It is called Olympus Mons and is 16 miles (24 kilometers) high which makes it about three times higher than Mt. Everest.
8. One of these facts is that over one-fifth of the surface of the Earth is covered in mountains.
9. Some of the animals that live in mountains are Buffalo, Black Bears, ants, coyote, raccoon, bobcat, several types of squirrels, skunk, chipmunks, grey fox and even beavers.
Where are mountains most likely found and what places would you mainly find them?
On the Earth mountains are mainly found in the continent of Asia (Southern and Mid-Asia). Mountains are formed mainly by the effects of folding on layers within the upper part of the Earth's crust. They commonly form along borders, where two continents are colliding, such as Europe and Asia, or Africa and Asia. Most mountains might be in the eastern side of the world because sine earlier it states that they are formed in the Earth's UPPER crust, that is where India, Russia, Nepal, and all those Asian countries are located. Here are some coordinates of the some of the world's largest mountains.
1. Mt.Everest- 27.9881° N, 86.9253° E
2. Rocky Mountains- 43.7400° N, 110.8000° W
3. Mt.Kilamanjaro- 3.0758° S, 37.3533° E
4. Andes- 32.6528° S, 70.0111° W
5. Appalachians- 40.0000° N, 78.0000° W
What physical features are found near mountains? How do they connect to each other?
Surrounding the mountains in Earth, there are many other physical features. In Asia, near many mountains there are rivers, lakes, cliffs, glaciers, and a couple valleys. In the United States,the physical features that surround our mountains are canyons, lakes, rivers, and a couple falls; waterfalls. Rivers tend to have their source in mountains because of snow runoff. Many rivers start off in a mountain and then they make their way through. There are many cliffs in a single mountain because the elevation is so high. A volcano is found within a mountains created by magma or debris.
What other Physical Features are found near mountains? How do they connect with each other?
The Andes Mountain range is a big mountain range with many physical features in it. It is located in South America near the Pacific Ocean. The world's highest volcanoes are in the Andes. Mount McKinley is located in Alaska near a big forest and the Pacific Ocean. The Ural Mountains, which are located in Europe, is a source for many rivers and tributaries. Mountains have rain forests within them. Some, along the west coast of North America, include rainforests. There are desert mountains that have tropical rainforests.
Physical Features that are unlikely to be found near mountains
Even though there are some deserts near mountains, they are not as likely to be found on or near a mountain. A mountain is generally a colder place and a desert is almost always likely to be hot:). There are some cold deserts though. Another feature that is generally not located on or near a mountain is a valley or a plain. Mountains are mostly ridged and covered with rocks. That's why it is hard to grow crops. On the other hand, valleys and plains are both flat pieces of land which are usually dry and filled with crops, or covered in grass. Those characteristics do not fit a mountain:).
There are five different types of mountains. Fold, fault block, dome, plateau, and volcanic. These mountains can be formed by tectonic plates or magma. In this prezi we will see how the different mountains are formed. Mountains throughout the world have formed as a result of pressures (compression, tension, & shear) deep within the lithosphere. The types of pressures present have a great impact on the physical characteristics of the mountain ranges. Mountains are classified into three main categories based on these physical characteristics.

Fault Block Mountains:
Fault-block mountains form when faults in the Earth force some parts of the rock up and force other parts to collapse down.
The crust pulls apart and breaks into blocks.
Then the parts that are exposed begin to erode. Fault-block mountains have a steep side and a sloping side. Fault-block mountains are formed when the cracks in the Earth's crust cause erosion and some of the rock is forced up, while the rest is forced down. Fault block mountains are formed as a result of a combination of tension and uplift forces. The stretching and cracking of the crust gives the mountains their appearance and name.
ex: Sierra Nevada (CA)

Dome Mountains:
Dome mountains are formed when molten magma pushes towards the earth crust.
It cools before it can erupt and hardens.
The layers of rock over the hard magma turn over the dome.
It erodes and a granite rock is left behind. Dome mountains received their name in relation to their form and shape. They are formed when magma is forced towards the Earth's surface, much like a volcano. But, the magma stops moving before it reaches the surface, creating a dome shaped mountain. Dome mountains are rounded isolated structures that are usually not associated with mountain belts as they occur in generally flat regions. They can be classified into two distinct categories: Plutonic & Tectonic:
Plutonic Domes:
Formed from an igneous intrusion
Lacoliths and batholiths both form igneous dome mountains
ex: Yosemite, Colorado plateau mountains
Tectonic Domes:
Dome mountains resulting from uplifting of tectonic plates
No plate boundaries are directly involved in the formation
ex: Adirondack Mountains (NY), Black Hills (SD)

Plateau Mountains:
Plateau mountains are either formed when tectonic plates force up areas of land.
When layers of lava build up over time.
The land then erodes on the edges leaving valleys between mountains. Plateau mountains are also known as erosion mountains. Plateau mountains do not have a peak. The highest area is large and flat, which gives the plateau mountain it's name. The mountain becomes flat when rivers and streams that have run through for centuries cause erosion. Similar to this, plateau mountains can also be called erosion mountains.

Fold Mountains:
Fold mountains are the most common type of mountain. A land mass 'folds' when two plates collide, and rocks collapse. The upwards 'folds' are called anticlines and downwards 'folds' are called synclines. Fold mountains are the product of two inter continental (continent-continent) plate collisions.

Volcanic Mountains:
A volcanic mountain is formed when molten magma is forced through an opening in the Earth's crust (lithosphere).
Almost all active volcanoes occur near or on plate boundaries.
Some occur where plates are converging (pulling apart)
Or diverging (pushing together)
It can also occur when plates move over hotspots.
They are formed when two continental plates collide.
The rocks buckle, fold and lift up.
The folds turn up and down
The downturned folds are called synclines and the upturned folds are called anticlines.
These mountains are usually pointed.
Horst &Grabens
Horsts and grabens are large blocks of land that have either been uplifted or dropped due to direct plate interaction.
Horst - section of land lifted up near a divergent plate
Graben - section of dropped land near a divergent plate

Table Mountain - South Africa
The Great Dividing Range - Australia
The Himalayas - Asia
The Andes - South America
Harz Mountains - Germany
Grand Tetons - North America
Ben Nevis - Scotland
Black Range - New Mexico
Mt Vesuvius - Italy
Mt St Helens - North America
Types Of Mountains Continued
Types Of Mountains
Mount Everest
Andes Mountain Range
What kinds of animal species live in the mountains and what do they eat?
Did you know that there are living animals in mountains? Well there are! Some animals that live in mountains are the coyote, raccoon, bobcat, several types of squirrels, skunk, chipmunks, grey fox and even beavers. A variety of reptiles also live in the mountains. The most common of these are the Western fence lizard and alligator lizards. There are several snakes, including the Mountain king snake, Southern rubber boa (endangered), Western rattler (poisonous), Mojave green rattler (poisonous), racers, and gopher snakes. Of course, these animals have to eat something. Some mountain foods are herbs (leaves and plants), grain, grass (for llamas and mountain goats), and lastly mountains contain quite a few trees so the animals will eat off of those.
This is the lifestyle the mountain animals live :).
By: Sreya Sista ;(
By: Shreya Peddi :)
By: Aalaynah Nathoo (;
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mountain
2. http://score.rims.k12.ca.us/score_lessons/lake_arrowhead/files/natural_history3.htm
3. http://www.primaryhomeworkhelp.co.uk/mountains/facts.htm
4. http://www.express.co.uk/fun/top10facts/364016/Top-10-facts-about-mountains
5. http://www.livescience.com/23421-kilimanjaro.html
6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Everest
Mountains Beyond Mountains
By: Tracy Kidder (Book we used- Mt. Atlas)

In conclusion, we found out that mountains are landforms that stretch above the surrounding land in a limited area, and they are generally steeper than a hill. Also, some interesting facts were that the highest mountain on Mars is also the highest mountain and volcano in the entire solar system. It is called Olympus Mons and is 16 miles (24 kilometers) high which makes it about three times higher than Mt. Everest. Furthermore, 12% of the world's population lives on mountains. Last but not least, we learned that mountains have other physical features and living organisms in them. Some are waterfalls, canyons, glaciers, animals (like squirrels and goats), and many more! This was a very informational project! This concludes our presentation! (:
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