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UNFCCC Youth: 4) Cooperation and Contention

The 4th presentation looks at some areas of contention in the UNFCCC such as climate finance and REDD+, and areas of cooperation such as capacity building.
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on 15 July 2016

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Transcript of UNFCCC Youth: 4) Cooperation and Contention

UNFCCC
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Sometimes called "The Convention". Agreed in 1992
SBI
SBSTA
COP
KP
CMP
Bali Action Plan
LULUCF
REDD
REDD+
Article 6
1.5C Review
CP2
Gigatonne Gap
Mitigation
How is finance managed?
Technology
Capacity Building
1.5C To Stay Alive
Adaptation
NAMA
MRVs
Groups
Constituencies
Negotiators
G77 (+China)
LDCs
AOSIS
SIDS
African Group
EU
OPEC
Umbrella Group
JUSSCANNZ
GRULAC
AWG-KP
AWG-LCA
AGBM
GHGs
CDM
JI
GEF
IGOs
IPCC
AF
LDCF
NAPAs
ENGO
CAN
GCCA
CJN!
YOUNGO
RINGO
BINGO
Gender & Women
TUNGO
ECO
IMO
WHO
QELROs
UNEP
UNESCO
GCF
Secretariat
UN Security
Farmers
Indigenous Peoples
Local Governments
COW
COY
Comms WG
Actions WG
Policy WG
BL Team
Access
YoFuGe
Interventions WG
Zero Emissions
Green House Gasses (Like CO2)
The UNFCCC does this through agreeing 26 "Articles" (Art#) which establishes:
- Setting out definitions (Art1), Objectives (Art2) and Principles (Art3)
- That Parties (countries) will attempt to reduce their GHGs (Art4), research Climate Change (Art5),
educate train and raise public awareness (Art6),
- How countries will negotiate and agree on things (Art7, 13-26)
- Sets up permanent bodies of the UNFCCC the SBSTA (Art9) and SBI (Art10),
- Sets up a Secretariat (Art8) to facilitate things, a financial mechanism (Art11) and communication channels (Art12)
Subsidiary Body for Implementation (Art10)
Parties negotiate in this Body to work towards delivering
the Articles and agreements of the original UNFCCC convention
and subsequent decisions.
"Annex" is tagged on the end of the Convention and lists countries in different categories. You will often hear the phrase "The Annex I countries must do this", or "Because X is a Non-Annex I country, they have a lot to gain from Y"
Annex I = Industrialised Countries in 1992 (i.e. Western World + post-Soviet countries)
Annex II = Annex I countries who should provide finance (i.e. Western World)
Annex B = Annex I countries who agreed to reduce emissions in the Kyoto Protocol in 1997
Non-Annex I = "Developing" Countries in 1992
Want a closer look?
Annexes
Young people should have a voice in the discussions
at the UN climate negotiations. But are 2-minute
speeches and approved actions enough?
This is a key issue for young people, and a group of
dedicated youth spend their time working with other
civil society groups to lobby on this SBI issue.
Article 6 is about Education for Sustainable Development, Participation in countries' decisions, Training and Public Awareness. Young people have a big stake in the Article 6 negotiations.
Last year in Bonn we helped change the rules for how suggestions are put forward for Article 6: Countries agreed to pay for workshops in Africa and Small Islands to gather input and also consider the input of youth.
Following this in Cancun young people achieved a big policy win. Through policy statements, tireless lobbying and direct pressure they secured a whole page of UN policy changes (out of 3 pages!) that became UN decisions.
The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice meets in parallel to SBI. They try not to get involved in political discussion, but instead talk about scientific reports and clarify things for the negotiators. SBSTA is sometimes used to set guidelines for things like reporting for emissions reductions.
Sebastien Duyck from France makes a statement in Cancun on behalf of (nearly) all civil society groups- suggesting some practical ways to move forward on access.
Emma Moon from New Zealand tells SBSTA they need to define the difference between "forest" and "plantation"
At a Bonn Intersessional in 2010 during a SBSTA negotiation, oil-exporting countries like Saudi Arabia and Oman blocked a scientific review of the evidence behind setting 1.5C as a maximum temperature rise goal. Countries from the Global South and Small Islands were outraged at this and called on young people to take a stand for science and for fairness.
Conference of the Parties
"Parties" basically translates as "Countries". The COP usually only meets once a year in November/December, and is a chance for Government Ministers to get together and vote on things their negotiators have been preparing all year. The COP is the only body that can pass anything that is binding, whether that be binding under the original Convention or any other protocol. If other bodies make a decision, it must be passed onto a COP. Warsaw will be the 19th COP since 1992, so it's called "COP19".
COP Decisions
The Ad-Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate
The Berlin Mandate set out a path for countries to agree a binding climate treaty within 2 years. The AGBM was a set of negotiations tasked with doing this, and it's work ceased in 1997 when the Kyoto Protocol was decided
Kyoto Protocol
Named after the city where it was decided at COP3, the Kyoto Protocol COMMITTED countries to reducing GHGs (instead of the Convention encouraging them to).
Parties who signed up to KP set their own reduction targets and then have to reduce their emissions through National strategies and "flexible mechanisms" like trading emissions.
I <3 KP
Marrakesh Accords
These were decided in 2001 and clarify the rules of the KP
Conference of the Meeting of Parties
This negotiating body is made up of ministers like the COP, but only has a mandate to make decisions about the Kyoto Protocol. They meet at the same time as COPs, so meetings are usually called "COP17/CMP7".
Adhoc Working Group on the Kyoto Protocol
This negotiating body was set up to discuss the KP. They worked throughout the year to come to agreements to suggest to the CMP and COP. Like LCA it ended in Doha at COP18.
LULUCF Logging Loopholes
Flexible Mechanisms
The KP commits Annex I countries to reducing emissions. It lets them do this through actual reductions but also through market-based mechanisms.
ETS
Emissions Trading Scheme
Clean Development Mechanism
Allows Annex 1 states to offset their GHG emissions by investing in clean energy projects in certain developing countries.
Joint Implementation
Allows Annex 1 countries to carry out emission-reduction projects in another industrialised country and count it as their own reduction in emissions
Selling our Future?
Do these flexible market mechanisms really work? Or do they
just encourage countries to hide their emissions with creative
accounting? Is it right to reduce big issues like our planet and
our future to just a matter of markets and money?
Young people in Cancun set up a Carbon Market to show
negotiators and the press a horrible vision of the future
The Cancun Agreements
The Copenhagen Accord
Quantified Emission Limitation and Reduction Objectives
= the Annex I commitments to reduce their GHGs
Land Use, Land Use Change, and Forestry
One of the hardest acronyms to remember!
This means that Annex I countries can use any changes in land use to reduce their emissions. e.g. they could plant a forest, or protect a forest. However this is full of loopholes...
Certain countries want to create loopholes in LULUCF to hide about 400 million tonnes of their emissions in. This would lead to major deviation from emissions targets. We need to hold Annex 1 countries to account. Watch the videos to see how young people have campaigned on this difficult issue.
Danny Hutley from the UK reports on the Youth action "Welcome to Loophole Land" in Bonn 2010
International Youth set up a Carbon Market at the UN to sell our planet, our air and our future
The Second Commitment Period to the Kyoto Protocol
The First KP Commitment Period runs from 2008-2012. It was expected that countries would fulfil their obligations and commit emissions reduction targets for a second commitment period from 2012. However Japan, Russia, Canada and others want to kill the KP.
KP may not be perfect, but it's all we've got: it's the worlds only binding climate treaty and the only thing there to protect our future. If countries kill the KP beyond 2012 by not signing up to a second commitment period, then this is bad news.
It may not be perfect, but we love the KP and we think Parties should love the KP too. But true love needs commitment: and young people are pushing for Parties to show that commitment this year.
Anna from Italy asks the chair of the AWG-KP (John) to marry her in a suprise speach to the UN in Bonn 2010
Young people hold a wedding of Annex I Parties to the KP in Bonn 2010
Conference of the Whole
Yes, it actually existed once.
I'm not lying

Here is a picture of a cow
COP Decisions are written like this: 1/CP.1 means the first decision taken at COP1. e.g:
1/CP.1 is the Berlin Mandate
1/CP.13 is the Bali Action Plan
1/CP.16 is the Cancun Agreements
2/CP.17 is the decision adopted in Durban at COP17
Under the REDD Carpet?
Youth in the Text
Our Future Capacity
Tech TransFAIR?
A system by which GHG emissions are given a value so that they can be traded both between and within states. In theory this allows states to reduce their emissions in the most cost effective way. However in practice this has not so far proved effective at reducing GHG emissions.
At COP15 2009, when countries failed to come to an agreement, the USA, along with other countries, put forward this accord.As the Accord was not supported unanimously, the Copenhagen COP simply ‘noted’ its existence, rather than passing it. It promises money to developing countries but does not bind developed countries to emissions targets and lets them choose their own. Although very unpopular and not adopted by the UNFCCC, the Copenhagen Accord received 140 signatures. It was later revealed that many of the developing country signatories were pressured into signing the Accord in order to get fast money from the USA.
The USA continues to push for an agreement like the Copenhagen Accord, and the Cancun agreements largely delivered on that.
At COP16 in 2010, all countries came to an agreement except Bolivia. However the chair passed the decision anyway as the Cancun Agreements. The Cancun agreements make some small progress in all areas of the LCA, but lack detail and do not address reducing emissions.
After Cancun, the UKYCC team attempted to explain the negotiations using handpuppets. The video went viral with over 11,000 hits; even the Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC Christina Figueres called it "too fabulous"
At COP13 in Bali, delegates agreed on a "Road Map" that would take them to a global binding climate treaty to replace the KP. They decided that any new deal must tackle: A Shared Vision, Mitigation, Developing Country Forests, Adaptation, Technology Transfer, Capacity Building and Finance.
This would all be negotiated under the name LCA, "Long-term Coorporative Action". LCA ended at COP18 3 years overdue.
Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooporative Action
This group meet throughout the year and at COPs to discuss a range of issues such as: mitigation, adaptation, technology transfer, shared vision, finance and capacity building. Some of these areas moved to different parts of the talks and some closed. LCA ended in Doha at COP18 in 2012.
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
This policy area looks at reducing emissions by protecting Non-Annex I forests (i.e. developing country forests). It proposes market mechanisms to do this, where developing countries are rewarded with funds when they protect their forests.
REDD+ builds on REDD. As well as protecting forests, it also allows for forest conservation, sustainable forest management and planting new forests as a means of reducing emissions. The same market mechanisms apply.
The main people pushing a deal on REDD+ are richer countries, the World Bank and Big Business. There is a lot of potential financial gain out of REDD+. But where does that leave the Indigenous People who live in the forests? Will their homes be sold to the highest bidder in "sustainable management schemes"? REDD+ is very controversial angers many who feel it needs to be urgently reformed or scrapped.
A report from the forests of the Democratic Republic of Congo looks at the potential gains and threats of a REDD+ scheme in their area
Nairobi Work Programme
This programme aims to use SBSTA to advise governments (especially developing country governments) on the impact, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. It then gives them advice on the best way to approach climate change policies in their own countries.
This area of negotiations looks at how countries with high climate impacts can be supported.
National Adaptation Programme of Action
These are plans to support the Least Developed Countries. They look at current grass-roots actions and build on them to produce regional and national policies
There will need to be a large transfer of money from developed to developing countries to help fund their adaptation and mitigation efforts. We will look at some of the organisations/groups involved in managing climate finance. Negotiators focus on how much is needed, where it comes from and whether it should be in loans, aid or investment in business.
The Global Environment Facility
This is where most of the global climate money travels through. It was founded as part of the World Bank, became separate in 1994, but the World Bank remains its trustee. Although developing countries get more of a say in it than the World Bank, some of its financing choices have been criticised because some think they choose projects that benefit rich countries who are its main donors.
The Green Climate Fund, agreed at COP16 in Cancun aims to become the sole channel for all climate finance, including the $100bn funding to developing countries by 2020. It is run by a committee of 25 developing countries and 15 developed countries. However the World Bank remains it's trustee.
The Least Developed Countries Fund is controlled by the GEF and provides money to developing countries to fund their NAPAs
Adaptation Fund. 2% of CDM (Clean Development Mechanism, see "flexible mechanisms" under Kyoto Protocol) profits go into this fund. More on flexible mechanisms coming up...
Technology Transfer at UNFCCC looks at how everyone can most benefit from the development of new renewable technologies. At the moment most technologies are developed in richer countries and then poorer countries have to pay high prices on patented products to use them. Cancun established a Tech Transfer board to look into these issues, but richer countries refused to negotiate on patents, also known as International Property Rights (IPR). This is an ongoing problem.
Without even discussing patents, are countries missing a big opportunity for creating a world powered by renewables? Youth educational exchanges or partnerships could also be key for sharing knowledge and technologies between Annex 1 and non-Annex I parties. Are there ways that university students can pressure universities to make their climate innovations accessible to all?
Negotiators look at the economic impacts of countries reducing their carbon. Some oil-exporting countries even want large amounts of compensation for reducing their carbon!
Economic and Social Consequences of Response Measures
Capacity Building refers to the need to ensure that all countries have the skills, training and structures in place to be able to mitigate their emissions and adapt to the consequences of climate change.
Capacity Building is really important for young people as it involves our training, our education, and the support young people get around the world to tackle climate change at a local level. We can use strong decisions on capacity building to make cases to our governments and local institutions. We can also tackle the injustice of lack of support for developing countries.
The Capacity Building text started as a very good set of proposals and ideas for putting real effort into helping poorer countries. But during Cancun it was dramatically cut down, with many of the good ideas taken out. This included the reference to need to include young people in Capacity Building. If they are not building the capacity of young people, then where will we be in 20 years time?
Mitigation deals with the amount countries will reduce their emissions and how they will do this. This is the area we have seen very little progress on in the last few years, with voluntary targets that are not met. The two main challenges for Mitigation in the LCA is how developing countries can also reduce their emissions (unlike KP) and whether there is an alternative to inadequate voluntary targets (unlike KP).
Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions. This means targets for Non-Annex I developing countries to reduce their emissions.
Measurable, Reportable and Verifiable. This is a US suggestion that calls for all country's targets to be quantified properly and checked out independently. Countries like China are a little less happy about people interfering with their accounting figures.
The Gigatonne Gap is the gap between the promises and the science. If countries do keep their current promises, we'll be looking at a 3.5-5C temperature rise, yet the science says we should try to keep it to 1.5C. Countries need to increase their ambitions or a treaty needs to have binding scientific targets to close the Gigatonne Gap.
In Bonn 2010 youth blocked the path from the train to the hotel with a suprise limbo for the negotiators, highlighting the Gigatonne Gap
Some youth have recently started talking about a need to create zero emission action plans in countries to get to zero emissions.
The difference between a shared vision os a maximum 2C rise and 1.5C rise is not a small thing. It means the difference between small islands surviving or going underwater. It is the difference between possible runaway climate change or not. 1.5C is in line with the best science, and it's the maximum young people want to protect our future.
UNFCCC
Executive Secretary
The UNFCCC Secretariat work for the UN to carry out the decisions made by the COP. They can only do things that are mandated to them by all Parties. So they cannot write text or have an influence on the text. However they are good sources of in-depth knowledge on policy. They liaise with "Focal Points" from each Constituency to approve actions and help us where possible.
The Executive Secretary is the leader of the Secretariat. Like the Secretariat they do not take a political position within the negotiations. However they have a big influence on process and outcomes by suggesting solutions, encouraging constructive debate and framing the negotiations. The current Executive Secretary is Christiana Figueres from Costa Rica.
Executive Secretary Christiana Figueres talks to young people from the "Adopt a Negotiator" project. In this video she sits down to relax with the youth and talk frankly and very openly about her passion, her inspiration and her expectations for the process.
UN Security are tasked with securing UN venues for negotiators and also for civil society. The Secretariat protects the right for young people to take action during UNFCCC meetings. However these must be approved by the Secretariat in advance.
Negotiators wear pink badges at the COP. You can talk to them in corridors (as long as you don't harrass them) or you can arrange meetings with them. Negotiators will often come in teams so be aware that the negotiator you are approaching may not know about the issue you want to lobby on!
Countries often negotiate as part of groups...
ALBA
Mountains Group(s)
Pronouned "Juice-Cans", this was a temporary alliance of Japan, USA, Switzerland, Canada, Australia, Norway, New Zealand, Iceland and Lichtenstein. They didn't stay together long but you never know when they might pop up again.
JUSSCANNZ evolved into the Umbrella group. This is the loosest coalition of countries at the UNFCCC. They are non-EU developed countries who try to strategise together- but usually talk separately anyway. As they often don't get the support of everyone in their group, they will usually clarify at the start of their statement exactly which countries they are speaking for.
CACAM
The European Union not only take a common negotiating position (with it's President member state taking the floor), they are also the only group of countries to submit joint emissions reduction targets and have their own nameplate at the UNFCCC. They have coordinating meetings every morning. Poland has their presidency until June 2012.
The Group of 77 has now evolved to a group of 131 of the world's "poorer" countries. It often takes a lot of time and effort for them to come to a common strategic position, but they fact that they achieve it at all is remarkable. The G77 appoints lead countries "Chairs" for each issue and has an overall Chair. In 2011 this is Argentina, which will be a very important country to focus on. China often joins the G77 in their statements and attends all of their meetings, but is not part of the G77, hence statements are made as "G77" or "G77 + China".
EIG
The Organisation of Petroleum-Exporting Countries includes Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Iran, Qatar, Libya, Kuwait and others. They exist to protect the economic interests of their petroleum.
Least Developed Countries are objectively defined by the UN based on poor economy, low human assets and high economic vulnerability. They include 33 African countries, 10 Asian, 1 Caribbean and 5 Pacific countries.
The African Group is a sub-grouping of the G77, countries based on the continent of Africa. For example, Malawi is
both a member of the African Group and of the G77.
Small Island Developing States are defined by the UN based on geographic and economic criteria. They must be full member states of the UN unlike AOSIS...
Alliance of Small Island States. This is the political lobbying grouping of SIDS plus 5 other small Island "Observers" without UN country status. They often take strong moral stances and put forward proposals in line with the science
Central Asian Caucus and Maldova. These include Armenia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan etc. They don't often group together, only at times where the definition of "Developing country" or "Economy in Transition" is being defined.
Alliance Bolivarian of the Americas. These are South American left-wing countries of Bolivia, Venezuela, Cuba, Ecuador and Nicaragua. They support the outcomes of the People's Agreement at the Cochabamba Conference in 2010. They often group together to make moral and anti-market stands in the negotiations. Venezuela is unusual in being part of ALBA and OPEC- which gives them a slightly bipolar quality in the talks. In Cancun, Bolivia stood alone in rejecting the Cancun agreements and many people wondered whether ALBA had abandoned them, however Bolivia claim to be building a broader alliance and ALBA was back in force in the Bangkok intersessionals of 2011
Group of Latin American and Caribbean countries. This is more of an official UN regional grouping which includes Central and South America and the Caribbean.
The Environmental Integrity Group. An unusual grouping of Mexico, the Republic of Korea and Switzerland (sometimes Lichtenstein and Monaco). It is the only group that brings Annex I and non-Annex I countries together to make proposals. They like to think they propose practical solutions
In 2010 Nepal announced it was thinking of bringing together countries with Mountains into a negotiating group. However Armenia, Kyrgistan and Tajikistan jumped the gun and formed their own group called "Group of Mountain Landlocked Developing Countries". Nepal didn't join them at first and tried to establish it's own group of mountainous countries.
Jonathan Pershing, the lead US negotiator
Konihiko Shimada, Japan
Clare Walsh and Louise Hand, Australia
UK Lead negotiator Peter Betts takes the mic from the EU Belgian presidency to tell the UN "This is magnificent, but it is not negotiation."
Mexican chief negotiator Luis d'Alba
Xie Zhenhua, negotiator for China
Negotiators from the G77 group align their strategy before a G77 coordinating meeting
Claudia Salerno, Venezuela
Tosi Mpanu Mpanu, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Yaw Opong Boadi, Ghana
Thilmeeza Hussein, Minister and Negotiator for the Maldives
Ian Fry, Tuvalu, tells participants not willing to sign up to KP2 to "quietly and politely leave the room"
Pablo Salon, Bolivia, is one of the most outspoken negotiators. He was the only one not to agree to the Cancun agreements.
BASIC group
Luiz A. Figueiredo, Brazil
Brazil, South Africa, India and China. This is a group of very powerful, fast-growing economies. Being non-Annex I countries but holding a lot of economic weight between them, they have the potential to bridge the negotiations providing a breakthrough. It is going to be interesting at COP17 in South Africa to see if this group becomes a strong political force for the Global South.
Alf Wills, South Africa
Intergovernmental Organisations
These are big UN bodies, or other international organisations that are not NGOs (non-governmental organisations).
UNDP
UNITAR
United Nations Institute for Training and Research
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Scientists who procude reports on Climate Change)
World Health Organisation
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
International Maritime Organisation (Ships)
United Nations Environment Programme
United Nations Development Programme
Constituencies are groups of Observers who are permitted to attend UN meetings, receive updates and support from the Secretariat, make submissions and intervene in UN meetings.
Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations
Trade Unions
Business
Research & Independent NGOs
Climate Action Network. This is a group of 550 international NGOs who closely track the negotiatons, make policy statements, coordinate communications and select countries to receive a "Fossil of the Day". They split their ENGO priveledges equally with CJN!, including only taking 1 minute of the ENGO 2 minute speach.
Global Campaign for Climate Action (known as tcktcktck) is an alliance of NGOs who focus on campaigning within and outside of the UNFCCC to build a global climate movemnet. They focus on communications, actions and also run the "Adopt a Negotiator" tracker scheme
Climate Jusitce Now! are the second half of the ENGO constituency. They are made up of more left-wing NGOs and have 1 minute of the 2 minute ENGO speeches.
Once CAN has voted on the most strategic countries to award Fossil of the Day award, Young people get the job of presenting the prizes.
"ECO" is a daily newsletter published by CAN giving a roundup of the latest events and gossip from the negotiators. It also suggests constructive ways forward and shames most obstructive countries. The newsletter has become an influential favourite amongst negotiators who often carry one around as essential reading.
GCCA identified Japan as a key target in Cancun for announcing they were not going to commit to KP2. It attempted to embarrass them by taking out full-page adverts in global newspapers.
Youth Non-Governmental Organisations
Focal Points
Conference of Youth
This usually happens the weekend before the start of negotiations. It's a great opportunity for YOUNGO to come together to meet, share skills, create strategy and have fun.
AYCC (Australian Youth Climate Coalition) report from COY6 in Cancun 2010.
This is a whole day during the negotiations where there are events, talks and actions drawing attention to future generations.
Young and Future Generations Day
Youth outside the negotiations in Cancun prepare an official video for YoFuGe.
Spokescouncil
Spokescouncil is the official decision-making body of YOUNGO. It is named after the spokes on a bicycle wheel. If you want to speak or have an action on behalf of YOUNGO it goes through this. A representative from each organisation a "spoke" sits in a circle and the members of that organisation sit behind them and feed their ideas into the centre. Voting takes place using "waving hands" and everyone in the spoke must agree in order to achieve consensus.
The Bottom-Linining Team is a group of volunteers in YOUNGO who make sure things are happening. They do not have any powers to make decisions for YOUNGO but keep up with deadlines, run elections and ensure fairness.
There are 2 YOUNGO Focal Points each year. This is one person from the Global North and one person from the Global South. Their job is to liaise with the UNFCCC Secretariat on YOUNGO issues.
Policy Working Group
The YOUNGO Policy Working Group coordinates between several Policy and Advocacy groups within YOUNGO. There are Policy WGs on Forests, Article 6, Access, 1.5C, Tech Transfer, Capacity Building, Finance and more.
The Communication's Working Group coordinates YOUNGO efforts to produce press releases, blogs and talk to the media targetting the negotiations and people back home. They also put on press conferences, create a buzz around key policy issues and put pressure on negotiations at strategic points.
Abigail Borah from the USA delivers her message to world leaders after COP16 in Cancun
YOUNGO can make 2-minute speeches during negotiations at particular points where it is allowed by the chair. These require input from Policy and Communications and Intervention WGs to get a speech that tackles relevant policy but also conveys the moral voice we can bring to the negotiations.
Christina Ora, from the Soloman Islands delivers an intervention to the AWG-LCA during COP15 Copenhagen.
The Actions Working Group respond to policies with strategic actions, that put pressure on negotiations at key moments, or draw the eyes of the world's media. They plan action messaging, logistics, make artistic and creative props and bring it all together for a powerful message.
Young people draw attention to the issue of survival within the negotiations during COP14 in Poznan.
Welcome to this Module on the UN Climate Negotiations. This is best viewed in full-screen (click on icon on bottom right). You can use the arrows at the bottom to navigate your way through...
You can also zoom in & out and drag the screen around to see how everything is linked. Move your mouse to the right of the screen to bring up a zoom control. You can go at your own pace and go backwards to reread things. Looking at the UN talks as a big diagram, with of lots of arrows and associations, can help relate every little policy detail to the big picture!
The UN Climate Negotiations aren't all about minute policy details. But it's important to know a bit of policy structure so you can understand where young people must make a stand to protect our future. The International Youth Climate Movement will not stay quiet and watch whilst decisions are made - we make speeches, lobby, talk to the media and protest to ensure our voice is heard. In these prezis, I've added issues that are important for young people, with videos and pictures of the inspiring actions youth have taken. I've also tried to cover what happened in recent UN Climate talks and what the key issues may be in Warsaw, at the next talks. Hopefully you find this equally informative and inspiring.
By the end of this, the aim is for you to understand this:
And use this knowledge to change things!
There are 5 Modules that we will cover:
1) The Convention- a Foundation
2) The story so far.
3) A Global Climate Treaty
4) Cooperation and Contention
5) YOUNGO and Friends!
Before we start, make a cup of tea, and turn on your headphones!
Module 1: The Convention- a Foundation
We'll start with the UNFCCC, take you through the first agreement, the first youth involvement, the basic structure and throw in some examples of great youth engagement with the process. Enjoy!
Module 2: The Story So Far
We'll look at how the UN Climate Talks started and pick out some key moments since the first COP. And of course we will see some legendary youth actions.
Module 3: A Global Climate Treaty
Countries are working on a global climate deal that will start in 2020. We will look at what it is being discussed and when we should expect to see it agreed. Key issues for COP19 such as equity will be thought about.
Module 4: Cooperation and Contention
We now have a global climate agreement agreed in Paris in 2015, however some areas of contention remain such as issues around finance. This module introduces some new terms in the UNFCCC and looks at some areas under 'climate finance'.
5) YOUNGO and Friends
Now we've learnt all of the UNFCCC policies, let's think about the personalities, groups and their influence in the process. We'll start with the Secretariat and end with your very own Youth Constituency.
6) Explore on your own.
I'd recommend doing this if you've already been through the modules and you know your way round. It's good for reminding yourself of how everything relates. Go wild!
We're done! And here's what you can look forward to next time...
By UKYCC, and friends over the years

Email us questions!
international.team@ukycc.org

Thanks to everyone who made the movies and pictures and thanks to the International Youth Climate Movement for making the change happen!
End of module 4. I hope you found it useful.
Coming up next...

Module 5: YOUNGO and Friends
Now we've about UNFCCC policies, let's think about the personalities, groups and their influence in the process. We'll start with the Secretariat and end with your very own Youth Constituency.
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This cool video summarizes some of the key incidents from Cancun at COP16. Like always at the UNFCCC things are rarely straight forward. Bolivia and some other countries refused to sign the Cancun Accord which meant that consensus was not reached. This annoyed some people at the talks who wanted an agreement to be reached. Other people at the talks supported Bolivia because they felt the agreement was too weak. This is a balance between finding consensus, meaningful emissions reductions and progress that features often in UN climate change talks.
You can keep up to date with UNFCCC communications at their website -  www.unfccc.int
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“The ultimate objective of this Convention and any related legal instruments that the Conference of the Parties may adopt is to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention,
stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.
Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.”
It is useful to remember what UNFCCC is tasked with achieving…
There are currently 3 different areas of the talks and are often called ‘tracts’ of the talks. We will look at two that are constant in UNFCCC. This means that unlike other tracts they are always present. We will look at some tracts that have come and gone in the coming prezis.
Loss and Damage
Loss and Damage is supposed to be a way of compensating the poorest countries for the disastrous effects of climate change that they are already experiencing. More efforts are still needed in this area to support nations who are seeing the worst climate impacts.
A Global Climate Treaty
Youth in Doha pushed for a strong Loss and Damage package. Many were left disappointed with the weak outcome.
Disasters like the Typhoon in The Philippines, that occurred during COP18, are becoming more and more frequent due to climate change and they affect most vulnerable nations who are least responsible for climate change.
The Story So Far...
1995 COP1 - Berlin
1996 COP2 - Geneva
1997 COP3 - Kyoto
1998 COP4 - Buenos Aires
1999 - COP5 - Bonn
2000 - COP6 - The Hague
2001 - COP7 Marrakesh
2002 - COP8 - New Delhi
2003 - COP9 - Milan
2004 - COP10 - Buenos Aires
2005 - COP11 - Montreal
2006 - COP12 - Nairobi
2007 - COP13 - Bali
2008 - COP14 - Poznan
2009 - COP15 - Copenhagen
2010 - COP16 - Cancun
2011 - COP17 - Durban
2012 - COP18 Doha
1992
Rio

Earth

Summit
– 1992
At the Earth Summit in Rio countries recognised climate change as a global threat and something that required a global solution. This led to countries setting up the UNFCCC to address climate change and ‘stabilise greenhouse gases’.”
The first COP was held in Berlin in 1995. This prezi will look at some of the key moments of COPs over the years.
This area of the module will look at key points of the UNFCCC and some things that have been decided at past COPs. It will not cover all of the COPs even though each COP contains important decisions, instead a few key decisions will be highlighted. The main stories of the past meetings will be selected to see where we are and how we got here.
1997 Kyoto Protocol
A landmark in international climate negotiations was agreed in 1997 with the Kyoto Protocol. For the first time ever it was agreed that countries would take ‘legally binding’ emissions reductions. All Annex1 (developed) nations signed up to this. Even the USA!
…however, they later changed their mind and withdrew…
2003
Finally the Kyoto Protocol was ratified. This means that all of the countries who signed up to the protocol had it agreed by their own governments at a national level.
This was the first year that young people started to attend the UNFCCC. But they were not organised into constituency so had no official presence (more on this later in prezi 5).
Nairobi Work Programme
This programme aims to use SBSTA to advise governments (especially developing country governments) on the impact, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. It then gives them advice on the best way to approach climate change policies in their own countries.
In 2009 the COP took place in Copenhagen. This attracted huge media attention as a huge Civil Society presence occurred, world leaders attended and the need for climate action become even more apparent.
It ended in disappointment as no real progress was made and promises were broken.
COP15 Copenhagen
COP17 Durban
This was a significant COP for the future direction of talks. A second commitment period to the Kyoto Protocol was agreed as was a Global Climate Treaty (which will be discussed in more detail in the next prezi). Durban was one of the most significant COPs in terms of how future international climate talks will be shaped
COP18 Doha
Thanks to SustainUS for the use of this image
2005 - COP11 - Montreal
Durban in 2 minutes...
In Durban at COP17, youth at UNFCCC were vital in creating urgency around the matters that matter.
Civil Society held an unprecedented protest in the final days of talks in Durban in anger at slow progress and nations not listening to the people.
Some great YOUNGO interventions also took place.
Youth Action
In the last hours of COP17 this was agreed after a stand-off with some nations including USA and India.

A deal was agreed for a treaty with 'legal force' to be negotiated by 2015 and to start in 2020 but there are still many things to be finalised such as targets.

One of the issues that led to the delay in this area was the area of equity, which we will talk about shortly.
As the Kyoto Protocol only covers Annex 1 nations (though some didn't sign up) there was a feeling from some that a future treaty that would cover a wider range of nations.

A treaty that was binding and including all the large emitters was hoped for. In the last hours of COP17 this was agreed after a stand-off with some nations including USA and India.

It was controversial as many nations (and people) feel the developed, rich nations never kept their promises for mitigation or finance but then wanted the developing, poorer nations to sing up to a global deal (more on this later...)
2020 Treaty
There was an agreement to start a new commitment period to KP in Durban. It was agreed to start in 2013
With Kyoto Protocol’s commitment coming to an end in 2012, COP17 was the chance to ‘save Kyoto’
Civil society and many nations demanded an extension to binding emissions reductions
Kyoto Protocol 2nd Commitment Period
COP 17 Hand Puppets Summary
We know Kyoto was not perfect but it was the only binding deal that held nations accountable. The youth put a lot of energy and effort into supporting a new KP.
There is a danger that some negotiating teams who are happy to see progress stall will use the equity discussion as a means of doing so.
If the equity gap discussion turns into a theoretical one rather than something to really see progress.
Threats

Equity has now taken a central role in the talks and this can be seen as both an opportunity and a threat.
Equity – Opportunity and Threat
Equity is all about each nation feeling they are taking actions appropriate to their responsibilities for emissions reductions.
So it is not a new concept as “common but differentiated responsibilities" (CBDR) has been a feature of talks since the inception of UNFCCC.
Holding this discussion can allow a space for nations to be open and come to agreement on how carbon reductions can be shared in a fair manner.
If this 'equity gap' can be addressed it could be a significant breakthrough in climate negotiations and restore faith to the talks.
Opportunity that Equity presents
As we found out at the end of COP17 in Durban, equity is going to be a defining point of future negotiations.

It has always been involved in UFCCC talks but now it is explicit and a space has been created for a ‘frank and open’ discussion on the issue.
Equity – what does it mean and why is it being discussed?
The work to reduce or remove fossil fuels is important and ties into previous YOUNGO efforts to call out the unfair influence big corporations and their lobbyists have over some nations at the UNFCCC talks.
A youth action on creating a clean, just future.
Another really important area that civil society want to see discussed, and progress, perhaps under ADP is fossil fuel subsidies. This was a key talking point for civil society in the Rio+20 Earth Summit in 2012. Industries like the oil industry are the most profitable in the world so many people don’t think we should be giving them so much money in the form of subsidies especially as their actions are largely the cause of climate change in the first place.
YOUNGO take part in a cool action at Bonn in the intersessionals before Doha.
2020 Treaty
Great youth involvement
and actions
Hundreds of Youth at COP17 protest inside the UN.
Anjali from the USA delivers an intervention urging action in the talks. The youth respond turning the intervention into an action.
UKYCC's hand puppets explaining some of the key moments in Durban.
Ode to Kyoto
Equity
ADP is a key part of the talks.
The ADP will be split into two main areas: Workstream 1 (WS1) and Workstream 2 (WS2).
TEC - Technology Executive Committee -
Aims to "consider and recommend actions to promote technology development and transfer in order to accelerate action on mitigation and adaptation".

CTCN - Climate Technology Centre and Network -
An operational arm of TEC. An advisory board to the CTCN meets to discuss technologies to aid adaptation and mitigation action.
Technology is needed for both mitigation and adaptation for some countries.
In Durban at COP17 in 2011 it was decided that a Global Treaty with ‘legal force’ would be agreed by 2015 and start in 2020. This means that all countries would have to legally reduce their emissions reductions why a certain amount. It was decided that the deal would be agreed by 2015 at COP21. You may also see it referred to as the '2015 agreement'. Let’s take a look at what it is and what the big issues will be...
ADP
Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action
Workstream 1 will concern itself with a range of issues and a key one will be the 'architecture' of the 2020 Climate Treaty. In other words the design and rules of the deal.
Short term mitigation
In ADP this refers to 'ambition' or emissions reductions that are being pledged before 2020. It is also called pre-2020 ambition. This is a vital area that look at increasing pre-2020 ambition. In other words making sure waiting for a global treaty in 2020 is not an excuse for inaction until then.

Suggested ways to increase short term mitigation have been: enhanced mitigation pledges, more pledges from more countries, addressing barriers to higher ambition, removing fossil fuel subsidies and other pollutants such as HFCs.
Workstream 2 is going to look at ways to close the 'emissions gap' before a Global 2020 Treaty starts.
It is important to know the context of the Global Climate Treaty being agreed in Durban. Not all countries were happy about this, India especially felt it was a way for some rich developed countries to start to shift the blame and responsibility for climate change onto the developing world. Some other countries, mainly the developed nations, felt it was important for everyone to be under the same agreement, unlike Kyoto.
The talks so far have also seen a lack of good faith as many developing countries feel the richest nations have not come up with the finance or mitigation efforts they claimed they would.
Climate Justice
It is important that we have a climate deal but it is essential that we have a fair, ambitious and just climate treaty.

It is now absolutely urgent that serious emissions reductions are taken to avoid catastrophic climate change. And we need to limit warming to 1.5 degrees. But it is also essential that decisions taken at COP are equitable and fair. Climate action does not always entail justice but climate justice will always entail action.
Common But Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities (CBDR- RC) is a principle of the convention and should be respected by all parties when the 2020 Global Treaty is being formed. Some people think that some of the developed nations (Annex 1) want to backtrack on the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities.

Let’s have 2020 vision and see through false solutions! An ambitious, fair and equitable Global Treaty is needed.

Carbon Debt
Now, we have a situation where we know we can only emit a certain amount of emissions into the atmosphere to stay under a warming of 1.5 degrees. We are in this situation because too many countries put too much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere in the past.
Carbon dioxide was burned to provide development to nations. When we allocate remaining emissions that can be used we must consider the past emissions as well as future emissions. Some people refer to past emissions as a historical carbon debt.

Equity is all about each nation feeling they are taking actions appropriate to their responsibilities for emissions reductions.
It is being discussed a great deal within the ADP. It is important that the discussion is used a means to speed up climate action on a fair basis.
Equity
Fossil Fuel Subsidies (FFS), especially for production in the developed world, are an area that could see huge mitigation benefits if reformed. Jamie from UKYCC discusses this at COP18.
Finance
It is important not to get drawn into ADP and mitigation too much without remembering adaptation and the need for finance. Many countries need fianance in order to make the emissions cuts a 2020 deal will ask them for. More on finance in the next prezi...
Finance
Finance is an essential part of ensuring that we can avoid warming of over 1.5 degrees. We will look at a few areas of finance within UNFCCC...
Fast Start Finance
Finance pledges
Making sure there is a flow of money from the developed to the developing world is essential in assisting with mitigation, adaptation as well as, in some cases, compensation for climate impacts. Annex II countries (the richest and most responsible for climate change) are the nations that can be expected to provide much of this finance. More recently richer emerging economies are also considering but not obliged to, provide some finance to the most vulnerable.
New and additional!
It is extremely important that climate finance is genuine and whilst all money or aid money must be climate proof, substantial climate finance must be new not repackaged money. A large part of pledged finance has been previously pledged but is counted as new. The developed world need to take more action and fast to fulfill their responsibilities - the current level is unacceptable.
In Copenhagen, the developed countries committed to providing climate finance that would reach $100 billion per year by 2020. This is perhaps a good start but it is essential that money is pledged NOW and countries receive finance as soon as possible. Countries also made pledges in the run up to Paris, with a strong focus on mobilising private finance (see more about this in the last prezi).











TckTckTck video explains why lack of transparency in climate finance must be changed and why 'development aid' should be separate from climate finance. Durban, 2011.
Traditionally some nations have viewed tech transfer as the rich, Global North nations showing the developing world how to do things...the value of the developing world's ability to respond to challenges and be innovative should also be recognized in tech transfer. This is sometimes called South - South or South - North learning.
Fair Finance?
World Bank- Hands off!
A report from the forests of the Democratic Republic of Congo looks at the potential gains and threats of a REDD+ scheme in their area
It's all very well giving money out to poorer countries- but we can't let rich countries just buy their way out of responsibility. There is also a danger that richer countries will give out loans and increase the debt of poorer countries. Lastly, in 2010 many innovative ways for reaching $100bn per year by 2020 were outlined by a committee chaired by UN Seccretary General Ban Ki Moon. However these have been largely ignored so far. Poor Ban...
Young people warn negotiators in Bonn 2010 not to fall into the trap of giving out loans
The World Bank is a controversial trustee of many of these Funds. It has a very bad history of lending lots of money to big polluters and giving developing countries no say in its governance. Some people argue it's the only institution with the capacity to handle big sums of money, but the Green Climate Fund has shown it's possible to do things another way. The World Bank has said it will do more to climate proof financing - like not financing coal - but it this is not good enough, it has a long way to go.
Innovative forms of finance
At the UN climate talks we sometimes hear the term innovative forms of finance, and it includes various methods for raising funds for adaptation and mitigation efforts.
Financial Transaction Tax (FTT)
The FTT also known as The Robin Hood Tax is one area that the youth have been active in showing support for. A Robin Hood Tax would raise significant funds for climate change by adding a very small tax to some financial transactions of sectors such as stock exchanges. This small tax (0.01–0.05%) would build up to a significant amount when added together and allow adaptation and mitigation efforts to be stronger.
Bunker Fuel Tax
At COP17 YOUNGO awarded “Robin Hood Champion Awards” to nations who discussed and supported the Robin Hood Tax (Financial Transaction Tax).

France, Norway, Bangladesh, Pakistan and South Africa were all given awards for their support of this form of climate finance that could raise billions each year.
Bangladesh’s Minister of the Environment accepts the showing his country’s commitment to pushing forward innovative financing plans for the Green Climate Fund (GCF).
The Minister of Science and Technology of South Africa takes part in a YOUNGO action by using a bow and arrow to symbolically “aim for a Robin Hood Tax” and shoots a bulls-eye!
Members of YOUNGO participate in an action highlighting this area.
A maritime bunker levy has been suggested as another form of climate finance.

International shipping is a significant contributor to GHG emissions and it is growing. If a price was given to the emissions in this sector it could result in reduced emissions and add significant funds for climate finance. Emissions from international aviation could also be discussed under this area.
Fast Start Finance (FSF) is a mechanism to 'scale up' climate finance before 2020. It covered the period 2009-2012. One problem was that countries pledged money but did not always deliver it. Also some of the money pledged was not really proper climate finance...
The UNFCCC also looks at two areas concerning forests. Let's have a look at them...
REDD may have been set up to reduce emissions through nations working together but it is bitterly opposed by some elements of Civil Society
(Let's remind ourselves about the Annexes...)
Hello!
Full transcript