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Endocrine System

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Puja Patel

on 15 October 2012

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Transcript of Endocrine System

Endocrine System Presented By:
Alexandra Aksterowitz
Puja Patel
Justin Whitelaw
Jessica Wilson Hormones The body's "slow" communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream. What are they? Chemical messengers that are mostly produced by the endocrine glands; they are produced in one tissue they affect other tissues Types of Hormones Adrenaline Produced within the adrenal gland which is located at the top of each kidney Works with noradrenaline to produce the "fight or flight" response by
increasing the supply of oxygen to the brain and muscles
dilating the pupils
Suppressing bodily functions not necessary/useful at the moment, like digestion. Noradrenaline Noradrenaline works with adrenaline to help the endocrine system produce the "flight or flight" response; in an emergency situation, it boosts the oxygen supply to the brain and the supply of glucose to the muscles. Insulin Insulin regulates glucose, or sugar intake by helping it move from the blood into cells. It is one of they types of hormones produced by the pancreas. Vasopressin Created by the hypothalamus, vasopressin prompts the pituitary gland to release a hormone that helps maintain blood pressure and water and electrolyte balance Growth Hormones Growth hormone, or GH, is one of the types of hormones produced by the pituitary gland
GH stimulates growth during childhood and also stimulates cell reproduction, helping adults maintain both muscle and bone mass. A growth hormone imbalance can cause many growth disorders
If a person has too much growth hormone it can cause gigantism in children and acromegaly in adults
If a person has too little GH it can result in growth hormone deficiency (GHD), which can lead to stunted growth in children and symptoms such as decreased bone mass in adults. Adrenal Glands Thyroid What is it? The thyroid is the gland that controls the body's metabolism, or how it the cell break down glucose and create energy The thyroid absorbs Iodine from the bloodstream to create triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), the hormones it mainly uses to control metabolism Functions that are affected by the thyroid hormones include:
Metabolism-it stimulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism
Growth- it is necessary for growth and works closely with the growth hormone
Development- normal levels of thyroid hormone are essential to the development of the fetal and neonatal brain How it works... The thyroid, like most of the endocrine system uses a negative feedback mechanism to control the levels of T3 and T4 in the blood. Types of Thyroid Disorders Hypothyroidism, or an underactive thyroid, is when the thyroid doesn't produce enough T3 and T4 for the body
Hyperthyroidism, or an overactive thyroid, is when the thyroid produces too much T3 and T4 for the body. Stress Pancreas Parathyroid Gonads What does it do? The parathyroids secrete calcitonin to control the calcium levels in the blood. They control how much calcium is absorbed and released from bone cells. The parathyroid works closely with the thyroid to help control the levels of calcitonin in the body. Females Males Otherwise known as the primary reproductive organs. For a female it's their ovaries And for a male it's their testes Two groups of female sex hormones are produced in the ovaries:
The estrogens
The progesterones Estrogen and Progesterone both help regulate a women's menstrual cycle and aid in pregnancy.
Estrogen, in addition to that, is responsible for the development of female sex characteristics during puberty. Estrogen and Progesterone both work on negative feedback systems; with estrogen controlled by the hypothalamus and progesterone controlled by the anterior pituatary gland. Male sex hormones, as a group, are called androgens. The principal androgen is testosterone, which is secreted by the testes. Testosterone is responsible for: The growth and development of the male reproductive structure.
Increased skeletal and muscular growth.
Growth and distribution of body hair Enlargement of the larynx accompanied by voice changes
Increased male sexual drive What are the Adrenal Glands,
and what do they do? A pair of endocrine glands located just above the kidneys, the adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (nonadrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress. How do they work? These hormones increase heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar, providing us with a surge of energy. When the emergency passes, the hormones—and the feeling of excitement—linger for a while. The Adrenal Glands are also known as suparenal glands. They are responsible for releasing hormones in conjunction with stress through the synthesis of corisol and epinerphrine. The adrenal gland is separated into two separate structures: the adrenal cortex and the medulla, both of which produce hormones. The Adrenal Cortex produces: cortisone, cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens. While the Medulla produces epinephrine and norepinephrine. What is the Pituitary Gland? The Pituitary Gland, is the endocrine system’s most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands. It's primary function is hormone production and secretion. How does it work? (brain → pituitary → other glands → hormones → brain) This is the Feedback system, this reveals the intimate connection between the nervous system and the endocrine system. The pituitary gland is pea-sized, and located at the bottom of the skull, in the base of the brain. The nervous system directs the endocrine secretions, which affect the nervous system in different ways.People often confuse the nervous system with endocrine secretions. Blood vessels between the hypothalamus and pituitary allow hypothalamic hormones to control pituitary hormone secretion. Some examples of Pituitary Functions of the body are:
•Growth Hormone productions
•Endocrine gland hormones productions
•Muscles and kidney hormones productions
•Endocrine function regulation
•Storage of hormones produced by hypothalamus. Pituitary Gland:
•Located near the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland is reddish-gray colored, and the size of a bean. It is an organ located on the bottom of the skull at the base of the brain, attached to the brain by a stalk.
•Being that the Pituitary gland is in control of the secretion of nearly all other hormones, it is often referred to as the king of all glands, or the master gland of the body.
\ Pituitary Gland Fun Facts! Fun Facts! Adrenal Gland:•The right suprarenal gland is triangular shaped, while the left is actually semilunar shaped, both weighing approximately 1.8 ounces each.
•Being that each of the adrenal glands are located on top of each kidney, the adrenal glands are often nicknamed kidney hats. The pancreas is a large endocrine and exocrine gland situated below and behind the stomach in the lower abdomen. Endocrine cells in the pancreas secrete hormones responsible for maintaining blood glucose levels. The endocrine cells of the pancreas are contained in the islets of Langerhans which are themselves embedded in a rich network of blood and lymph vessels. This way the hormones can easily reach the blood and be circulated through the body. The islets of Langerhans secrete insulin and glucagon, hormones that are essential to controlling blood sugar. Insulin and glucagon work together, in conjunction
with the liver to regulate blood sugar levels using a
negative feedback system. A malfunction in this
system is the cause of diabetes. Stress can be physical or psychological
· Physical-Loud noise, Cold temperatures, Strenuous activities
· Psychological- anxiety, guilt, or joy 1st- Adrenal Adaption- Adrenals increase production of stress hormones. Symptoms: digestive problems, inability to calm down, severe weight gain or loss, sleep disturbances
· 2nd-Adrenal Maladaptation- reduction in adrenal glands production& all functions of endocrine system start to slow down. Symptoms: Chronic Fatigue syndrome, hair loss, bone loss, low back pain
· 3rd-Adrenal exhaustion- last step before adrenal failure -when all systems fail and life is in danger Symptoms: chronic nonspecific pain, heart arrhythmia, panic attacks or anxiety, digestive problems, depression, mental frustration, memory loss, inability to think, joint pain Physical exercise, such as running, jumping rope and walking quickly will help bring the body back a normal state by recycling some hormones and secretions. The hormone associated with stress is cortisol.
Cortisol is produced in the Adrenal Cortex.
Cortisol helps supply cells with amino & fatty acids for energy supply and diverts glucose from muscles for use by brain Works Cited Borkin, Joy, MD. "Spiritual, Holistic, Metaphysical Publication InLightTimes.com." Endocrine System, Stress 101 By Dr. Joy Borkin. N.p., 2001. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://www.inlightimes.com/archives/2001/06/endocrine.htm>.
Bowen, R. "Physiologic Effects of Thyroid Hormones." Physiologic Effects of Thyroid Hormones. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/thyroid/physio.html>.
Carter, J. Stein. "Endocrine System." Endocrine System. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio105/endocrin.htm>.
"How Your Thyroid Works." - "A Delicate Feedback Mechanism" N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/thyroid/how-your-thyroid-works>.
Liang, Barbara. "The Stress Response." The Stress Response. N.p., 2012. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP13804>.
"Pediatric Endocrinology." Gonads. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://www.urmc.rochester.edu/childrens-hospital/endocrinology/gonads.cfm>.
"Pituitary Gland." About.com Biology. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/p/pituitary-gland.htm>.
Sokal, Robert R., and P. H. A Sneath. "Endocrine System." Neuroscience and
Behavior. Principles of Numerical Taxonomy. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman,
1963. 94-96. Print.
"What Does the Adrenal Gland Do?" What Does the Adrenal Gland Do? N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-Does-the-Adrenal-Gland-Do.aspx>.
"Your Endocrine System." The Endocrine System & Types of Hormones: An Overview. Hormone Health Network, 2012. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://www.hormone.org/endocrine_system.cfm>. Quiz!! What is the endocrine system? What hormone is associated with stress? What does the hormone vasopressin do? Estrogen and Progesterone both work on negative feedback systems, which gland controls estrogen and which controls progesterone? Where are androgens secreted from? What is the primary androgen in humans? What can the pituitary gland be compared to? (Hint: it has a stalk) The pituitary gland is often referred to as the _________ gland. The nickname for the adrenal glands is _________ (Hint: it’s based on its location) What is hypothyroidism? Name 3 symptoms of hyperthyroidism What does adrenaline do? Name one thing adrenaline and noradrenaline do to produce the “fight or flight” response. The pancreas works with what other organ to regulate blood sugar? Name one thing adrenaline and noradrenaline do to produce the “fight or flight” response. The pancreas works with what other organ to regulate blood sugar? Insulin works with what other hormone to regulate blood sugar levels? The endocrine cells of the pancreas are contained in what part of the pancreas? What does the parathyroid control? What are the two parts of the adrenal gland?
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