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Enlightenment & Revolution
Transcript of Enlightenment & Revolution
Connecting with our past learning
Name some of the conquerors and rulers that you have studied thus far?
What were some of their characteristics as leaders?
Which of these leaders granted the people they ruled any voice in how they were ruled?
The more you think about it, you will find that very few rulers in the ancient and medieval worlds were generous in granting such freedom
Some highly effective leaders were ruthless in using the power of
life and death
that they had over their subjects
In the 1700s people started to demand that rulers and governments treat them with respect and kindness
This is part of a movement called
Enlightenment thinkers helped bring about democratic movements in America and many other places around the world
History is made up of issues and questions about what to do in a particular situation.
Throughout History, people have looked at issues from all sides and from that, each person's view of the issue shaped what he or she thought should be done
Stay with me...
Points of view can be shaped by many factors, such as a person's background or political beliefs.
THINK - PAIR - SHARE
Brainstorm some issue that affect your community or your school
i.e. technology in school, traffic problems, athletics
What made up your point of view on this issue?
What emotional language would you use in arguing your point?
What evidence would you use to justify your point?
During this period of history, you learn about great thinkers that built on ideas from earlier movements to emphasize the importance of logic and reason
Being a revolutionary thinker will test you from thinking
concrete to more abstract
Challenges will be made to long-held beliefs about science, religion, and government
You will find that the Age of Enlightenment (
aka Age of Reason
) will emphasize reason, analysis, and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority
It takes some creativity and risk to establish your ideas and make your own history
How does one get to the point of using
reason and logic
to improve society?
How does one have the audacity to
Imagine that you are a student in the early 1700s. It seems your teacher can
pass or fail
whomever he wants. You think the teacher should make his decisions about grades about what a student has learned.
come up with a new idea - testing students so they can prove what they know. You think this idea will improve your grades as well as relations in your school
- Will you challenge your teacher's authority!?
Or even think about this...How many times has your teacher said
"Because I said so"
Enlightenment thinkers try to find reasons for all that happen around them
Some say that the Ideas of Enlightenment actually stem from
But what is an
You are now going to be enrolled in a class session called
"How to Be An Absolute Ruler 101"
Justify your rule with authority
Some Examples: The Mandate of Heaven, Manifest Destiny, or Divine Right
You have to centralize / solidify your power
You need to manage anyone who could rise up against you...
i.e. Asian emperor forced nobility to live in the Capital City or even think about the manor & feudal systems
You have to control / influence religion (
because religion might keep people from being loyal to you
Your options are to:
Take control of the religion, destroy it, or outlaw it
Create a cult of worship of someone (yourself) or something (nationalism / patriotism)
First, let's define what Absolutism is
: A theory of government in which a ruler has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of society
You must have absolute control of your people and your resources. You need to distract them from some of the bad things you might do in order to hold onto power
The best way to do this:
Pursue great enterprises
Public works projects - your palace? Great Wall of China?
Persecute people not like you - Create an enemy, set up "
us versus them
Fight a war
What are some political / economic / social conditions that can lead to absolutism?
If this is a government most people would not like to have...how does something like this happen?
Nobody really cares
Nobody really pays attention
Famine / starvation
Previous leader was horrible
Poverty / economic issues
THE ROOTS OF ENLIGHTENMENT
You can also view absolutism as this
Think about a time that you or someone you know of have had an idea that they were passionate about and could not let go of it until you had done something about it
Example: All those great thinkers of the Scientific Revolution time period had some "revolutionary" ideas...especially about the Sun and the Universe
Tell us what the idea was and the outcome of the event spun by the idea
Ideas have been known to move people to actions that may affect everyone or only themselves.
Blast from the past time...review on Isaac Newton
1st Law of Motion: "For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction"
3rd Law of Motion: "An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted upon by some outside force."
What I am trying to say is this:
The results of our very own ideas have the potential to cause actions that are very productive and positive or ideas can motivate people to commit acts that are negative and destructive. Even when not observable, there is an affect
All men are born free and equal
Some people are superior
Let's build off our previous activity
Brainstorm some ideas in history that spawned changes in society
Who are some people or groups with ideas in our time that are changing the world as we know it today?
Ideas can cause major changes in the beliefs and behaviors of individuals, but when these ideas are shared with others, they have the potential to change the world as we know it
So what was Enlightenment and how might it be relevant to us today?
First let's look at ...
The age of Enlightenment is marked by a number of scholars who were beginning to challenge long-held beliefs about science, religion, and government
Great scholars relied on reason instead of religious teachings to explain how the world worked
They believed that human reason could improve society by gaining knowledge, securing freedom, and pursuing happiness
Enlightenment thinkers aimed to guide people's thoughts about philosophy, society, and politics
Enlightenment thinkers used ideas from the ancient Greeks and Romans
Greek philosophers taught that people could use logic to discover new truths
Aristotle: Deduction and inference
Roman thinkers developed the concept of natural law, the idea that a law governed how the world operated
The Enlightenment was non-religious (known as secular) because enlightenment thinkers disagreed with the Church's claims to authority and its intolerance toward non-Christian beliefs
Enlightenment focused on human value and achievement rather than the glory of God
Just like the Renaissance Humanists!
Renaissance humanists believed people could improve their world by studying it and changing it
Idea of progress and that humans were capable of improving their world
Bottom line, it was found that religious beliefs didn't always fit in with what scholars learned from their logical study of the world
Using scientific methods of study, scientists were able to discover laws that governed the natural world
Enlightenment thinkers took it one step further and believed that natural laws must govern human society and government
So as you can see, enlightenment thinkers borrowed ideas from history to develop a new worldview
THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE
VIEWS ON GOVERNMENT & HUMAN NATURE
VIEWS ON GOVERNMENT
Hobbes was convinced that all humans were naturally selfish and wicked
Without governments to keep order, Hobbes said that there would be
"war of every man against every man"
Without order, Hobbes said that life would be
"solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."
Hobbes argued that to escape such a life, people would have to give up their rights to a strong
In exchange, people would gain
law and order
The agreement by which people gave up their rights (for law and order) to a ruler who needed total power to keep citizens under control is called the SOCIAL CONTRACT
VIEWS ON GOVERNMENT
Locke believed that people could learn from experience and improve themselves
As reasonable being, people had the natural ability to govern their own affairs and to look after the welfare of society
Favored the idea of self government
According to Locke, all people are born free and equal, with three
According to Locke, the purpose of government is to protect these rights and if a government fails to do so, citizens have the right to overthrow it
Locke went on to say that a government's power comes from the consent of the people -->
This is the foundation of modern democracy
The ideas of government by popular consent and the right to rebel against unjust rulers helped inspire struggles for liberty in Europe and the Americas
Voltaire has published more than 70 books that fought for
tolerance, reason, freedom of religious belief, and freedom of speech
Voltaire viewed humanity's worse enemies as
intolerance, prejudice, and superstition
Voltaire spoke out against censorship and argued
"I may disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it"
This is an excellent quote to show the Enlightenment goal of freedom of thought
Montesquieu claimed that a government should be
divided into separate branches to protect peoples freedom
Idea known as the separation of powers
Montesquieu proposed that separation of powers would
keep any individual or group from gaining total control of the government
"Power, should be a check to power"
Each branch of the government would serve as a check on the other two (
Checks and balances
The separate branches must
and none of them can control the government completely
Montesquieu's ides on separation of powers and checks and balances became the basis for the United States Constitution
Beccaria believed that laws existed to
preserve social order and avenge crimes
Beccaria spoke against common abuses of justice
Torturing of witnesses and suspects, irregular proceedings in trials, and cruel punishments
Beccaria argued that a person accused of a crime should receive a
, and that torture should
In addition, the degree of punishment should be based on the seriousness of the crime
Capital punishment should be abolished
His ideas about justice are based on the principle that governments should seek the greatest good for the greatest number of people
JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU
He believed in Popular Sovereignty -->
The idea that governments should express the will of the people
Rousseau also believed that civilization corrupted people's natural goodness
"Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains"
In the earliest times, people had lived as free and equal individuals in a primitive
"state of nature."
As people became civilized, the strongest among them forced everyone else just to obey laws...
He Criticized the Divine Right (
right to rule from god and not from the people
Was a believer in the social contract
Government should resemble a direct democracy
People give up some of their freedom in favor of the common good
Mary's main argument was that women should have the same rights as men
In marriage and in education:
"If all men are born free, how is it that all women are born slaves?"
Wollstonecraft argued that through
that women will become better
mothers, gain opportunities, and earn the right to participate in politics
Diderot imagined a large set of books to which all the leading scholars of Europe would contribute articles and essays
The Encyclopedia is born!
It brought together all the most current and enlightened thinking about science, technology, art, government, and more
The Encyclopedia helped
Enlightenment ideas to educated people all over Europe
Because of this sharing of ideas, people considered themselves apart of an intellectual community
ENLIGHTENMENT IN ART
As we discussed before, The Age of Reason can be contributed to the ideas and accomplishments of the Renaissance and Ancient Greece and Rome
Artists created paintings rich in color, detail, and ornate imagery
Artists and Architects borrowed ideas and themes from classic Greece and Rome
The style of the late 1700s is called NEOCLASSICAL ("New Classical")
Three composers rank among the greatest figures of the classical period in music
Franz Joseph Haydn
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Ludwig van Beethoven
Haydn is significant in developing new musical forms like the sonata and the symphony
Mozart was a gifted child who began composing music at the age of five and gave concerts throughout Europe
At the age of 12, he wrote his first opera
Famous Operas: The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, The Magic Flute
Mozart lived to the age of 35 and wrote more than 600 musical works
Beethoven showed enormous range in his work
Wrote beautiful piano music, string quartets, and string symphonies
The Birth of a Republic
The power of the English was spreading overseas!
By 1760, the Atlantic coastal colonies were growing by leaps and bounds
Populating of 250,000
Populating of 2,150,000
Economically, the colonies thrived on trade with nations of Europe
Along with increasing population and prosperity, a new sense of identity was growing in the colonists minds
By the mid 1700s, colonists had been living in America for nearly 150 years
Each of the 13 colonies had its own government
Colonists were use to having a great degree of independence
Colonists saw themselves less as British and more as Virginians or Pennsylvanians
Laws were put into place (
called the Navigation Acts
) to prevent colonists from selling their most valuable products to any country except Britain
This made colonists angry
Some merchants were able to get around these laws by smuggling in goods to avoid paying British taxes
Bottom line, Britain was still able to grow very wealthy by buying American raw materials for low prices and selling manufactured goods to the colonists
To top it off, Great Britain had run up a
in a war against France and because American colonists benefited from Britain's victory, Britain expected the colonists to help pay the costs of the war
The British Parliament decided to tax the colonists in various ways
Tax on wills deeds, newspapers, other printed material
Tax on the tea purchased from the British
The Colonists began to boycott British goods and in 1773, colonists dumped 342 chests of tea into the Boston Harbor (known today as the Boston Tea Party)
These acts of resistance on behalf of the colonists all happened because the colonists had no representation in the British parliament thus...
No taxation without representation!
By 1774, representatives from each of the 13 colonies gathered to discuss how to combat these injustices
This group was called the Continental Congress and consisted of some very well known historical figures
By April 19, 1775 British soldiers and American militiamen exchanged fire
The Revolutionary War had begun!
A NEW COUNTRY?
Even though a war had begun, the American colonists still debated their attachment to Great Britain
Some favored independence
Some wanted to remain apart of Great Britain
Colonial leaders like Patrick Henry, John Adams, and Benjamin Franklin used Enlightenment ideas to justify independence
By July 1776, The Second Continental Congress issued the Declaration of Independence
This document declares the colonies independence from British Rule
Stated people's rights to certain liberties
Is tied to the ideas of Locke and Rousseau
A NEW NATION
- THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA -
By 1781, with help from the French and the Spanish; America had defeated the British at Yorktown
America originally created a government based on the Articles of Confederation
Called for a weak central government
Allowed for a Republic (Citizens rule through elected representatives)
The AOC failed miserably as it didn't serve the needs of the people
No Judicial or Executive branch
Laws needed approval by 9 of the 13 colonies
Congress could not collect taxes
Each state had one vote in Congress
On September 17, 1787 The United States Constitution was adopted
Later, a Bill of Rights is added to protect basic freedoms
1. How did the enlightenment idea of a
influence the American Colonists?
2. Articles of Confederation: Why do you think the colonists at first created such a weak central government?
3. How would you answer someone who said Enlightenment caused only trouble?
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
Imagine that you are returning home from a bakery that is out of bread....
You have no food to take to your starving children. You are desperate.
Suddenly you turn a corner and come upon the King's palace. King Louis and his wife are living there in luxury while your children and most of your fellow citizens are
. You see people surrounding the palace, demanding food and relief from heavy taxes. They have turned violent as they carry weapons and wave severed heads of palace guards on poles
Would you join the mob?
How could such a situation develop in one of the most advanced countries in the world?
What could make people angry enough to behead others and then carry their heads on poles?
As the Americans fought for and created a new nation, The French People paid close attention to the events. They were inspired by the Americans to fight for their own rights
There was great unrest in France, caused by high prices, high taxes, and disturbing questions raised by Enlightenment Ideas
The French King, King Louis XVI; ruled over a society split into three groups called estates
Made up of Roman Catholic Church Clergy
Scorned Enlightenment ideas
Paid 2% of their income to taxes
Provided Education and relief services to the poor
97% of the population comes from this estate
Included the Bourgeoisie (merchants and artisans), urban lower class and peasant farmers
Paid 50% of their income to taxes
No power to influence government, embraced enlightenment ideas
Resented the higher two estates
Made up of Rich Nobles
Held Highest Government Jobs, disagreed with Enlightenment Ideas
Paid almost no taxes
Made up 2% of the population but owned about 20% of the land
Believed strongly in the ideals of Liberty and equality
The workers of France's cities were paid low wages and were frequently out of work --> Often went hungry
Peasants were heavily taxed: Paid about half their income in dues to nobles, tithes to the church, and taxes to the King's agents
So let's try to narrow down the Causes of the French Revolution
Demanded Equality, liberty, democracy
Inspired by the success of the American Revolution
Heavy burden of taxes made it impossible to conduct business profitably within France
Bad Weather = Crop failures, price of bread doubles, people starve
Population was expanding
Indecisive, no patience for details of governing
Ignores advisers - Preferred to spend time hunting and tinkering with locks
Imposed harsh taxes
His Queen interfered and offered bad advice
Spent lots of money on gowns, jewelry, and gifts
Lost equivalent to $1.5 million gambling in one year
Became known as "Madame Deficit"
Louis was 15 and Marie 14 when they got married
MARIE ANTOINETTE (continued)
Marie was a member of the royal family of Austria (France's long-time enemy), thus she became unpopular as soon as she set foot in France
People question her love for Louis --> Ex: She would sometimes set the clock forward an hour to be rid of his presence
Was she caring and charitable?
"It is quite certain that in seeing the people who treat us so well despite their own misfortune, we are more obliged than ever to work hard for their happiness."
People were hungry and the country was broke
Marie Antoinette said
"let them eat cake"
Louis calls for a meeting of the Estates-General -->
An assembly of representatives from all three estates
ESTATES GENERAL MEETS
The Third Estate is looking to change the government from an Absolute Monarchy to a representative democracy
"What is the Third Estate? Everything. What has it been up to now in the political order? Nothing. What does it demand? To become something herein."
The Third Estate declares themselves the
Wanted the power to pass laws and reform the government on behalf of the French people
Feeling that the National Assembly was a threat to his power, King Louis locked the Third Estate Delegates out of the meeting rooms
The National Assembly broke down the door to an indoor tennis court, pledging to stay until a new constitution was drafted
This pledge is known as the
Tennis Court Oath
THE FIRST DELIBERATE ACT OF THE REVOLUTION HAD BEGUN
REVOLUTION BRINGS REFORM AND TERROR
Louis tries to make peace with the Third Estate but after failed attempts he positioned his guards around Versailles
Rumors flew that foreign troops were coming to massacre French Citizens
People gathered weapons in order to defend Paris against the King's troops
JULY 14, 1789
A mob storms the Bastille (a Paris prison) to secure some gunpowder
The angry crowd overwhelms the King's soldiers, and the Bastille falls into the hands of the Citizens
The fall of the Bastille became a great symbolic act of revolution to the French people
July 14th is a French Holiday, similar to the U.S. Fourth of July
SIDE FACT: On the day the Bastille fell in Paris, the King wrote only "Rein" (Nothing) in his diary - a reference to his lack of success in the hunt
A wave of senseless panic and violence rolled through France
Peasants with Pitchforks and torches broke into Nobles homes and tore up legal papers that bound them to pay feudal dues
Manor houses were burned to the ground
6,000 Women marched violently to Versailles in protest of the rising cost of bread
They broke into the palace and killed two guards
Demanded that Louis and Marie come to Paris
The King and Queen left their palace; never to return again
DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN
By August of 1789, the National Assembly adopted a statement of Revolutionary Ideals called
"A Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen"
This document was a reflection of Enlightenment Idea and of the Declaration of Independence
This document stated that
men are born and remain free and in equal rights
"the aim of all political association is the preservation pf the natural...rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression."
Other articles of the famous document guaranteed citizens equal justice, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion
"Liberty, equality, Fraternity"
became the slogan of the Revolution
The Declaration of the Rights of Man
did not apply to women
Olympe de Gouges wrote a declaration of the rights of women but her ideas were rejected
She was declared an enemy of the Revolution and executed
FALL OF LOUIS XVI
Louis thought that he and his family were in danger due to the Revolution so in June 1791 Louis and his family tried to escape to the Austrian Netherlands
The Royal Family is returned to Paris under guard
JANUARY 21, 1793: Louis is found guilty of Treason and Sentenced to death by Guillotine
NEW GOVERNMENT BRINGS UNREST
A Limited Constitutional Monarchy is established which strips the King of most of his authority and creates a
Assembly has the power to:
Approve or reject declarations of war
It was feared that imprisoned Royalists would use Prussian and Austrian forces to take back the throne (thus destroying this constitutional Monarchy)
This led to a war between the legislative assembly and the armies of Prussia and Austria
To prevent the Royalists from regaining power, Angry mobs took law into their own hands and in the early days of September, Parisians murdered over 1,000 prisoners and took the lives of royalists, nobles, and clergymen
Eventually, The French Army won against the Austrians and Prussians
But, the unrest of the French people gave more power to leaders of mobs rather than the government
Groups set out to build a
"republic of virtue"
by wiping out every trace of France's past
Killed as many as 40,000 people that spoke out against the new French government
The most famous victim of the Reign of Terror is Marie Antoinette
She rode in the death cart past jeering crowds and on the scaffold she accidentally stepped on the executioners foot.
Her last words:
"Monsieur, I beg your pardon. I did not do it on purpose"
END OF TERROR
Although the reign of terror was a grim chapter in the story of the French Revolution, the Revolution was not a failure
France established a new plan of government
Executive body of five men known as the directory
These five men were moderates and not revolutionary idealists
Thus, France had created a democratic government based on the Enlightenment ideas of freedom
Many Europeans and Americans enjoy freedoms today thanks to Enlightenment ideas
Finally...Will a Period of Order Be upon us?
Think about a time that you or someone you know of have had a thought or an idea that you were passionate about and could not let go of it until you had done something about it...
Tell what the idea was, and the outcome of the event spun by it
Ideas have been known to move people to actions that may
one, two, or millions of people.
The results of our very own ideas have the potential to
that are very productive and positive
However, our ideas can also motivate people to commit acts that are extremely negative and destructive
With your table partners, think about some people or groups with ideas in our time that are changing the world as we know it today...
If you have your phone ready, I have the number of someone you can call for the answer...