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Transcript of Public Speaking
The Basics of Public Speaking
Learning How to Speak Informatively
A Guide to Public Speaking
What is communication? Communication is the sending and receiving of
messages or information. Verbal communication is spoken, or written language.
Nonverbal communication is the is relaying messages without the use of words; such as facial gestures, body language and even perfume.
Just because we can talk, does not mean that we are effective communicators. A big part of communicating is listening, and being focused outside of ourselves. People spend too much time listening not to what the other person has to say, but rather for the pause in their speech when we can interject our own thoughts on the matter.
Just remember to be audience centered
Be positive and energetic. People will be happier to listen to you, if you sound happy to be speaking to them.
Its also a very good idea to pause after someone has said something and then paraphrase what they said so that they know you were listening and to be sure that you understood them.
The 3 Main parts of a speech are:
Definition of Public Speaking:
Public speaking is defined as speaking before an audience
3 Purposes of Public Speaking
The 4 methods of public speaking
•Manuscript: A long, written speech that is partially memorized
and partially read.
•Memorized: Just like it sounds, you memorize it.
This is when you’re suddenly asked to speak about something for which
you haven’t prepared.
Extemporaneous: Involves writing an outline consisting of your Introduction, Body and Conclusion,
and then transferring that
information on to note cards that will be used to jar your memory.
There are 3 primary goals of an informative talk:
1) stimulate interest,
2) increase understanding,
3) increase retention (the audience’s ability to remember what you
Goal #1 of Informative Speaking: Stimulate the audience’s interest It does not matter how intelligent a teacher is if he or she can’t keep his or her students excited. A strong attention grabber is one way to excite your audience, but that only lasts a short time. One way is to get the audience involved by playing a game and/or asking them questions. Another thing to ask yourself is, “What’s in it for them?” A good teacher knows that his or her students will engage if they see personal gain from what you’re teaching.
Goal #2 of Informative Speaking: Increase the audience’s understanding
• Know your audience. If you’re not sure, just speak in simple terms rather than trying to impress anyone.
• Show that you’re speech is organized. You do this by making sure your specific purpose is clear, sticking to three main points, and using transitions. After your attention grabber you state your specific purpose.
• Use examples and stories. People love stories, and they remember them too. Another great thing about using stories in your speech is that they are easier for you to remember, especially if they are your personal stories.
• Use visualization: People remember more when words are combines with pictures.
Goal #3 of Informative Speaking: Increase the audience’s retention (ability to remember)
• Repetition: Don’t hesitate to repeat anything in your talk that you feel is crucial.
• Use acronyms: An acronym takes the first letter of a phrase and makes it in to a word.
• The one sentence saying: Fujishin (2012) gives a great example of this. A young man gave a speech entitled “Premarital Sex and You” (p. 138). His one-sentence saying was
“Going to bed can cost you plenty,” and he repeated it about 10 times during his speech!
• Handouts: put it on one page, and make it really brief; just the key points of your talk, including the aforementioned acronyms and one-sentence sayings.
Introduction: Contains the attention grabber, tells what the speech is about (the topic), and previews your three main points. Whether or not you introduce
yourself with your topic depends on the circumstances
Body: Contains your three main points, supporting material (like evidence, for example) of your main points, and transitions between your main points. This should be about 75-80% of your speech
Conclusion: Contains a summary of your main points and a final thought to leave with your audience. In persuasive speeches, the final thought is typically a
“call to action” where you tell the audience what you want them to do, think or
After you’ve identified your three main points, you need to support each one equally. Fujishin calls this “Developmental Material,” but most people call it “Supporting Material.” By supporting each main point, you come off as being credible, or believable. The key is two-fold: First, you want to support each main point at least twice, and secondly, you want to vary the type of support materials.
Ways to support your main points...
•Use statistics and numerical data
Key to Outlines:
The main thing to remember is to keep it simple.
The only things you might consider writing word-for-word in your speech outline is the introduction, and the conclusion.
The speech outline ensures that we stay organized.
The first step in choosing your topic is brainstorming. If you are choosing a topic to fit specific parameters, then try to pick ones the either you like, or that you have a strong emotional connection to.
Narrowing your list of possible speech topics
Using the following categories, I rate each possible idea on a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 being best. After adding up all the points for each possible topic, I go with the three that have the highest rating.
I can see myself really enjoying researching this topic
I’m confident that my audience will enjoy this topic
I have some knowledge of this topic already
Culture and religion of my audience will work with this topic
This topic will be reasonably easy to research
Narrowing it Down
Your specific purpose is just like it sounds-more specific. You come up with your specific purpose by taking the general purpose that we just talked about, and adding what you want to tell the audience. Here’s the equation:
Specific purpose = General purpose + What you want to tell the audience.
Example of a specific purpose for the persuasive speech topic “Electric cars”
General purpose = to persuade
Specific purpose = to persuade the audience to buy electric cars
Next you will need a Specific purpose
After that you should pick the topic that applies or appeals most to your audience
Types of supporting material you can look for and create
This just means defining the most important term in your speech in simple, but official terms. If I were giving a speech titled, “The Importance of Living a Peaceful Life,”I might start out like this: “Dictionary.com defines peaceful as ‘free from war, strife, commotion, violence, or disorder.’” Why bother doing this? Because it ensures that you and your audience are on the same page
Sticking with the “Peaceful Life” theme, you might use an example like this: “In 2009, I was a Running Start student, had two part-time jobs, played on the high school basketball team, was student body president, and commuted from Mossyrock to Centralia College five days per week. Does this sound like a peaceful life to you?”
This basically entails painting vivid pictures with words, as discussed in earlier lectures. Don’t just say “Monday’s were hectic,” give some detail as to the ins and outs of your hectic routine on Monday’s. Give the audience an insider’s view.
If I were doing a talk on the rising cost of tuition, I might tell you that in 1987 I paid $3,400 to attend WSU full-time, and that included books, tuition, room and board–the whole kit and caboodle. If I were to go back to WSU now, that same package would cost me $19,000.
Statistics are effective because if you choose a reliable source, they are virtually undeniable. But you have to use them properly.
Three Characteristics of a Good Delivery
Learn from others, but be yourself
It’s good to pick up tips from others, but there are some things that work for one person, but not another.
Just a little louder and more animated than usual
Act happy to be on stage (even if you’re not)
Specific Elements of a Good Delivery
Be confident (or at least pretend to be)
Dress for the occasion (better over dressed than under-dressed
Don't be afraid to move a little (take a couple steps the audience will think your comfortable, and it might help you feel a little more at ease as well
be mindful of eye contact, facial expressions, and hand gestures.
Practice Practice Practice!!!
There are many different ways to practice. Honestly the only thing you can do is find on that works for you. Try looking up some suggested one online from people who have more experience
3 Purposes of a persuasive Speech
To change an already held belief
To change an audience belief
To motivate the audience to action
There are many different techniques a person can learn in order to become a better persuasive speaker.
One of these is to never use the word "but" because it is a qualifies and discredits anything said before it. (if you have to use it, then list all of the negatives before the but so that you leave your audience paying more credence to the positive things you said.)
Also, studies show that people are more influenced by peer information than by facts, use peer information to persuade your audience if you can.
Use Pathos and Ethos to make your argument more convincing
Ethos- make sure your supporting details are solid and well delivered so that your argument sounds credible.
Pathos- try to appeal to your audiences emotional beliefs and motivations so that they will feel inclined to agree with you
week 6 &9
Always act in a way consistent with the message of you speech
Good preparation is an ethical requirement as well as a practical one.
Show respect for your audience
Base your conclusions in your presentation on clear evidence.
Choose topics that are consistent with your personal beliefs.
Respect the time of your
audience- Don't go over your expected time, it is insulting to take more time from your audience than they expect you to
Use pictures, videos, posters, visual example, anything that can enhance what your audience is looking at other than just you that ties together your speech.
There is no true cure for Stage fright. But there are many ways to cope with it
You could try deep breathing, positive self talk, or maybe asking the audience a question so that you can collect yourself for a second.
Inevitably the only true way to deal with stage fright is to face it and keep on speaking.
Youtube (citations in links)
Our class lectures
Picture Citations in Links