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what are the factors that affect fertility rates and fertility decline?
Transcript of what are the factors that affect fertility rates and fertility decline?
and fertility decline High infant mortality rates in less economically developed countries have an influence on the fertility rate. 1. Demographic Factor When parents realize that many infants die because of the lack of good medical facilities, they have more babies in order to be certain that at least one child will live to become an adult.
For example, Africa has the highest number of LEDCs and therefore also have the highest fertility rate (4.8) Figure 1. An example of an African family with many children. Bibliography
V, Benny. "Ants and Honey." World Race. Adventures in Missions, 8 Aug. 2009. Web. 15 Sept. 2012. <http://bennyv.theworldrace.org/?filename=ants-and-honey>. In developing or less developed countries, families need their children for labour and for economic support in the future. For example the children may need to provide help on the farm. 2. Economic Factor Since many of these countries don't have proper pension policies, children are needed in order for the parents to have financial support in their old age. The following factors can have an influence on the fertility rates in MEDCs:
Women are educated and therefore decide to pursue a career instead of having many children.
Economic growth results in greater spending power in the areas of health, housing, nutrition and education which further reduces the fertility rate.
Social and Cultural Factors Sometimes tradition demands the woman to have a high number of children. This happens in societies in Africa.
In traditional India, it is considered better to have a boy because girls are considered foreign property (future husband's property) and therefore do not provide financial aid for the old age of their parents.
In muslim and catholic religions, contraception and abortion is strongly opposed. Examples: Effects Traditional and cultural beliefs like these are strongest in villages because women in villages are not empowered and educated resulting in them not having much choice. Therefore the fertility rate rises.
Strong religious families (roman catholic and muslim) are opposed to family planning which also results in higher fertility rates. Educate woman to avoid fertility rate increase due to social and cultural factors. Political Factor Governments in MEDCs such as Germany and Japan, where the populations are aging, provide a concession to large families to promote higher fertility rates.
Companies wanting to retain their female employees, provide childcare facilities and flexible working hours to make having children easier for working women.
The fertility rate in many MEDCs is less than the replacement level fertility (2.1 births per woman) which is raising concerns for the future. Who will pay for the retired people? How will the economy rise? The unbalanced population will also result in an increase in the minimum retirement age. Why are the governments of many MEDCs promoting a higher fertility rate? Picture 1 Picture 2 Ganguly, Biswarup. "Wikipedia:WikiProject Offline Wikipedia for Indian Schools." Wikipedia. N.p., 6 Mar. 2010. Web. 15 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Indian_Girl_Child_4970.JPG>. Information Textbook used in class