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Copy of Sunset Syntax

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Corina Fulce

on 26 August 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Sunset Syntax

the horse
participial phrases
* unscramble the sentence and write it out, punctuating it correctly
The horse found the entrance to the trail where it left the
flat and started up stumbling and slipping on the rocks
found the entrance
to the trail
where it left the flat
and started up
stumbling and slipping
on the rocks
week one - 22 August 2011
circle two subjects, double-underline three controlling verbs, underline one participial phrase, add one comma and one period
Basic English Syntax
subject
controlling verb
phrase
clause
independent clause
dependent clause
sentence
non-essential (descriptive) phrase
participial phrase
absolute phrase
appositive phrase
repeat-word modifer
simple
compound
complex
compound-complex
}
infinitive phrase
analysis modifier
gerund phrase
prepositional phrase
adverb clause
adjective clause
plus a complete thought is called an...
which can stand alone as a...
without a complete thought is called a...
{
A controlling verb is the verb that must be present in order for a clause
to make sense. In a verb phrase, the controlling verb is the first verb.
Of the six verb forms in the English language, only three can serve as controlling verbs.
This means that every clause in the English langauge must have one of the following verbs:
simple present (simpres) / simple past (simpas) / modal
What are the six English verb forms?
stem
simple
present
present
participial
simple
past
past
participial
modal
English Verb Forms
controlling verbs
(to) be
is / are / am
being
was / were
(have) been
(to) go
go
going
went
(have) gone
(to) buy
buy
buying
bought
(have) bought
can / could /
will / would /
might /
may / shall
should /
ought
Well, how do I find the controlling verb?
step 1: look for copulas (simpres and simpas "to be" verbs:
is / are / am / was / were
these five words are always controlling verbs
step 2: look for modal verbs
can / could / will / would / shall / should / may / might / ought
modal verbs are also always controlling verbs
step 3: look for -ed endings
regular simpas verbs are formed by adding -ed to the stem form
but be careful - words that end in -ed can also act as adjectives or
past participles
step 4: look for things you can do
if you haven't found your controlling verb(s) by now, go through the
sentence word-by-word and ask yourself if you can do it
over time, you'll begin to notice words that can never be controlling verbs
look at the word just in front of the -ed word. If it's "a," "an," or "the,"
your -ed word is an adjective. If the word in front is another verb
(probably simpres or simpas), then your -ed word is a past participle
4 Steps for Finding Controlling Verbs
*
the subject is the word that "takes"
or forms a meaningful relationship with the controlling verb
the subject usually - but not always - appears just to the left of the controlling verb
find the subject by asking "who?" or "what?"
of the controlling verb
*
also...
only subjective nouns and subjective pronouns
can be subjects
words that show possession or ownership
cannot be subjects
adjectives and words contained within prepositional
phrases also cannot be subjects
South Hills H.S.
Syntax Guide
click on any frame to zoom on contents
2011.2012
click on arrows to examine relationships
subject + controlling verb
*
a compund-complex sentence has two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses
compound-complex sentences will have at least three subject-controlling verb pairs
compound-complex sentences will likely have coordinating and subordinating conjunctions
a complex sentence has exactly one independent clause and at least one dependent clause
complex sentences usually have subordinating conjunctions
a simple sentence has exactly one independent clause and no dependent clauses
simple sentences do not need coordinating or subordinating conjunctions
a simple sentence has only one subject-controlling verb pair
a compound sentence has two or more independent clauses and no dependent clauses
compound sentences use coordinating conjunctions
a compound sentence has at least two subject-controlling verb pairs
coordinating conjunctions allow clauses of equal weight
and importance to be joined
clauses can be rotated around coordinating conjunctions;
in other words - it doesn't matter which clause appears first
and / or / but / yet / nor
when joining clauses with a coordinating conjunction,
place a comma before the coordinating conjunction
a complex sentence has at least two subject-controlling verb pairs
subordinating conjunctions are used to show a relationship between clauses
when a subordinating conjunction is used, the clause it introduces becomes
dependent - it cannot stand on its own as a sentence
because / so / as / when / even though / although
when a complex sentence begins with a dependent clause, a comma is
needed after the clause
when a complex sentence begin with an independent clause, no
comma is needed
complex
clause
a synonym for "sentence"
an independent clause can stand on its own
subject + controlling verb + complete thought
clause
a dependent clause cannot stand on its own
subject + controlling verb
non-essential (descriptive) clause
clause
a clause (subject + controlling verb) used for descriptive purposes
but not needed to create a complete sentence
non-essential clauses can be - but don't always have to be - marked by commas
clause
tells how, why, when, or under what condition something occurred
begins with a subordinating conjunction
subordinating conjunctions are used to show a relationship between clauses
when a subordinating conjunction is used, the clause it introduces becomes
dependent - it cannot stand on its own as a sentence
because / so / as / when / even though / although
when a complex sentence begins with a dependent clause, a comma is
needed after the clause
when a complex sentence begin with an independent clause, no
comma is needed
*
*
clause
a more sophisticated way of identifying a person, place, thing, or idea
adjective clauses begin with one of the following
words: who, whose, which, or where
an adjective clause must appear immediately to the right of whatever
noun or pronoun it describes
{
Descriptive Phrases
a group of words acting as a single part of speech
basic categories: noun phrase, verb phrase, descriptive phrase
phrases do not contain subject + controlling verb relationships
*
*
*
phrase
a way of expressing the idea of a verb in the form of a noun, adjective, or adverb
infinitive phrases are formed by following the infinitive marker "to" with a stem-form verb
infinitive phrases can be subjects, objects, or modifiers
To be a true friend is among life's most difficult tasks.
zoom out and read about controlling verbs
for more about English verb forms
*
*
phrase
phrase
phrase
phrase
phrase
phrase
a way to use the idea of a verb in the form of a noun
gerunds take the same form as participles: adding -ing to a verb's stem form
gerunds can act as subjects or objects in a sentence; gerunds do not follow controlling verbs
zoom out and read about controlling verbs
for more about English verb forms
*
Running marathons is my favorite kind of exercise.
*
a way to indicate location, origin, or motion within a noun phrase
prepositional phrases begin with prepositions
prepositional phrases can be objects; they do not contain subject + controlling verb relationships
prepositions
a closed class of words used to indicate relationships
of location, origin, and motion
think about one word you would use to explain
the relationship of a pencil to a book
the pencil could be:
on the book, in the book, by the book, next to the book, behind the book,
against the book, between the pages of the book, around the book, under
the book, .... and so on
there are roughly 150 prepositions in English
a phrase used for descriptive purposes but not needed for the expression of a complete thought
non-essential phrases are marked by commas
a non-essential phrase used to describe
something in the sentence
participial phrases come in two flavors: present participle and past participle
participial phrases are so called because they begin a participle
present participle
past participle
-ing
-ed
Focused on his future, Ted got to studyin'.
Hoping for the best, I answered the phone.
participial phrases can appear anywhere
in a sentence without restriction
a non-essential phrase used to describe a sentence generally
absolute phrases are almost independent clauses (sentences), but they lack
a controlling verb
absolute phrases can appear anywhere in a sentence without restriction
try using the formula:
(possessive pronoun)+Noun [was] _____-ing
to create an absolute phrase
[was]
his head was hurting
his head hurting
*
a non-essential phrase used to identify and describe some noun or pronoun
in the sentence
appositive phrases must contain an appositive - a noun that could replace whatever
noun or pronoun is being idenitified
an appositive phrase can appear anywhere in a sentence, but...
it must be placed immediately before or immediately after the word it identifies
form appositive phrases by thinking of a replacement noun, then describing it with adjectives
Ted helped us.
man
the kind-hearted man
Ted, the kind-hearted man, helped us.
http://goo.gl/dOZV6
Combine the following sentences by turning one of them into a present participial phrase.
Make two combinations per pair.
Tamika traveled to the airport in a yellow van. She arrived twenty minutes early.
You may need to add or remove words
participial phrases
*Combine the following sentences by turning one of them into
a present participial phrase (PrPP).
*Make two combinations per pair.
week one - 22 August 2011
The coach has called two straight running plays with no
success. He then decides to signal for a long pass.
You may need to add or remove words
Participial Phrases
*Combine the following sentences by turning one of them into
a present participial phrase (PrPP).
*Make two combinations per pair.
week one - 22 August 2011
The robin eats at the bird feeder each morning.
The bird is occasionally joined by a pair of sparrows.
You may need to add or remove words
Collect your composition book and begin combining your sentences immediately.
week one - 25 August 2011
participial phrases
*Combine the following sentences by turning one of them into
a present participial phrase (PrPP).
*Make two combinations.
The secretary of state flies into Kashmir this weekend.
She attempts to work out a peaceful settlement in the
region.
You may need to add or remove words
week 1
participial phrases
*Combine the following sentences by turning one of them into
a present participial phrase (PrPP).
*Make two combinations per pair.
week three - 8/9 September 2011
My cat refused to eat any food in his tray. He seemed
to be on a hunger strike until we allowed him to lick
off the dinner plates.
You may need to add or remove words
Collect your composition book and begin combining your sentences immediately.
week 2
participial phrases
*Combine the following sentences by turning one of them into
a past participial phrase (PaPP).
*Make two combinations per pair, one before the noun that the PaPP
modifies and one after it.
Columbus was exhausted by a series of storms on his
fourth voyage. He stayed in his cabin for the duration
of the journey.
You may need to remove words
Collect your composition book and begin combining your sentences immediately.
week 3
*When you've completed your combinations, underline the PaPPs, label them
with PaPP, then draw an arrow from each PaPP to the noun it modifies.
week four - 13/14 September 2011
participial phrases
*Combine the following sentences by turning one of them into
a past participial phrase (PaPP).
*Make two combinations per pair, one before the noun that the PaPP
modifies and one after it.
The caterpillar is denied an opportunity to live. It is
swatted onto the floor a few feet in front of me.
You may need to remove words
Collect your composition book and begin combining your sentences immediately.
week 4
*When you've completed your combinations, underline the PaPPs, label them
with PaPP, then draw an arrow from each PaPP to the noun it modifies.
week four - 15/16 September 2011
participial phrases
*Combine the following sentences by turning one of them into
a past participial phrase (PaPP).
*Make two combinations per pair, one before the noun that the PaPP
modifies and one after it.
Tillery was bothered by the inane behavior displayed
by the characters on Jersey Shore. She quickly turned the
channel to Bubble Guppies.
You may need to remove words
Collect your composition book and begin combining your sentences immediately.
*When you've completed your combinations, underline the PaPPs, label them
with PaPP, then draw an arrow from each PaPP to the noun it modifies.
week five - 20/21 September 2011
participial phrases
*Copy the sentence below exactly as it appears. Then, underline any
PaPPs or PrPPs, label the participial phrase as PaPP or PrPP and draw
an arrow from the participial phrase to the word it modifies.
Located at this time in the Cairo museum, King Tut's
coffin is made of solid gold, gleaming under the warm
museum lights.
Collect your composition book and begin combining your sentences immediately.
week 5
week five - 22/23 September 2011
participial phrases...or are they?
*Copy the two sentences below exactly as they appear. One contains
a PrPP - the other does not. Identify the PrPP, underline and label
the PrPP, then draw an arrow from the PrPP to the word it modifies.
Leave the other sentence alone for now.
Dancing as a cultural activity probably started with
ancient religious ceremonies.

Moving into other areas of life, it later became a form
of recreation and entertainment.
Collect your composition book and begin immediately.
week six - 27/28 September 2011
gerunds and participles
*Copy the two sentences below exactly as they appear. One contains
a PrPP, the other contains a G (gerund). Identify the PrPP, underline
and label the PrPP, then draw an arrow from the PrPP to the word
it modifies. Place the symbol G above the word you think is a gerund.
Ancient performers, lacking a stage, danced in a great hall.

Members of the audience would enjoy dancing of every
description.
Collect your composition book and begin immediately.
week 6
week six - 29/30 September 2011
gerund-subject; gerund-object
*Copy the three sentences below exactly as they appear. One contains
a PrPP, another contains a G-S; the third contains a G-O. Underline
and label the PrPP, then draw an arrow from the PrPP to the word
it modifies. Place the symbol G-S and G-O above the appropriate
gerunds.
By covering his exploits with glamour, writers turned the
story of a vicious murderer into a Wild West legend.
Collect your composition book and begin immediately.
Composing ragtime piano pieces was Scott Joplin's
special talent.
The most popular scholarship, paying full tuition for
the six-year program, is granted to ten students a year.
week seven - 4/5 October 2011
more -ing's
*Copy the two sentences below exactly as they appear. Decide
whether each sentence contains a PrPP, a G-S, or a G-O. Identify
the descriptive phrase / word appropriately.
HINT: only two of the three types will be used!
After establishing academies of dance, the country's
minister for cultural affairs created scholarship
opportunities for talented children.
Collect your composition book and begin immediately.
week 7
Portraying Billy the Kid as the Robin Hood of the frontier
became common with dime-novel authors of the day.
week seven - 6/7 October 2011
more -ing's
*Copy the sentence below exactly as it appears. Analyze the sentence
for any examples of PrPP, PaPP, G-S, and G-O. Identify
the descriptive phrase / word appropriately. HINT: you should find
more than one, but fewer than four.
Pip, turning away from the Temple Gate as soon as he
had read the warning, made his way to Fleet Street,
where he obtained a carriage and drove to Covent
Garden.
Collect your composition book and begin immediately.
now for something
* unscramble the sentence and write it out, punctuating it correctly
being white with fear
the boy
his face
stares into space
week eight - 12/13 October
-ly new
ABSOLUTE
week 8
}
The -ings; distinguishing participial phrases
from other -ing words (gerunds); recognizing PrPPs
and PaPPs as descriptive phrases
PrPP > PaPP > G-S > G-O > finding controlling verbs
}
Lends itself to introducing controlling verbs and subject-verb relationships
imitations...
Study the parts of the sentence below. Then write an original sentence
that IMITATES the structure of the sample. In your sentence, identify a
PrPP and an ABS by underlining, labeling, and drawing arrows.
Waiting patiently
in the front office,
Tony shut his eyes
for a moment,
his head resting
against his clenched fist.
week nine - 18/19 October
week 9
factoring, showing - not telling, and the ABS
Copy the sentences below into your composition book.
Alter the first sentence to create an ABS phrase
Factor the word "pet"; choose one other word from the sentences to factor as well.
Finally, finish the exercise by combining the ABS and the second sentence.
Her pet was lying in the corner.
Cathy read from a book.
week nine - 20/21 October
imitations...
Study the parts of the sentence below. Then write an original sentence
that IMITATES the structure of the sample. In your sentence, identify
an ABS by underlining, labeling, and drawing an arrow.
week 10
Angela gently balanced her half-eaten apple
on the counter
next to the toaster,
its once pale flesh slowly turning brown.
deconstruction, reconstruction
Copy the sentence below in your composition book, exactly as it appears.
Highlight or draw a box around any examples of concrete nouns, visual verbs, factored words, descriptive phrases (PrPP, PaPP, ABS), or examples of imagery.
Finally, re-write the sentence, removing concrete nouns, adjectives, and visual verbs and replace them with language that “tells” and makes it difficult for the reader to “see.”
Timmy hesitantly lifted his once-bitten Spiderman ice cream off the warm asphalt next to the stagnant mud puddle, its once creamy texture now a muddy soup.
sentence of the WEEK! Brian Romero
week ten - october
week ten - october
imitations...
Study the parts of the sentence below. Then write an original sentence that IMITATES the structure of the sample. In your sentence, identify a PrPP by underlining, labeling, and drawing an arrow.
The autumn flowers were decaying,
and their smell drifted
through every room of our house,
speaking softly the names of our dead.
week 11
developing characters: dialogue
Copy the beginnings of a dialogue presented below. Then bring the CONFLICT to a resolution by SHOWING, FACTORING, and adding more DIALOGUE.
"I can't walk, Brother," he said.
"Who says so?" I demanded
"Mama, the doctor - everybody."
"Oh, you can walk," I said, and I
}
Start by copying this. Remember to indent whenever the speaker changes.
from this point, you'll use your knowledge of SHOWING, FACTORING, and DIALOGUE to RESOLVE the conflict.
Mind your punctuation, spelling, and formatting. These will be presented with the document camera.
imitations with DIALOGUE!
Study the parts of the sentence below. Then write an original sentence that IMITATES the structure of the sample.
Occasionally I too became discouraged
because it didn't seem
as if he was trying,
and I would ask,
"Doodle, don't you want to learn to walk?"
week 12
showing...
Using visual verbs, concrete nouns, factored ideas, descriptive phrases (PrPP, PaPP, G-S, G-O), and an intimate point of view,
SHOW
the following idea:
At night he didn't sleep well.
4:
I can do it without help and I can make connections to other learning.
3:
I can do it without help.
2:
I get the idea, but I need help to do it correctly.
1:
I cannot do it on my own. I struggle even with help.
imitations - repeat-word modifier
Study the parts of the sentence below. Then write an original sentence that IMITATES the structure of the sample.
We never spoke,
but I knew
he was watching me,
watching for a sign of mercy.
week 13
use the character you began creating Monday as your subject
showing, not telling
Today is your character's first day at a new school or new job. Decide whether he / she is
shy and anxious
or
confident and arrogant
. Then,

Using visual verbs, concrete nouns, factored ideas, descriptive phrases (PrPP, PaPP, G-S, G-O), and an intimate point of view,
SHOW
the following idea:
He/She was (anxious or arrogant).
Use at least one repeat-word modifier.
4
3
2
1
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