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Gary Hart

on 27 April 2015

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You must be able to identify & describe the training methods which improve Flexibility, Strength, Speed, Power, and Aerobic Endurance.

You have been employed as a personal trainer at Churchill Academy gym. Your first job is to suggest ways in which JOE can improve his overall fitness. He his here now for his first 45 minute session with you, what do you do?
What components of fitness have you suggested for him to improve?
How specific have you been in your suggestions?
What could you change each week to show progression?
What tests could you suggest in order to track his progress?
Joe is 36, loves playing squash but often gets tired, his arm aches before the end of the game and sometimes pulls a muscle stretching for the ball.
Points to consider....
STATIC is the most common and usually safest way to stretch.

This is where the muscles are gradually lengthened but there is no movement at the joint. 10 to 15 seconds is often used as a maintenance stretch although 30 seconds is often used when training for long term increases in flexibility.
Active stretching is when movement of the limbs is involved.

Passive stretching is where a partner or other people help the athlete to stretch by holding them in position. This helps to allow all other muscles in the body to relax as well as the one/s being stretched.
Ballistic stretching involves "bouncing" movements. Ballistic stretching is usually only done under close supervision or by very experienced athletes for a specific reason as it can result in damage to the muscles through overstretching or "stretch reflex contraction". This is where the muscles actually become shorter rather than longer!
PNF (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation) techniques involve a partner actively stretching the participant by some combination of altering contraction and relaxation of the muscles. Some of the different PNF techniques used include slow reversal hold, contract relax, and hold relax. PNF stretching usually involves a 10 second push phase followed by a 10 second relaxation phase, typically repeated a few times. PNF stretching is capable of producing greater improvement in flexibility compared to other techniques. Its disadvantage is that it typically requires a partner, although stretching with a partner may have some motivational advantage for some individuals
skip to 2:30
• Disadvantages: Static stretching will improve flexibility at a specific body position and only to a small degree outside of that position, limiting its effectiveness for athletes or those wanting to increase flexibility in multiple ROMs. It is best suited to noncompetitive clients or as a complement to other methods of flexibility training.
• Advantages: Static stretching can be used by virtually anyone; it is easily taught and usually very safe. Once learned, it can be performed in almost any environment without external assistance or equipment.
• Advantages: Dynamic ROM is extremely useful for athletes and those who are warming up for an activity that requires a wide ROM, especially when speed is involved. Dynamic and static stretches combined can prepare the joints for explosive movements more than either type alone.

• Disadvantages: Dynamic ROM should be used gradually and only by those who have been shown an appropriate series of movements. If inappropriate movements are used, small trauma may be experienced over time in the joints or connective tissue from movements that are too fast or through a ROM that is too extreme.
This often involves "swinging" movements but not bouncing.
Task: In your groups, can you think of three advantages and three disadvantages for each of the methods of flexibility training
Similar in speed and motion to the sporting activity
Can cause injury
Can DECREASE flexibility if used extensively
Develops range of motion
Assists in rehabilitation

Requires use of a partner
Can cause injury if working with someone
who is not familiar with boundaries
Increases range of movement
Can hold in stretched position for longer

Requires the use of a partner
Could lead to injury
Why do we need to be flexible?
What stops us from being SUPER flexible?


circuit training:
This is where different stations/exercises are used to develop strength, muscular endurance and power. The stations/exercises use different muscle groups to avoid fatigue.

● free weights:
Use of barbells or dumb-bells to perform different types of dynamic exercises
Concepts to use when training for strength (low reps and high loads) and for endurance (high reps and low loads)
Training for maximum strength (90% 1RM and 6 reps – producing a single movement against a resistance/load), reps, sets, rest period.
Training for elastic strength (75% 1RM and 12 reps – for producing movements in very close succession, like in gymnastics)
Training for strength endurance (50–60% 1RM and 20 reps – repetitive movements of a muscle or muscle group)
Intensity (% 1 Repetition Maximum – 1RM)
Perform exercises which alternate between upper and lower body, alternate push and pull exercises)

Order of exercises: focus on core exercises (working muscles which help to
stabilise the spine and pelvis) before assistance exercises (working muscles
associated with the events in a performer’s specific sport, or the main
exercises in a training programme if a performer is not training for a
specific sport)

This type of training develops sport-specific explosive power and strength.

Plyometric exercises need maximal force as the muscle lengthens (eccentric action) before an immediate maximal force as the muscle shortens (concentric action).

Types of exercises include lunging, bounding, incline press-ups, barrier hopping and jumping. This type of training needs to be performed carefully because it can cause muscle soreness.
Interval training: the individual performs a work period followed by a rest or recovery period. For speed training, the work intervals will be shorter and more intense – performed at a high intensity, close to maximum. Increase the number of rest periods and increase work intensity to develop speed.
hollow sprints: a series of sprints separated by a ‘hollow’ period of jogging or walking.
acceleration sprints. This is where the pace is gradually increased from a standing or rolling start to jogging, then to striding, and then to a maximum sprint. Different drills can be used, such as resistance drills and hill sprints.
Rest intervals of jogging or walking are used in between each repetition.
continuous training:
This is training at a steady pace and moderate intensity for
a minimum period of 30 minutes.
fartlek training: this is where the intensity of training is varied by running at
different speeds or over different terrain. The training is continuous with no rest
period. It is important to know about other ways in which intensity of training
can be increased, including the use of equipment (harness, running with
weights or weighted backpack).
interval training: this is where the individual performs a work period followed
by a rest or recovery period. Typical work time can vary from training for
30 seconds to five minutes; recovery periods can be complete rest, walking or
light jogging. Typical work intervals for aerobic endurance will be around 60%
maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max). Decrease the number of rest periods and
decrease work intensity to develop aerobic endurance.
circuit training: this is where different stations/exercises are used to develop
aerobic endurance. The station order/order of exercises is important to ensure
different muscle groups are used to avoid fatigue. The number of stations, time
spent at each station, number of circuits, rest period between exercises and
number of circuit sessions per week can be varied.
Continuous Training
Fartlek Training
Interval Training
Circuit Training
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