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Transcript of Energy Security
Energy Security defn.
State level definition - the reliable and affordable supply of energy on a continuing, uninterrupted basis
Composed of two parts: sufficient supply and unhindered delivery
State must therefore act to ensure both.
US Department of Energy estimates that the worldwide consumption of energy will increase by ~56% between 2005 and 2035
China and India both driving the increase in consumption, expected to double their energy needs by the year 2035
Energy Security & Policy-Making
China - Energy Diplomacy?
Japan - Pragmatic Energy Shift?
Russia - Revived Energy Geopolitics and/or a Return to Relevance?
United States - Energy Imperialism?
Iran - Energy as Leverage?
Trends in Energy Security
Mix of short-term and long-term approaches (heavy on the former)
Energy security at the expense of other forms of human and environmental security
Energy geopolitics remain dominant
Slow progress of cooperation
US Energy Security Policy
Energy security considered a key part of our foreign policy, stated by G.W. Bush in 2001 and reiterated in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act
Oil security cited as a primary motivation for a number of US led or supported conflicts, including the overthrow of the Shah of Iran in 1953, the US defense of Kuwait in the first Gulf War, and the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003
China Energy Security Policy
Energy security considered a domestic issue, rather than a foreign policy issue
Reliant on externally supplied oil since the early 90s, currently imports more than 58% of its consumed energy per annum, mostly from the Middle East. Expected to rise to 65% by 2015.
Heavy investment in Africa and Latin America.
Case Study - China and Sudan
China now Sudan's biggest trading partner
China's official policy is "non-interference"
China exports oil from Sudan (invested in ~40% of their oil activities, signed a decades long lease agreement for exclusive access to oil production) and imports low cost items (cars, microwaves, etc. and small arms)