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Teaching Grammar: Selection
Transcript of Teaching Grammar: Selection
- placement tests or diagnostic tests
The expectation that Ss will have
TL patterns that are similar
to those of their
first language (L1)
than those that are different. - Lightbown & Spada (2006:197)
Why teach grammar?
There is no doubt that a knowledge - implicit or explicit - of grammatical rules is essential for the mastery of a language
: you cannot use words unless you know how they should be put together
Penny Ur (Grammar Practice Activities
The effects of grammar teaching ... appear to be
peripheral and fragile
- Stephen Krashen (Natural Approach)
A sound knowledge of grammar is essential if pupils are going to
use English creatively
- Tom Hutchinson (coursebook author)
Grammar is not very important. The majority of languages have a very complex grammar. English has
very little grammar
and consequently it is
not very important
to understand it
- (ad for a London Language School)
How to Teach Grammar
Grammar for English Language Teachers (2000) - Martin Parrott
A syllabus is
= verb patterns
Error analysis developed in the
. The aim was to describe and analyse Ss errors in positive terms.
to be; to have; to do
According to the
Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis
which emerged in the
, errors are assumed to be the result of L1 '
interference' = influence
CA allows T to predict problem areas:
(false friends= false cognates)
: embarazada (to be pregnant)
: рецепта /retzepta/
= recipe OR prescription OR receipt
- allows T to
target specific areas
(gaps in language learning)
Learner English (2001)
Swan & Smith
Some errors correspond to the
'natural order' of first language acquisition
. For example, the regular past 'ed' ending is applied to irregular verbs:
! OR 'I put
the plates ...'
(our view of the event unfolding in time: is it
complete/ in progress
SA University Students
Black South African English
- learning styles questionnaire
'the learner expectations argument'
: Ss own expectations and motivation (Thornbury, 1999:17)
= teaching becomes more effective
- needs analysis form
Many errors can be explained in terms of Ss developing knowledge of the L2 structure (-> '
- provides a
for Ts and Ss; a sense of security and progress;
for inexperienced Ts
that is suitable for Ss level and a
balance between language skills and systems
. (Ss get a feel for the language)
* The Grammar Book (1999)
- Celce Murcia & Larsen-Freeman
THE BIG 5 = core grammar
NOTE: 3rd cond= only Inter level
= only Pre-Int/Inter level
mistakes which Ss can correct themselves once the mistake is pointed out. Chomsky=
mistakes which result from incorrect rule-learning. Ss can't correct them without formal explanation from the T. Chomsky=
mistakes which result from Ss trying out new/ complicated language. Have yet to learn form/rules of TL.
- provides colourful,
in terms of lesson planning; tests; extra speaking ideas; language analysis; classroom management
- coursebooks are
What is grammar?
= the patterns of a language (sentence-making machine)
parts of speech
New Headway Elementary
New English File
True to Life Elementary
A comparison of
New Headway, The New Cambridge English Course, True to Life
Krashen's Natural Order Hypothesis vs Grammar Syllabus
I am reading (now).
We can study a language in terms of '
= social purpose
exponent: the sentence itself/ the example of the TL
the purpose of the language/utterance
e.g. Do you have the time?
= asking for information
- lang. we use to express particular ideas or to achieve particular results in particular situations.
= 'communicative act
' = use lang to achieve a purpose (usually involves
concept/ an idea/ a topic
Note: only at Pre-inter level
Functions vs Notions
A Functional Syllabus
notion = topic
New Cambridge English Course 1
a) She has been working
She is working
She will have been working
She has worked
b) Where does she work?
Does she work?
She doesn’t work
Doesn’t she work?
functions and exponents
I'm awfully sorry.
We regret any inconvenience caused.
I do apologize.
Put it in the bag.
Thanks, but I can't.
No. I won't.
Write the answer in your book.
I don't think you're right.
Well, to my mind the UN has the best chance.
GV 428.24 NEW
It tells the teacher:
It is informed by two sets of decisions:
what is to be covered &
in what order.
Youtube Video: Clueless