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Kansai International Airport
Transcript of Kansai International Airport
Professor G. Schierle Kansai International Airport The building had to be low enough to allow air traffic controllers to view all the airplanes on the tarmac.
Looking at the structures of nature they decide to use the toroid
The use of the toroid allowed for the terminal to be both high for the passenger terminal and low for the traffic controllers. Concept Location: Izumisano, Sennan, & Tajiri Osaka, Japan
Construction Completed: 1994
Architect: Renzo Piano and Noriaki Okabe
Engineer: Ove Arup and Partners
Budget: US $20 Billion
Square Footage: 3,186,580 sq ft (296,043 m2) General Information In the late 1960's because of an economic boom Osaka required a new airport to compete with other cities
In order to prevent noise pollution along with the lack of land it was decide to construct the airport 5km into the sea
Island construction began in 1987 and was completed by 1991
Renzo Piano won the design competition to design the airport which began construction in 1991 and was finish in 1994
Construction began on another terminal but due to budget constraints only the runway was completed, it was made available for usage in 2007 History Largest man-made island
Cost of the first terminal was $14 Billion US dollars, airport has now cost a total of $20 Billion US dollars, that includes the two runways, terminal and facilities.
The majority of the airports cost comes form the fact that it is sinking
Longest building in the world at 1.7 kilometers
Since 1987 the island has settled about 10 meters, including 50cm(20 inches) 1994 to 7cm (2.8 inches) in 2004.
One of the ten structures given the Civil Engineering Monument of the Millennium awarded by the American Society of Civil Engineers. Fun Facts Design of the roof was base upon the idea of creating a passenger terminal with out the visible ductwork, this highlighted the trusses
To accomplish this a jet of air was shot against a natural curve designed to decelerate air currents.
The scoop like ceiling, which mimic as jet design, draws the air across the terminal. By doing this it travels twice as far as a normal jet of air.
Sheets of smooth fabric by the air supplies help the air circulate through the space.
Mobiles through out the building show how the air current works.
This is the first time this technique has been applied to a building of this scale. Terminal Concept Thirty steel truss support the roof, each one weighs over 200 tons.
250 rib skeleton
5000 panels of glass, with a rubber frame to allow movement for earthquakes Structure The primary truss in the terminal is based on the Warren truss, using a triangle three dimensional design
Trusses are separated by 14.4 meters
The 18 trusses located in the passenger terminal all span a distance of 82.8 meters.
The truss match the unique shape of the roof, causing them to be asymmetrically arches. Passenger Terminal Trusses 360,000 tons of iron ballast was place under the terminal to help the building settle evenly the island
900 concrete columns support the weight of the building
Each column is monitored by a computer, based upon need the computer can be lifted or lowered with hydraulic jacks and inserting metal plates keep the column in place, this helps the building stay level.
They can be raised up to fifteen inches if necessary Designing for Island Settlement Secondary Systems The delays cause by the problems that arose in construction of the island gave the architects more time to design and figure out the organization of the terminal.
Kansai is often cited as one of the best designed and most beautiful airports in the world. Terminal Plans The facade and interior bridges act as secondary systems.
The secondary system spans across the primary trusses.
This system helps absorb lateral loads and restricts potential buckling of primary trusses. Engineers designed the building to be capable to withstand earthquakes, and this has been proven very successful
During the Kobe earthquake even the terminal glass walls remained intacted, not even one was broken.
There is no transmission of forces between the roof and the curtain walls.
Forces are all moved by using sliding or rotating joints. Earthquake Design Structural Analysis Gable ends of the main terminal are double bowed trusses
This system was used avoid creating a complex joint between the roof and the glazing Secondary Systems Continued Tension cable system was chosen to be used on the wings of the airport, where the truss was change single tubular steel member
This side faces the sea and in turn receives the majority of the wind forces. Analysis of Lateral and Vertical Loads More Photos!! Glazing System Design of cladding and glazing had to consider movement from settling, earthquakes, and tsunami.
Each glass panel act as an individual reducing the amount of load transferred from panel to panel, this helps during earthquakes
The panels measure 3.6 x .6 meters
The glazing system continues the geometry of the facade
Expansion Joints used to absorb movement, they were 450-600 millimeters wide and are placed 150-200 meters
Rubber elements are used to provide weatherproofing Moment Loading Diagram Shear Loading Diagram Axial Loading Diagram 82,000 Stainless steel tiles cover the double roof.
Each tile is 1.8 x .06 meters and is 10 kilograms.
The double roof is reflectivity protects inner roof, ease of installation of inner roof, drainage keeps outer roof in good conditions
The tile system is flex and lift to help deal with combat uplift. Cladding System Thank You