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Speciation By Hybridization in Heliconius Butterflies

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Logan Crees

on 6 January 2014

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Transcript of Speciation By Hybridization in Heliconius Butterflies

What are
Heliconius
butterflies?
Speciation By Hybridization in
Heliconius
Butterflies

Speciation
"Why does any of the matter," you ask?
What's really going on?
There are 4 types of speciation isolation
Allopatric
geographically isolated populations

Peripatric
a small population isolated at the edge of a larger population

Parapatric
a continuously distributed population
Sympatric
within the range of the ancestral population
Speciation- the formation of new and distinct species
Heliconius
is a genus of 42 neotropical butterflies
(Phylogeny)
that were the first known butterfly to feed on pollen rather than nectar
(Glibert, L. E.; 1972)
.
Müllerian mimicry is a biological resemblance in which two or more unrelated noxious, or dangerous, organisms exhibit similar warning systems, such as the same pattern of bright colors.
Heliconius
butterflies are toxic to birds and mimic each other using Müllerian mimicry. This mimicry is important because it is encouraging this hybridization.
Hybridization
Hybridization- the mating of two genetically distinct individuals resulting in offspring that have traits from both heterozygous parents
Heliconius erato
(above), and
H. melpomene
(below)
(Mallet, J.; 1999)
Wing patterns also affect mate selection greatly because they determine life or death for their offspring.
Wing patterns are such a big concern to the butterflies because certain patterns signal to predators that they are unpalatable as well as affecting thermoregulation.
Homoploid hybrid speciation is hybridization without a variance in chromosome number. This extremely rare and is the type of speciation that characterize
Heliconius
hybridization
Heliconius
breeding habits show that parapatric speciation is more common than it is thought to be which creates a whole new way of thinking about how species evolve.
It also shows how distance and geography can affect hybridization along with a number of other factors.
H. cydno
H. pachinus
H. pachinus
H. cydno
How are they researching this?
What is happening is that
Heliconius
butterflies are hybridizing with other species in the genus (usually paraphyletic species)
The resulting offspring possess wing patterns and colors of both their parents which gives them a better chance of survival.
The majority of recent research is done with the DNA of the butterflies bred in laboratories so exact lineage is known.
Researchers look at the primers of two enzymes in mDNA, triose-phosphate isomerase or Tpi and mannose-6-phosphate, Mpi along with many other.
Tpi and Mpi both play every important roles in the creation of color and wing pattern of the butterflies.
(Beltran, M.; et al. 2002)
Researchers have developed new techniques of creating a genome scaffolding and whole genomes which are revolutionary and are very useful to people wanting to sequence other organisms
Hybrid Speciation
Hybrid Speciation- process in which natural hybridization results in the production of an evolutionary lineage that is at least partially reproductively isolated from both parental lineages, and which demonstrates a distinct evolutionary and ecological trajectory
(Jiggins et al., 2008)
Layman's terms
A new species is formed because it doesn't mate with its parental species
Assortative mating- Choosing a mate on a bases of phenotype
Danaus plexippus
Limenitis archippus
Battus philenor
Limenitis arthemis astyanax
Other examples of Müllerian mimicry
(6)
(4)
(5)
(Jiggins et al., 2008)
(6)
(Jiang, K, 2013)
(Mavarez et al., 2006)
(Univ. Cali. Berk)
Much deliciousness
(Mavarez et al., 2006)
(5)
(10)
(6)
Heliconius cydno
Heliconius melpomene
Heliconius cydno alithea
The fact that the butterflies cannot backcross is what makes speciation very uncommon
And example of sympatric speciation happens in Costa Rica between
Heliconius cydno
and
H. pachinus
A study looking to see if wing pattern affect mate selection with yellow and white winged
H. cydno
showed that males with yellow wings preferred to court yellow winged females. While winged butterflies had no preference.
(Chamberlain, N 2012)

Heliconius
is more known for their wide range of colors and wing patterns. These patterns are one tool used to help track the hybridization of the butterflies.
"N" controls yellow forewing band
"B" and "br" control forewing red band
(Jiggins et al., 2008)
(Kronforst, M. R, et. al.; 2006)
(Kronforst, M. R, et. al.; 2006)
(Kronforst, M. R, et. al.; 2006)
(Kronforst, M. R, et. al.; 2006)
Learning more about how genetics work can help improve everyone's life by possibly curing diseases, and increasing food yields. Specifically Mpi is actually part of your mitochondrial DNA.
(Beltran, M.; et al. 2002)
This research never stops finding new answers for how the world works and how things are going to change.
(Ency. Brit.)
Picture from http://gamboaheliconius.wordpress.com/gallery/p1040066/
Full transcript