**Use researched based instructional strategies to improve student performance in numeracy.**

Researched based instructional strategies used to teach place value.

**Introduction**

**The Task: Identify an area in which students need to improve and use instructional strategies based from sound academic research.**

Identified Area of Improvement

At the end of term two a group of 14 year one students were identified as LAG in numeracy. All students were unable to RWS their numbers to 30. A goal has been set by the end of the year for students to RWS numbers to 50.

Seems simple right?

Well let's dissect this further!

Students filled in the missing numbers into a number chart to 50.

Each student received a different number chart so they could not copy from each other.

Pre-Test

The place value system is described as a Hindus-Arabic numeration system in which a numeral can stand for different amounts, depending on where it is written (Sperry Smith, 2009).

5 Unique features of place value are:

The system uses the numerals 1-9 and 0

Base ten is a positional system

The value of the whole number is the sum of its parts

People use it to perform all basic functions

What is place value and why teach it?

Use math manipulatives to teach place value.

What are math manipulatives?

"A mathematics manipulative material is an

object that can be handled by an individual

in a sensory manner during which conscious

and unconscious mathematical thinking will

be fostered" (Swan & Marshall p.13, 2010).

After the first lesson I reflected on the needs of the students.

"These students have very little understanding of number and without the proper instruction are unlikely to make the connections between the MAB blocks and two digit numbers" (Mills, 2013)

.

So I started teaching lessons using MAB blocks to teach partitioning of two digit numbers.

"Explicit instruction is an evidence based practice that provides elementary teachers with a practical and feasible framework for delivering effective and systematic practice" (Hammill Institute on disabilities, 2010).

Also known as the I Do, You Do, We Do model in the classroom.

Updated Smart Goal - Use the explicit teaching instructional strategy in conjunction with math manipulatives to teach place value.

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (Hammill Institute of Disabilities, 2000) states that "students place value understanding serves as a prerequisite for later mathematical success"

No idea of place value = confused students!

Why teach place value?

Swan & Marshall (2010) surveyed teachers

Table 2. Advantages of using manipulatives.

Comments Number

Heighten interest; helped engage students;

enjoyment; ‘fun’; provide motivation 191

They are a visual aid; assist in concrete

visualisation 188

Provide hands-on learning 135

Build a better understanding 126

Help children grasp concepts; or reinforce

them 61

Applied to all styles of learning 48

Can be used to introduce concepts 36

Teacher can more easily note what the

child is ‘thinking’ 27

Encouraged oral language 23

Why use math manipulatives ?

Swan & Marshall (2010) surveyed teachers

Table 2. Advantages of using manipulatives.

Comments Number

Heighten interest; helped engage students;

enjoyment; ‘fun’; provide motivation 191

They are a visual aid; assist in concrete

visualisation 188

Provide hands-on learning 135

Build a better understanding 126

Help children grasp concepts; or reinforce

them 61

Applied to all styles of learning 48

Can be used to introduce concepts 36

Teacher can more easily note what the

child is ‘thinking’ 27

Encouraged oral language 23

Brainwave - The use of math manipulatives on my LAG group will not produce the required outcome if not taught in conjunction with effective instructional strategies.

Aha moment!

Research says...

Many studies show that explicit instruction continues to be one of the most effective approaches for teaching students with mathematical difficulties. More importantly these findings have also identify that without explicit instruction "it is highly likely that students with MD will continue to struggle to learn math successfully" (Gersten, Beckman, (2009).

My experience = This little fella thrives with explicit teaching.

National Curriculum - Number & Algebra

(ACMNA014) Count collections to 100 by partitioning numbers using place value

(ACMNA013)Recognise, model, read, write and order numbers to at least 100. Locate these numbers on a number line

First Steps Numeracy

KU4 The whole numbers are in a particular order, and there are patterns in the way we say them which help us to remember the order.

KU 6 Partition collections into two parts and represent each part with a number

References

Explicit mathematics instruction: What teachers can do for teaching students with mathematics difficulties. (2013). Intervention in School and Clinic, 48(5), 276-285. doi:10.1177/1053451212473151

Hynes, M., (1986). Selection criteria. Arithmetic Teacher, 33(6), 11–13.

Sperry Smith, S. (2013). Early childhood mathematics. Boston: Pearson.

Swan, P., & Marshall, L. (2010). Revisiting mathematics manipulative materials: Paul swan and linda marshall revisit the use of manipulatives. they look at the different types and the ways in which they are used by teachers. Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 15(2), 13.

ACARA Links sourced online from the ACARA Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Mathematics/Curriculum/F-10?y=1&s=NA&layout=1

Willis, S. (2004). Number: Understand whole and decimal numbers, understand fractional numbers. Port Melbourne, Vic: Rigby Harcourt Education.

The Results

Fill in missing numbers to 50.

14% Could write to 50 independently

14% Could write to 29 independently

35% Couldn't write past 20 independently

37% Couldn't write past 37 independently

70% of the initial 80% first tested could now independently partition two digit numbers into tens and ones units.

The final 30% still needed significant scaffolding to complete the assessment.

Results

15% Absent on the day of post test

43% Wrote to 50 independently

22% Wrote to past 30 independently

10% Wrote to 20 independently

10% Wrote under 10 independently

65% Improvement!!

43% of that exceeded my expectations

The Results

Place Value Test

80 % Couldn't partition a two digit number independently.