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Cell Growth and Differentiation

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Adrienne Towns

on 30 October 2015

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Transcript of Cell Growth and Differentiation

Cell Growth, Differentiation, & Stem Cells
Cell Size and Growth
Cells divide instead of continuing to grow
larger cell= strain or demand on DNA
Trouble moving nutrients and wastes through cell membrane
As cells increase in size the volume increases faster than surface area
Cell Division
cell grows, prepares for division, and divides
1 cell yields 2 identical cells
In somatic (body) cells
The Cell cycle includes:
M phase (mitosis)
Regulating the Cell Cycle
Cells go through cell cycle at different rates
Injury to the body causes the cell cycle to occur faster (ex: initial cut = fast, almost healed=slow)
Cyclins: regulate the timing of the cell cycle
in eukaryotes ONLY!
Cell differentiation
Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have potential to differentiate into a variety of cells differentiate: become specialized in structure and function
Produce every tissue in an embryo
Genetic Material
In nucleus
Made of DNA and proteins
3 forms:
Chromatin: grainy strands of DNA wrapped around proteins
Chromosomes: compacted form of DNA
centromere close to the middle
Chromatids: 1/2 of a duplicated chromosome, each identical to the other
Consists of three parts:
G1 phase: growth, synthesize new proteins, and organelles
S phase: replication of DNA
G2 phase: organelles and molecules made for cell division
M phase (Mitosis)
Mitosis has 4 phases (PMAT):
Prophase: c'somes visible, centrioles separate, nucleolus disappears, & nuclear envelope breaks down
Metaphase: c'some line up in the center of cell, spindle fibers attach to centromeres
Two nuclei have formed and the cytoplasm needs to divide to make 2 daughter cells
Can occur at the same time as telophase
Sometimes grouped in with M phase or separate
Without cell regulation cells would grow out of control.
Cancer cells do not have the ability to control growth
They do not respond to the signals!
Longest part of the cell cycle
After G2 cell is ready for M phase!
Can also include G0
This is a stage where the cell is “resting”
Resting means it is not dividing or preparing to divide
Anaphase: centromeres split, c'somes move to the poles
Telophase: c'somes become chromatin, nucleolus appears
cleavage furrow forms in animal cells
cell plate forms in plant cells
After the 4 phases the cell continues to cytokinesis!
In animal cells the cell membrane pinches all the way in
In plant cells the cell plate forms then the cell wall around it
Internal: proteins that allow the cycle to continue if checks are passed
External: direct cells to speed up or slow down the cycle
growth factors most important
programmed cell death
used in growth and development
to break down old or infected cells
Form masses of cells (tumors)
benign tumor= not cancerous, but still a mass of cells
malignant tumor= cancerous mass of cells
These cells can damage surrounding cells
Muscle cells- 3 types (vary based on function)
Skeletal muscle- attached to bone, used for voluntary movement
Smooth muscle- found throughout body (in stomach, intestine, etc.), used for involuntary movement
Cardiac muscle- only in the heart, used in heart function
Epithelium cells- line the cavities in the body and cover flat surfaces, contain cell junctions, used for covering, protection, etc.
Differentiation can be affected by internal and external factors
Specialized Cells
Embryonic Stem Cells
Zygote Stem Cells
formed in a zygote
zygote is totipotent
meaning it is able to develop into anything
Adult Stem Cells
Adult stem cells found only in some places
blood, brain, heart, skeletal, and skin
blood stem cells come from bone marrow
skin stem cells can come from hair follicle
these cells are called multipotent
these types of differentiated cells replace cells in the tissue they are found in
Adult vs. Embryonic
only found in some areas of the body
limited to replacing cells in tissue they reside in
more versatile b/c they can become every cell in the body
zygote is destroyed to take out pluripotent
Blastocyst forms from the zygote and the inner cells contain the stem cells
Pluripotent cells make up the inner mass
These cells can develop into any body cell types
The Good and The Bad
Stem cells good for replacing cells that cannot be replaced
Could be used to fight disease and those with severe injury
Found in embryos (why it is debated)
Specialized cells include:
Root cells- contain hair to increase surface area and absorb water and minerals in plants
Stem cells- support the structure and growth of a plant
Leave cells- contain guard cells which open and close the stomata in leaves
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