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Gerunds and infinitives

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Núria Grima

on 18 March 2013

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Transcript of Gerunds and infinitives

Gerunds and infinitives By Lídia Saiz, Paula Pujol and Núria Grima. Introduction Verbs + infinitive More uses of gerunds and infinitives Verb + object + infinitive or base form When we use two verbs together, the second verb can be either a gerund or an infinitive (with to)
Quan utilitzem dos verbs junts, el segon verb pot estar tant en gerundi com en infinitiu (amb el to)


We form the negative by putting not before de gerund or infinitive
La oració negativa es forma posant el not abans del gerundi o infinitiu I regret going out with him
M'arrepenteixo de sortir amb ell

I can't avoid seeing her at school
No puc evitar veure-la a l'escola

I imagine not having friends
M'imagino no tenir amics As a noun (especially as the subject of a sentence).
Watching the news can be depressing.
One of her hobbies is writing stories.

After a preposition.
She’s tired of working as a photographer.
After winning the award, he organized a huge party.
After the preposition by, the gerund refers to an action that we do in order to achieve a certain result (=una acció que fem per tal d' aconseguir alguna cosa).
He finished the article by working all night.
(= Per tal d'acabar l'article, va haver de treballar tota la nit)
Verbs + gerund Common verbs followed by a gerund admetre / aconsellar / evitar / no poder evitar /

no (poder) suportar / no imaginar / no poder enfrentar-se / completar /

considerar / continuar / retardar / detestar / debatre /

desagradar / no importar / gaudir / acabar /

rendir-se / imaginar / involucrar-se / guardar /

mencionar / importar / perdre, trobar a faltar / posposar /

practicar / recordar / recomanar/

informar a algú / resistir / arriscar-se /

suggerir / entendre / admit • advise • avoid • can’t help •

can’t stand • can’t imagine • can’t face • complete •

consider • continue • delay • detest • discuss •

dislike • don’t mind • enjoy • finish •

give up • imagine • involve • keep •

mention • mind • miss • postpone •

practise • recall • recommend •

report • resist • risk •

suggest • understand
He hated not being famous
Ell odiava no ser famós

She decided not to follow the celebrity
Ella va decidir no seguir al famós Common verbs followed by an infinitive permetre's / estar d'acord / aparèixer / organitzar / preguntar / intentar /

suplicar / escollir / consentir / atrevir-se /

decidir / exigir / merèixer / esperar / fallar, suspendre/

preparar-se / dubtar / tenir l'esperança de / tenir la intenció /

aprendre / dirigir, ensortir-se'n / significar / necessitar /

oferir / preparar / pretendre / prometre / rebutjar /

semblar / amenaçar /

esperar / voler / desitjar / afford • agree • appear • arrange • ask • attempt •

beg • choose • consent • dare •

decide • demand • deserve • expect • fail •

get ready • hesitate • hope • intend •

learn • manage • mean • need •

offer • prepare • pretend • promise • refuse •

seem • threaten •

wait • want • wish She refused to accept my apology
Ella va rebutjar la meva disculpa

She pretended to be famous

I can't promise to be there but I will try
No puc prometre estar allà però ho intentaré

I've arranged to meet Diana at the party
He planejat quedar amb la Diana a la festa Verbs with both gerund and infinitive TIP I would like to go out with him
M'agradaria sotir amb ell Would like
Would love
Would hate
Would prefer ONLY WITH
INFINITIVE! I love going to the cinema /
I love to go to the cinema with NO change in meaning: començar, agradar, odiar, estimar, preferir, començar begin, like, hate, love, prefer, start Verbs with BOTH gerund and infinitive with a little change in meaning: forget

+ -ing = oblidar una acció passada

She will never forget visiting New York (Mai oblidarà haver anat a Nova York)

+ infinitive = oblidar-se de fer alguna cosa

She forgot to close the door (Va oblidar-se de tancar la porta)


go on

+ -ing = continuar fent alguna cosa
She went on watching the television (Va continuar veient la televisió)

+ infinitive = fer una cosa diferent/ nova

I went on to become a clothes designer ( explicació: Vaig convertir-me en un dissenyador de roba. Abans no ho era)


regret

+ -ing = arrepentir-se d'una acció passada

I regretted lying to him ( No hauria d'haver-li mentit)

+ infinitive = et sap greu dir una cosa

I regret to tell you that he's lying (Em sap greu però t'he de dir que està mentint) remember

+ -ing = recordar una acció passada

Do you remember seeing John at the party? (Recordes haver vist al John a la festa?)

+ infinitive = no oblidar-se de fer alguna cosa

Please remember to buy some milk ( Si us plau no t'oblidis de comprar llet)


stop

+ -ing = parar de fer alguna cosa

He stopped eating ice-cream ( Va deixar de menjar gelat)

+ infinitive = parar de fer alguna cosa per fer una altra diferent

He stopped to buy an ice-cream ( explicació: estava caminant i va parar per comprar-se un gelat)


try

+ -ing = provar de fer una cosa

She tried eating vegetarian food ( Ella va provar de tastar menjar vegetarià)

+ infinitive = intentar fer una acció difícil o impossible

He tried to run away from the mafia (Va intentar fugir de la màfia) We can also use the gerund: after an adjective.
It’s difficult to predict the weather.
I’m happy to help.

after certain nouns, such as duty, opportunity, permission, right, time, use, etc.
It’s time to go.
I need their permission to publish the article.

to express purpose. To + infinitive has a similar meaning to in order to + infinitive.
I followed him (in order) to find out where he was going (= I followed him because I wanted to find out where he was going).
We can also use the infinitive: These are some of the verbs which can be followed by an object (+ not) + infinitive with to.
Hi ha alguns verbs que poden anar acompanyats de la persona, però sempre van amb l'infinitiu (with to). • advise – aconsellar • allow – donar permís • ask – preguntar • beg – suplicar • cause – causar • convince – convèncer • dare – atrevir-se • enable – possibilitar/ permetre • expect – esperar • forbid – prohibir • force – forçar/obligar a • get – aconseguir • help – ajudar • hire – contractar • inspire – inspirar • instruct– ensenyar/ instruir • invite – convidar • need – necessitar • order – ordenar ( a algú) • permit – permetre • persuade – persuadir • remind – recordar a algú una cosa • require – requerir • teach – ensenyar • tell – dir • want – voler • warn – advertir • would hate – odiaria • would like – agradaria • would love – estimaria • would prefer – preferiria She persuaded his father to buy a new motorbike (=Va persuadir al seu pare perquè li comprés una nova moto).
I begged her to let me go to the party (=Vaig suplicar-li que em deixés anar a la festa).
I would prefer my son to behave better (=Preferiria que el meu fill es comportés millor). We use an object (+ not) + infinitive without to after: Utilitzem la persona (+not) + l'infinitiu sense to després de: make and let (fer i permetre)
I let him go to the cinema (El vaig deixar anar al cinema)

some expressions, such as would rather (not), had better (not) (algunes expressions com preferiria, hauria de...)
I would rather not talk to him (Preferiria no parlar-li)

Sense verbs, such as hear, listen to, see, smell, touch ( verbs dels sentits)
He heard her come in (Ell va escoltar-la entrar) We can use an infinitive with or without to after help + object I helped them make up
=I help them to make up
(Els vaig ajudar a fer les paus) http://www.englishpage.com/gerunds/gerunds_infinitives_1.htm http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/infinitive-gerund/exercises?10
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