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# Using explicit teaching and math manipulatives to teach the

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#### Transcript of Using explicit teaching and math manipulatives to teach the

Use researched based instructional strategies to improve student performance in numeracy.
Researched based instructional strategies used to teach place value.
Introduction
The Task: Identify an area in which students need to improve and use instructional strategies based from sound academic research.
Identified Area of Improvement
At the end of term two a group of 14 year one students were identified as LAG in numeracy. All students were unable to RWS their numbers to 30. A goal has been set by the end of the year for students to RWS numbers to 50.
Seems simple right?
Well let's dissect this further!

Students filled in the missing numbers into a number chart to 50.

Each student received a different number chart so they could not copy from each other.

Pre-Test
The place value system is described as a Hindus-Arabic numeration system in which a numeral can stand for different amounts, depending on where it is written (Sperry Smith, 2009).

5 Unique features of place value are:
The system uses the numerals 1-9 and 0
Base ten is a positional system
The value of the whole number is the sum of its parts
People use it to perform all basic functions
What is place value and why teach it?
Use math manipulatives to teach place value.
What are math manipulatives?
"A mathematics manipulative material is an
object that can be handled by an individual
in a sensory manner during which conscious
and unconscious mathematical thinking will
be fostered" (Swan & Marshall p.13, 2010).
After the first lesson I reflected on the needs of the students.

"These students have very little understanding of number and without the proper instruction are unlikely to make the connections between the MAB blocks and two digit numbers" (Mills, 2013)

.
So I started teaching lessons using MAB blocks to teach partitioning of two digit numbers.
"Explicit instruction is an evidence based practice that provides elementary teachers with a practical and feasible framework for delivering effective and systematic practice" (Hammill Institute on disabilities, 2010).

Also known as the I Do, You Do, We Do model in the classroom.

Updated Smart Goal - Use the explicit teaching instructional strategy in conjunction with math manipulatives to teach place value.
The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (Hammill Institute of Disabilities, 2000) states that "students place value understanding serves as a prerequisite for later mathematical success"

No idea of place value = confused students!
Why teach place value?
Swan & Marshall (2010) surveyed teachers
Table 2. Advantages of using manipulatives.
Heighten interest; helped engage students;
enjoyment; ‘fun’; provide motivation 191
They are a visual aid; assist in concrete
visualisation 188
Provide hands-on learning 135
Build a better understanding 126
Help children grasp concepts; or reinforce
them 61
Applied to all styles of learning 48
Can be used to introduce concepts 36
Teacher can more easily note what the
child is ‘thinking’ 27
Encouraged oral language 23
Why use math manipulatives ?
Swan & Marshall (2010) surveyed teachers
Table 2. Advantages of using manipulatives.
Heighten interest; helped engage students;
enjoyment; ‘fun’; provide motivation 191
They are a visual aid; assist in concrete
visualisation 188
Provide hands-on learning 135
Build a better understanding 126
Help children grasp concepts; or reinforce
them 61
Applied to all styles of learning 48
Can be used to introduce concepts 36
Teacher can more easily note what the
child is ‘thinking’ 27
Encouraged oral language 23
Brainwave - The use of math manipulatives on my LAG group will not produce the required outcome if not taught in conjunction with effective instructional strategies.
Aha moment!
Research says...
Many studies show that explicit instruction continues to be one of the most effective approaches for teaching students with mathematical difficulties. More importantly these findings have also identify that without explicit instruction "it is highly likely that students with MD will continue to struggle to learn math successfully" (Gersten, Beckman, (2009).
My experience = This little fella thrives with explicit teaching.
National Curriculum - Number & Algebra
(ACMNA014) Count collections to 100 by partitioning numbers using place value
(ACMNA013)Recognise, model, read, write and order numbers to at least 100. Locate these numbers on a number line
First Steps Numeracy
KU4 The whole numbers are in a particular order, and there are patterns in the way we say them which help us to remember the order.
KU 6 Partition collections into two parts and represent each part with a number

References
Explicit mathematics instruction: What teachers can do for teaching students with mathematics difficulties. (2013). Intervention in School and Clinic, 48(5), 276-285. doi:10.1177/1053451212473151

Hynes, M., (1986). Selection criteria. Arithmetic Teacher, 33(6), 11–13.

Sperry Smith, S. (2013). Early childhood mathematics. Boston: Pearson.

Swan, P., & Marshall, L. (2010). Revisiting mathematics manipulative materials: Paul swan and linda marshall revisit the use of manipulatives. they look at the different types and the ways in which they are used by teachers. Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 15(2), 13.

ACARA Links sourced online from the ACARA Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Mathematics/Curriculum/F-10?y=1&s=NA&layout=1

Willis, S. (2004). Number: Understand whole and decimal numbers, understand fractional numbers. Port Melbourne, Vic: Rigby Harcourt Education.
The Results
Fill in missing numbers to 50.
14% Could write to 50 independently
14% Could write to 29 independently
35% Couldn't write past 20 independently
37% Couldn't write past 37 independently
70% of the initial 80% first tested could now independently partition two digit numbers into tens and ones units.

The final 30% still needed significant scaffolding to complete the assessment.

Results
15% Absent on the day of post test
43% Wrote to 50 independently
22% Wrote to past 30 independently
10% Wrote to 20 independently
10% Wrote under 10 independently

65% Improvement!!
43% of that exceeded my expectations
The Results
Place Value Test
80 % Couldn't partition a two digit number independently.
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