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Transcript of Bullying
2.6 How can a caring adult work with a child who bullies?
2.7 How can a school community sustain an anti-bullying climate?
LACOE Bullying Module
The goal of Region 11 K-12 Student Mental Health Initiative is to guide pre-service teachers, administrators, and school mental health professionals and nurses to be familiar with bullying, recognizing indicators of bullying, identifying best practices to prevent or respond to bullying and working with the perpetrators and targets of bullying.
In the Module:
learn strategies through video examples, in-depth readings, and interactive activities that will give better insight on how to recognize, intervene and respond to bullying, and with working with critical stakeholders in the school community.
Unit 1 Objectives:
Learn basic technology skills required for course participation.
Get acquainted with peers in an interactive learning community.
Become familiar with types of bullying and their effects on perpetrators, targets and observers.
Become familiar with risk factors that may increase susceptibility to being a target or perpetrator of bullying.
It is generally not effective to talk to children who bully as a group.
Conversations with the student who bullies will help in the following ways:
Whether a bullying problem needs to be addressed will be validated.
Options for an appropriate course of action will be identified.
The conversations show a caring adult who is interested and wants to help.
Communication opens up options to refer serious bullying problems to the appropriate support agency.
Talking to a student who bullies can help when such conversations are guided by a clear purpose. A continuing conversation helps the bully to:
Define and comprehend bullying behavior and think through its consequences.
Identify the people targeted, the ways, times, and places where the bully goes into action.
Understand how bullying hurts others and the bully himself or herself.
Explore the reasons for the behaviors.
Explore other, more respectful ways to express and use personal power
• Staff meetings
• Public announcements
• School website
• Student handbooks
• School mascots and mottos
• School paper
• Leadership classes
• Campus parent centers
• Adult mentors
• Classroom and school wide activities
• Plays and productions
• Suggestion boxes
1.2 The Relationship between Bullying and Suicide
2.3 How Can Administrators and School Mental Health Professionals Prevent Bullying
2.1 School Involvement on Bullying Prevention
1.8 Consequences of Bullying
2.9 Bullying Prevention and Intervention Programs
2.2 What Can Teachers do about Classroom Bullying?
1.4 Bullies and Victims
“Bully and victim” imply a fixed identity rather than one who participates in the behavior
The preferred terms are “student who bullies” and “target or student who was bullied” is preferred over the labels:
Target – student who is the intended recipient of the bullying
Bystanders – students who observe the behavior but do not get involved. Their silence, however, serves to reinforce the bullying as the perpetrators now feel they have gained an audience.
Upstander & Ally – student who gets involved to stop, reduce or mitigate bullying.
Bullying takes the form of a pecking order in which those with more social capital may target those who are perceived to be less socially resourced.
No perfect profile of a bully
Students are typically targeted for bullying for fixed characteristics or personality types.
Approximately 13 percent of students are chronically targeted with bullying.
Students who bully target students who don’t fit in to the social structure of the school.
The markers of those who are chronically targeted with bullying include:
Students with autism
Students with high levels of anxiety
Students who are overweight
Male students who are perceived to be less masculine
Students who lack social skills and social networks
1.6 Warning Signs for Bullying
• Practice What You Preach - Don't use your status as the school leader as the lever for change; instead, "listen before talking and reflect before acting" to ensure your staff feel valued (this is backed up by the NEA survey, which found an important predictor of adult willingness to intervene in bullying was their "connectedness" to the school, defined as their belief they are valued as individuals and professionals in the learning process).
• Assess the Extent of the Problem - Survey students, staff and parents to find out how much and what type of bullying is happening, as well as where and when, to target prevention efforts.
• Develop a School-wide Code of Conduct that reinforces school values and clearly defines unacceptable behavior and consequences. Empower bystanders -- teachers and especially students -- to help enforce it by training them to identify and respond to inappropriate behavior.
• Increase Adult Supervision - Most bullying happens when adults are not present, so make sure they are "visible and vigilant" in hallways, stairwells, cafeterias and locker rooms, as well as on buses and the way to and from school for students who walk.
• Conduct Bullying Prevention Activities such as all-school assemblies, communications campaigns or creative arts contests highlighting school values to bring the community together and reinforce the message that bullying is wrong.
First of all...
Some signs that may point to a bullying problem are:
• Unexplainable injuries
• Lost or destroyed clothing, books, electronics, or jewelry
• Frequent headaches or stomach aches, feeling sick or faking illness
• Changes in eating habits, like suddenly skipping meals or binge eating.
Students may come home from school hungry because they did not eat lunch.
• Difficulty sleeping or frequent nightmares
• Declining grades, loss of interest in schoolwork, or not wanting to go to school
• Sudden loss of friends or avoidance of social situations
• Feelings of helplessness or decreased self esteem
• Self-destructive behaviors such as running away from home, harming themselves,
or talking about suicide
• Never ignore the problem!
Signs a Child is Bullying Others
• Get into physical or verbal fights
• Have friends who bully others
• Are increasingly aggressive
• Get sent to the principal’s office or to detention frequently
• Have unexplained extra money or new belongings
• Blame others for their problems
• Don’t accept responsibility for their actions
• Are competitive and worry about their reputation or popularity
• Preventing and responding to school bullying is the responsibility of every school administrator, teacher, school mental health professionals, school staff member, student, and parent.
• Help Students Understand Bullying
• Keep the Lines of Communication Open
• Encourage Kids to Do What They Love
• Model How to Treat Others with Kindness and Respect
Five Tips to Help Teachers Prevent Bullying
Even when a school leader doesn't have a formal bullying prevention agenda, teachers can create safe, bully-free zones in their classrooms:
• Know Your School and District Policies on Bullying - Do your part to implement them effectively.
• Treat Students and Others with Warmth and Respect - Let students know that you are available to listen and help them.
• Conduct Classroom Activities around Bullying - Help your class identify bullying in books, TV shows and movies, and discuss the impact of that bullying and how it was/could be resolved. Hold class meetings in which students can talk about bullying and peer relations.
• Discuss Bullying with Colleagues - As a group, you will be better able to monitor the school environment. Discuss both bullying in general and concerns regarding specific students.
• Take Immediate Action - Failure to act provides tacit approval of the behavior and can cause it to spread.
2.4 What Can Parents of Young Children do about School Bullying?
Five Tips to Help Parents Prevent Bullying
Parents and guardians are among a school's best allies in bullying prevention:
• Talk with and Listen to Your Children Everyday - Ask questions about their school day, including experiences on the way to and from school, lunch, and recess. Ask about their peers. Children who feel comfortable talking to their parents about these matters before they are involved in bullying are more likely to get them involved after.
• Be a Good Example - When you get angry at waiters, other drivers or others, model effective communication techniques. As Education.com puts it, "Any time you speak to another person in a mean or abusive way, you're teaching your child that bullying is ok."
• Create Healthy Anti-Bullying Habits - Starting as young as possible, coach your children on both what not to do (push, tease, and be mean to others) as well as what to do (be kind, empathize, and take turns). Also coach your child on what to do if someone is mean to him or to another (get an adult, tell the bully to stop, walk away and ignore the bully).
• Make Sure Your Child Understands Bullying - Explicitly explain what it is and that it's not normal or tolerable for them to bully, be bullied, or stand by and watch other students be bullied.
Parents should keep in mind the following suggestions in maintaining guidance of their teens:
• Bullying is disrespectful and can be dangerous even if perpetuated in the spirit of team building or as the price to pay for joining a group. This behavior, or hazing, is illegal and is humiliating at the least and life threatening at the worst.
• Bullying of a sexual nature constitutes sexual harassment and is also illegal.
• Bullying on the basis of race, ethnicity, religion, disability, or sexual orientation is a form of bias or hate and cannot be dismissed as teasing. The difference between hate-motivated behavior and crime is negligible, and hate crime is punishable by law.
• Bullying behavior that continues into adulthood escalates to violent behavior toward strangers, friends, and even family.
• A lifetime of consequences may follow both the target and the bully.
Most youth who are bullied do not have thoughts of suicide or engage in suicidal behaviors.
The path to suicide is marked with multiple stressors, low resiliency, and ineffective coping strategies. The correlation that exists between bullying and suicide is due to the fact that some of the characteristics of depression (e.g., being anxious, socially isolated and withdrawn) also increase the likelihood that a person will be targeted with bullying. While bullying may be a catalyst to suicidal ideations and attempts, it is never the only cause.
Those most effected
Being abused by a parent or caregiver quadruples the likelihood of a suicide attempt.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth who have rejecting families have an eight-fold increase of risk for suicide.
Of all groups, Latino males are most vulnerable to the pain of family rejection.
American Federation of Teachers' (AFT) "See a Bully, Stop a Bully" initiative
The AFT's initiative is designed to raise awareness about bullying and provides resources for teachers, students and others to help broaden the effort to identify, prevent and combat bullying.
National Education Association's (NEA) Bully Free: It Starts With Me campaign
The NEA's Bully Free Campaign encourages individuals to sign a pledge saying they will stand up to bullying. Resources for the education community include informational resources on bullying, concise fact-sheets, as well as trainings and research.
Education.com’s Bullying at School and Online
Provides extensive resources, multimedia, strategies and more to empower educators of all levels to educate, prevent, and intervene bullying behaviors.
The American Psychological Association
The American Psychological Association provides statistical data and scholarly resources for K-12 teachers in its Bullying Module, which includes a "Do's and Don'ts of Bullying" list and a "Myths and Facts" page.
National Parent Teacher Association's (PTA) Connect for Respect initiative
This initiative encourages PTAs across the country to hold local conversations with diverse stakeholders about bullying, how it's affecting communities and solutions that groups can implement together. Resources for conducting conversations are available on their website.
Risk for suicide increases if the youth has been both perpetrator and victim, however both bullies and victims have higher levels of suicidal ideation and attempts at all levels (elementary- high school)
Whereas males were at higher risk for suicide when they were victims of frequent bullying, they were not significantly at risk with infrequent bullying. Females however, were at greater risk with ANY frequency of exposure.
In June 2012, the State of California stepped forward to provide schools a working definition for bullying. The following is based on the state’s guidelines:
• Bullying is any severe or pervasive physical or verbal act(s) or conduct, including electronic communications committed by a pupil(s) that has, or can be reasonably predicted to have, the effect of one or more of the following:
o Reasonable fear of harm to person or property.
o Substantially detrimental effect on physical or mental health.
o Substantial interference with academic performance.
o Substantial interference with the ability to participate in or benefit from school services, activities, or privileges.
• Intentional deliberate act of inflicting physical or psychological harm to provoke fear or anxiety with the target. Bullying seeks to preserve or maintain power. The term “imbalance of power”
• Bullies can be those smaller in size or who are younger
• It is commonly assumed that persons engage in bullying lack self-esteem. To the contrary, students who bully are often socially sophisticated and are considered popular among their peers.
• Students who bully are often socially sophisticated and are considered popular among their peers.
• Bullying lies at the ratio of frequency and severity
And say in-an-anemone
What is Bullying?
1.1 Introduction to Bullying
Consequences for the target
Students who are the targets of a bully may experience negative emotions or mental health outcomes. They may find it distressing, but are quick to recover when they take evasive actions, access social support, or the bullying ceases. In cases of severe and chronic bullying, feelings of persecution may prevail over feelings of safety and confidence. Fear, anger, frustration, and anxiety may lead to ongoing illness, mood swings, withdrawal from friends and family, an inability to concentrate, and loss of interest in school. If left unattended, the targeted student may develop attendance and/or discipline problems, fail at school altogether or, in the worst cases, they are suicidal or retaliatory and violent.
Consequences for the bully
Bullying is most prevalence in grades six through nine. Many children who bully will outgrow that behavior as they mature. However, there are those for whom bullying becomes a way of life. A student who learns aggression toward others garners power and may find the behavior a difficult habit to break. Students who chronically engage in extreme and aggressive bullying may continue this behavior into adulthood. Research shows that 60 percent of males who bully in grades six through nine are convicted of at least one crime as adults, compared with 23 percent of males who did not bully . Students who chronically bully are also more likely to be perpetrators of domestic violence and child abuse as adults. In these situations there is a strong likelihood that the child is experiencing multiple stressors in the home. The bullying at school is a manifestation of other serious concerns.
Consequences for the bystander
Students who passively participate in bullying by watching may come to believe that the behavior is acceptable and that the adults at school either do not care enough or are powerless to stop it. Some students may join in with the bully; others who share common traits with the target may fear they will become the next target thus increasing levels of anxiety and fear. Witnesses to bullying may develop a loss of their sense of security which can reduce learning.
Allowing Bullying to Continue
• An alert teacher will likely intervene when overhearing a mean comment between students, believing it to be a one time isolated incident. The teacher may have no idea that that one comment was one of numerous offenses that the child has endured.
• School staff are required to intervene in instances of bullying and harassment.
Adults may encourage bullying when they:
• Condone mistreatment of younger students.
• Allow or use derogatory names or labels for groups of students.
• Overlook casual cruelty, sexual harassment, hate or bias-based behavior, or "hazing" activities in student clubs or sports programs.
Teasing or Bullying??
Teasing vs. Bullying
Adults often tease those with whom they have a close relationship as a means to bond.
The teasing is intended to strengthen, not weaken the relationship.
They want to preserve the relationship and will make amends if their teasing has somehow caused damage.
Some students who bully do so because they want to avoid being targeted themselves or they desire admiration from their peers. These students are very responsive to being offered alternative ways to get the prestige and safety that they desired.
In more serious situations, some students who bully are motivated by the idea of having the power to cause hurt, embarrassment, fear, or intimidation. These students typically have little or no regard for rules, policies, or consequences. Efforts to change the bullying behavior may require a significant amount of time and patience, intense discourse, and, in some cases, professional assistance and/or special programs.
Approximately six percent of students are considered to be “bully/victims” or “aggressive targets.” Bully/victims are students who seem to actively seek negative attention from peers by way of taunting, teasing, or violating personal boundaries. They have a low tolerance for the negative reaction that they receive from their peers and do not see their contribution to the conflict. Aggressive targets are often described as “annoying” and peers who may go through great lengths to avoid contact with them.
They may be considered natural leaders and are popular among their peers. They are very good at talking themselves out of situations and may have the respect of peers and staff.
Bullies enjoy the social status they achieve through their behavior. They like to dominate others and are generally focused on themselves. Sometimes they have little empathy toward other people.
Bullying is a learned behavior. Those who chronically engage in bullying may have had the behavior modeled at home or had been the targets of bullying themselves, usually by older siblings.
It should be noted that children and adults rarely see themselves as bullies. In fact the word “bullying” is almost exclusively used to describe the other person’s behavior, not one’s own. Most parents worry their children may be targets of bullying but are rarely concerned that their children may be the perpetrators of bullying.
Bullies and leaders often have similar skill sets. The difference is qualitative - bullies lead through intimidation for personal gain whereas leaders lead through inspiration for altruistic purposes.
1.3 Types of Bullying
All incidents must meet the impact criteria of bullying implied above to be considered as such.
A. Cyberbullying is bullying by electronic act, which includes transmission of a communication by text, sound, image, video, message, website post, social network activity, or other form of communication sent by an electronic device (Ed. Code 32261(g)).
B. Indirect bullying is the use of intimidation or peer pressure to cause harm to a third part(ies).
C. Non-verbal bullying includes the use of threatening gestures, staring, stalking, graffiti or graphic images, and destruction of property to cause distress, intimidation, discomfort, pain or humiliation.
D. Physical bullying includes intentional, unwelcome acts of beating, biting, fighting, hitting, kicking, poking, punching, pushing, shoving, spitting and tripping.
E. Social or relational bullying includes spreading rumors, manipulating relationships, exclusion, blackmailing, isolating, rejecting, using peer pressure and ranking personal characteristics.
F. Verbal bullying includes hurtful gossiping, making rude noises, name-calling, spreading rumors and teasing.
Where and When
Bullying is most likely to occur during unstructured time and in unsupervised areas. While most reported bullying happens at school, the number of places that bullying can occur is virtually limitless.
Underreported due to retaliation, over reporting of bullying- using the term more broadly than is appropriate
Video: Bullying Statistics
It’s common for students not to ask for help
Bullying can make a child feel helpless. Students may want to handle it on their own to feel in control again. They may fear being seen as weak or a tattletale.
Students may fear backlash from the student who bullied them.
Bullying can be a humiliating experience. Students may not want adults to know what is being said about them, whether true or false. They may also fear that adults will judge them or punish them for being weak.
Students who are bullied may already feel socially isolated. They may feel like no one cares or could understand.
Students may fear being rejected by their peers. Friends can help protect students from bullying, and students can fear losing this support.
1.7 Common Bullying Behaviors
Bullying has the critical criteria of being planned aggressive behaviors that are perpetrated with the intent of inflicting emotional or physical harm. The perpetrator savors in knowing the harm they inflicted on others. Many events can occur daily that cause short-term discomfort. Not all unpleasant interactions constitute bullying.
1.5 Reflection Question:
Do you think it is possible to channel a bully’s leadership qualities from leading through intimidation for personal gain to leading through inspiration for altruistic purposes? Why or why not?
1.9 Reflection Question
A bystander (student) watches Mike punch Sam in the face and then push him. The bystander is afraid to intervene or act. What advice do you have for her (bystander)?
2.5 Reflection Question
Have you met bullies in your life? Were you assertive in your interactions with him or her? Would you handle the situation differently now?
2.8 Reflection Question
Do you think bullying prevention should be a community effort? Why or why not?