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U.S. History

Major Events Prior to 1877
by

Kylee Stitz

on 5 September 2012

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Transcript of U.S. History

Before 1877 U.S. History -Christopher Columbus - Born in Genoa, Italy-
-His accomplishments due to hard work-
-Began sailing at an early age-
-First official serving voyage in 1474 at the age of 24-
-In 1476 was apart of a Genoese convoy that was intercepted and sunk by- the French off the coast of Portugal-
-By 1479 considered himself a veteran of the seas-
-Articulated a plan to sail to the Indies by crossing the Atlantic Ocean-
-Plans rejected several times by Portugese-
-Received royal approval for the voyages from Spain in 1492- Columbus Discovers America April 30, 1803 Lousiana Purchase -Set sail from Palos, Spain on Friday August 3, 1942-
-Pinta fired a cannon indicating that land had been sighted on October 12- -San Salvador-
-Proceeded onward and landed in Cuba Sunday, October 28 -Columbus thought it to be Japan-
-Continued on and arrived in Hispaniola -Santa Maria became shipwrecked and was destroyed-
-Because of mutiny within the crew, Columbus decided to return to Spain by January 1493-
-Had already made a major impact by establishing the 1st European colony in the New World- 1st Voyage France sold 828,000 square miles of land to U.S Final cost $15 million dollars ($283,000) -3rd voyage took place in 1498-
-Discovered Trinidad and the continent of North America-

-During 4th voyage discovered Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Honduras-
-Got stranded in Jamaica because of enemy attack and tropical shipworms-
-Columbus ended his sailing days after in November 1504- 3rd & 4th Voyage Thomas Jefferson wanted the port city of New Orleans Jamestown is Founded -Community of Jamestown suffered terrible hardships in the 1st year-
-Almost immediately were under attack from Algonquian natives-
-Disease, famine, and continuing attacks took a toll on the population-
-Powhatan Indian trade helped the colony with foot in exchange for-
-Glass, beads, copper, and iron implements-
-Structured leadership of Captain John Smith kept the colony together-
-After Smith's departure in the Winter of 1609, only 60 of 214 settlers survived-
-In June survivors abandoned the town-
Arrival of the new governor Lord De La Ware with supply ships brought-
-Suffering didn't end at Jamestown for decades-
-Some years of prosperity did follow the wedding of-
-Pocahontas and entrepreneur John Rolfe- What Happened There But France wanted to give Spain a opportunity to buy it back Revolutionary War American Revolutionary War Declaration of Independence U.S. Constitution Adopted Louis & Clark War of 1812 Trail of Tears California Gold Rush The Civil War & Reconstruction Transcontinental Railroad -Second voyage was the longest trip: 3 years-
-Discovered Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands
-Decided to send back 5 shiploads of natives to Europe-
-Instigation of Slave Trade- 2nd Voyage http://www.randomhistory.com/christopher-columbus-in-the-history-of-america.html www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/columbus.htm -Founded on May 14, 1607-
-Group of 104 English men and boys began a settlement-
-King James I granted a charter to a group of entrepreneurs, the Virginia Company-
-Goal was find gold and seek a water route to the Orient-
-Stockholders hoped to make a profit from the resources of the New World -General assembly met in response to orders from the Virginia Company-
-Goal was to establish one equal and uniform government all over Virginia- Government in Jamestown -Took place March 5, 1770- -Street fight-
-Patriot mob vs. squad- of British soldiers-
-Several colonists were killed-
-Presence of British troops in Boston unwelcome-
-Riot began when 50 citizens attacked a British sentinel-
-British officer Captain Thomas Preston called in additional soldiers-
-Killed 3 on the spot (Crispus Attucks, Sam Gray, & James Caldwell)-
-Wounded 8, 2 of which died later-
-Town meeting called demanding removal of British and trial of Preston and men-
-Boston Massacre was a signal even leading to the-
-Revolutionary War- -Took place from 1775 to 1783-
-War was completion stage as political American Revolution-
-Colonists denied rights of the Parliament of Great Britain in governing them without representation-
-Set up 2nd Continental Congress- -Formed Continental Army-
-Declared traitors by Congress after petitions to the king to intercede with the Parliament-
-Americans responded by formally declaring independence as a new nation-
-Denied any allegiance with the British monarchy- -1777: Continentals captured British army-
-Resulted in France entering the war on America's side- -
-Over next 2 years Spain and Dutch Republic also went to war with Britain as French allies-
-British used their predominance in capturing & occupying coastal cities and countryside-
-French victory took place at Chesapeake-
-Resulted in surrender of 2nd British army in Yorktown-
-1783: Treaty of Paris ended the war and recognized the sovereignty of U.S.- -July 4, 1776-
-Second Continental Congress met-
-Meeting held in Philadelphia in the Pennsylvania State House-
-Severed colony's ties to the British Crown-
-Richard Henry Lee urged Congress to declare independence from Great Britain-
-Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, & Robert- Livingston were appointed to the committee to draft a Declaration of Independence-
-Fair copy of committee draft was read in Congress June 28 1776-
-Congress debated and revised this draft-
-Congress ordered the Declaration of Independence to be printed-
-Congress ordered the Declaration of Independence engrossed -
-And signed by members- -Members of the Constitutional Convention signed the U.S. Constitution-
-On September 17, 1787
-This group convened in response to dissatisfaction with the Articles of Confederation-
-There was a need for a strong centralized government-
-After 4 months of secret debates and compromises, the committee proposed a Constitution-
-The constitution was eventually ratified-
-A new federal government came into existence in 1789-
-The constitution established the U.S. government as it exists today- http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Constitution.html http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/DeclarInd.html http://www.americanrevolutionarywar.net/ http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/related/massacre.htm www.historyisfun.org/jamestown-settlement.htm
http://www.apva.org/history/ http://www.google.com/imgres?q=Constitution+of+the+US&hl=en&safe=active&biw=675&bih=610&tbm=isch&tbnid=K6sMDlixlGLqdM:&imgrefurl=http://www.whitehouse.gov/our-government/the-constitution&docid=81mANF6U_4zTdM&imgurl=http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/imagecache/page_masthead/Scene_at_the_Signing_of_the_Constitution_of_the_United_States.png&w=440&h=247&ei=CYU1UObBAsG9ygGN3oGYBw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=335&vpy=162&dur=300&hovh=168&hovw=300&tx=143&ty=110&sig=104399278317640214284&page=1&tbnh=133&tbnw=204&start=0&ndsp=12&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0,i:78 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=Constitution+of+the+US&hl=en&safe=active&biw=675&bih=610&tbm=isch&tbnid=IFlVbB3uBpNvSM:&imgrefurl=http://wtfman.net/2011/05/15/the-united-states-constitution/&docid=lEibYlseKdR84M&imgurl=http://wtfman.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/us-constitution.jp-6937.jpg&w=316&h=398&ei=CYU1UObBAsG9ygGN3oGYBw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=240&sig=104399278317640214284&page=1&tbnh=133&tbnw=106&start=0&ndsp=12&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:75&tx=49&ty=70 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=declaration+of+independence&hl=en&safe=active&biw=675&bih=610&tbm=isch&tbnid=c5s4bpeeZyC6SM:&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Declaration_of_Independence&docid=G7SYjxsjgPcZ7M&imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Writing_the_Declaration_of_Independence_1776_cph.3g09904.jpg/220px-Writing_the_Declaration_of_Independence_1776_cph.3g09904.jpg&w=220&h=293&ei=z4g1UI7UIPTryAGsrYCQBQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=321&sig=104399278317640214284&page=1&tbnh=133&tbnw=93&start=0&ndsp=14&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:81&tx=55&ty=50 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=american+revolutionary+war&num=10&hl=en&safe=active&biw=675&bih=610&tbm=isch&tbnid=sBMg4XvAHyz1HM:&imgrefurl=http://www.britishbattles.com/american-revolution.htm&docid=873EbOHQykAdQM&imgurl=http://www.britishbattles.com/images/revolution/british-grenadier.jpg&w=460&h=306&ei=44g1UP7pNuazyQGNsIDYDg&zoom=1 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=boston+massacre&num=10&hl=en&safe=active&biw=675&bih=610&tbm=isch&tbnid=ZsjHy2M47vgtwM:&imgrefurl=http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/related/massacre.htm&docid=OBInUV0BUeQSpM&imgurl=http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/related/images/massacre.jpg&w=300&h=275&ei=_Ig1ULPxBsblyAG90YDICg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=412&sig=104399278317640214284&sqi=2&page=1&tbnh=129&tbnw=156&start=0&ndsp=12&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:72&tx=79&ty=81 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=jamestown&num=10&hl=en&safe=active&biw=675&bih=610&tbm=isch&tbnid=BWqjJfJn5zmyEM:&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamestown,_Virginia&docid=LEuNW9hQWP4gvM&imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/69/Location_of_jamestown_virginia.jpg/275px-Location_of_jamestown_virginia.jpg&w=275&h=236&ei=i4Q1UN6VA8WFyQHcjYH4Cg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=189&sig=104399278317640214284&sqi=2&page=1&tbnh=122&tbnw=142&start=0&ndsp=11&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0,i:78&tx=70&ty=112 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=jamestown&num=10&hl=en&safe=active&biw=675&bih=610&tbm=isch&tbnid=cedD_sNiSo269M:&imgrefurl=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/75460/Jamestown-Fort-in-Virginia-1608&docid=O5eZhLvWYr16eM&imgurl=http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/80/83680-004-01399CF6.jpg&w=550&h=315&ei=Fok1UNeKBvSByAHz54DIBQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=366&sig=104399278317640214284&sqi=2&page=1&tbnh=126&tbnw=197&start=0&ndsp=11&ved=1t:429,r:4,s:0,i:85&tx=119&ty=74 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=columbus+discovers+america&num=10&hl=en&safe=active&biw=675&bih=610&tbm=isch&tbnid=-hfmMfRiLd7EmM:&imgrefurl=http://www.alte-canzley.com/en/timeline/1492.html&docid=0A7btAODJksvcM&imgurl=http://www.alte-canzley.com/en/images/timeline/1492/columbus_painting-large.jpg&w=650&h=491&ei=Wok1UN7lKunnyAGbsoGoAw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=98&vpy=211&dur=413&hovh=176&hovw=229&tx=130&ty=95&sig=104399278317640214284&sqi=2&page=1&tbnh=130&tbnw=158&start=0&ndsp=12&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:72 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=columbus+discovers+america&num=10&hl=en&safe=active&biw=675&bih=610&tbm=isch&tbnid=-hfmMfRiLd7EmM:&imgrefurl=http://www.alte-canzley.com/en/timeline/1492.html&docid=0A7btAODJksvcM&imgurl=http://www.alte-canzley.com/en/images/timeline/1492/columbus_painting-large.jpg&w=650&h=491&ei=Wok1UN7lKunnyAGbsoGoAw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=98&vpy=211&dur=413&hovh=176&hovw=229&tx=130&ty=95&sig=104399278317640214284&sqi=2&page=1&tbnh=130&tbnw=158&start=0&ndsp=12&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:72 The War Begins Causes of the War *Economic differences between the North and *American Expansion *State rights vs. federal rights *Growth of the Abolition Movement South Jefferson sent James Monroe and Robert Livingston to Paris to negotiate the purchase. Land stretches from the Mississippi river to the Rocky Mountains. 1830s Millions of Natives settled on millions of acres Geogria
Tennessee
Alabama
North Carolina
Flordia all generations By the 1840s few natives were still living in the southeastern US. They were all working in the cotton fields for white settlers. White settlers: wanted to grow the cotton on the Natives land Federal government forced the Natives to leave and walk thousands of miles to "Indian Territory" Across the Mississippi This was a difficult & deadly journey thousands starved some were eaten hundreds gave up many froze alive (January/February 1861) South Secedes and Forms a Separate Government Boston Massacre Largest land purchase in history -Lincoln is elected President -South Carolina leaves the Union (MS, FL, AL, GA, LA, TN) -6 more states followed -Jefferson Davis named "president" Louisiana (1812), Missouri (1821), Arkansas (1836), Texas (1845), Iowa (1846), Minnesota (1858), Kansas (1861), Nebraska (1867), Colorado (1876), North Dakota (1889), South Dakota (1889), Montana (1889), Wyoming (1890), Oklahoma (1907), and New Mexico (1912). Attack on Fort Sumter -Buchanan refused to surrender southern forts, so state troops seized them (April 1861) Meriwether Lewis and William Clark led a government-sponsored expedition to explore the vast wilderness of the west soon after the signing of the Louisiana Purchase. Information about the landscapes, plants, animals, resources, and people (mostly Native Americans). 8,000 miles also led to possession of Oregon Territory This would have ended trade between the two. Monroe Doctrine created so europeans so wouldn't expand there colony into ours. Britain was worried that Spain would want there colonies back. USA wanted to make certain no europeans would colonize in the western hemisphere. George Canning (british statesman) suggested a joint venture James Monroe purposed we have our own policy, which would safeguard U.S. interests independent of Britain The policy was made in Monroe's 7Th address to congress on December 2, 1823 Now serves in many nations, asserting their independence. Importance 1. Christopher Columbus Discovers America
2. Revolutionary War
3. Civil War
4. U.S. Constitution
5. War of 1812
6. Louisiana Purchase
7. Establishment of Jamestown
8. Transcontinental Railroad
9. Gold Rush
10. Trail of Tears without consulting Jefferson bought the land How it Started *John Sutter moves to California and builds Sutter's Fort in 1848 *James Marshall is hired and eventually discovers gold *Sam Brannan revealed proof of gold near Sacramento *News spread across the country, and the rush accelerated in late 1848 Getting to California Traveling Over Land -Extremely difficult route -Many were unprepared and died (Doner Party) -Advantage: more room for supplies Traveling By Sea -Around S.A. and Cape Horn *took 5-7 months *fierce storms *Lots of sickness -Panama via steamboat *much quicker *very expensive *Lots of sickness -Many didn't know gold was 150 miles inland The reason that the war started, as made clear in the declaration of war by the United States of America
to Great Britain was the Impression Issue that was
made by the British Government under their Orders-in-Council. Life as a Miner This Impression Issue is an act where men are forced by the government to be in the military. -Most miners were actually of other trades -Methods of mining evolved *Panning *Long Tom *River Mining -Lived in wooden houses or canvas tents, cooked over open campfires 1. The Battle of Queenston Heights
2. The Battle of Raisin River
3. The Battle of Lake Erie
4. The Battle of Thames
5. The Battle of Chrysler's Farm
6. The Battle of Horseshoe Bend
7. The Battle of Chippewa
8. The Battle of Lundy's Lane
9. The Battle of Lake Champlain
10. The Battle of Baltimore
11. The Battle of New Orleans
12. The Battle of Chautauqua's (ended the US invasion of Lower Canada)
13. Battle of York
14. The "siege" of Detroit -General poor health -Formed friendships and communities -Many had trouble affording basic supplies The War of 1812 did once and for all confirm American Independence. http://www.historycentral.com/1812/Index.html -The Gold Rush soon attracted the wrong crowd Importance of the Gold Rush The Gold Rush is what brought people to the West and expanded our nation from coast to coast. All the gold from the gold rush also helped to back the U.S. currency made shortly after and protect it from inflation. June 18, 1812 The United States declared war on Great Britain.
October 13, 1812 British forces won the Battle of Queenston Heights in Canada.
January 22, 1813 An American army advancing toward Detroit was defeated and captured at Frenchtown on the Raisin River.
April 27, 1813 American forcess captured York (now Toronto), the capital of Upper Canada. They later burned some public buildings.
September 10, 1813 American naval forces under Master-Commandant Oliver Hazard Perry won the Battle of Lake Erie.
October 5, 1813 American forces under General William Henry Harrison won the Battle of the Thames River in Moraviantown, an Indian village in Canada.
December 1814 British forces crossed the Niagara River, captured Fort Niagara, and burned Buffalo and neighboring villages.
July 25, 1814 American forces under Major General Jacob Brown and Brigadier General Winfield Scott crossed the Niagara River from Buffalo and defeated the British at the Battle of Chippewa.
August 24, 1814 British troops invaded Washington, D.C., and burned the Capitol and the White House.
September 11, 1814 American naval forces defeated a British fleet in the Battle of Lake Champlain.
December 24, 1814 The Americans and the British signed a peace treaty in Ghent, Belgium.
January 8, 1815 American forces under General Andrew Jackson won the Battle of New Orleans. http://www.thefinertimes.com/War-of-1812/the-war-of-1812.html http://www.thewarof1812.com/Warof1812Almanac/timelineofthewarof1812.htm http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h1567.html -President Lincoln, sending supplies, attempted to avoid hostility -South Carolina feared a trick -On April 12 the Civil War began with shots fired on the fort Major Battles First Battle at Bull Run (July 1861) -Public demand pushed General Winfield Scott to advance on the South -Attacked on July 21 at Manassas Junction, Virginia -Resulted in a Southern victory and a chaotic Union retreat Battle of Shiloh (April 6-7, 1862) -Bloodiest battle in American history at the time -Introduction to the "total warfare" of the rest of the Civil War Battle of Antietam (Sept. 17, 1862) -Encouraged Lincoln to release the Emancipation Proclamation -Ended Robert E. Lee's advance into Maryland Battle of Gettysburg -The costliest battle ever fought in U.S. history -Site of Lincoln's historic Gettysburg Address (July 1-3, 1863) Surrender at Appomattox (April 9, 1865) -General Sherman scorched the towns from Atlanta to Virginia -General Lee attempted to halt the Union Army -Union forces cut Lee off from leading his remaining army, forcing him to surrender Reconstruction Presidential Reconstruction -President Andrew Johnson announced his plans in May 1865 -Southern states had never given up their right to govern themselves and had free reign to rebuild -Required to uphold the abolition of slavery, swear loyalty to the Union, and pay off war debt Radical Reconstruction -Congress passed the Reconstruction Act of 1867 -Required states to ratify 14th amendment before they would be re-admitted to the Union -Made great achievements in racial equality -Approved the 15th amendment Reconstruction Comes to an End -After 1867, an increasing number of southern white supremacists turned to violence (Klu Klux Klan) -Racism was still potent in the North and South as support for Reconstruction waned www.uni.edu/schneidj/webquests/standard/dave/mypage.html www.helium.com/items/298897-the-importance-of-the-louisana-purchase-in-america-history Planning the Route Laying the Track Meeting in the Middle Importance of the Railroad *In 1862, Congress passed and President Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Bill *The first convention for the planning of the Pacific Railroad was held in 1838 by John Plumbe. *Pacific Railroad bills had been periodically introduced in Congress since the 1840's, but none of them passed. *In 1853, five surveying teams were sent out to explore possible railroad routes to California. *After reviewing the results, Congress was still split between Northern and Southern interests *In 1861, the Southern congressmen left because of the recession *The final decision on the route was based on how it may affect the impending Civil War. Central Pacific Railroad Co. -Brought together by Theodore Judah in April of 1861 -Ran and managed by the "Big Four" -Ground-breaking took place in Sacramento on January 8, 1863 -In 1865, silver was discovered in Nevada... began hiring Chinese workers to fill in -Set a record of laying 10 miles of track in a day -Passed the end of their contract but kept working Union Pacific Railroad Co. -Founded in Chicago on September 2nd, 1862. -Ground-breaking on December 2, 1863 -Grenville Dodge was appointed Chief Engineer in January 1866 -As they pushed across the prairie they ran into Native American raiding parties The Transcontinental Railroad paved the way for western expansion in America, and built the fortunes of many men. It made travel and trade possible across the entire nation, and helped unify our country from coast to coast. On May 10, 1869, the two railroads met at Promontory Point, Utah, where their tracks were joined, and the last tie laid. The laurelwood tie was hammered in with a bronze spike and a golden spike to commemorate the occasion. Sources: http://bushong.net/dawn/about/college/ids100/history.shtml http://cprr.org/ Sources: http://www.kidport.com/reflib/usahistory/calgoldrush/AfterGoldRush.htm http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/californiagoldrush.htm Sources: americanhistory.si.edu/presidency/timeline/pres_era/3_656.html http://www.loc.gov/topics/content.php?subcat=8 The War of 1812 ended when the Treaty of Ghent was signed at the end of 1814, guaranteeing that the United States and Britain would end their battle.
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