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Teaching Grammar: Selection
Transcript of Teaching Grammar: Selection
- placement tests or diagnostic tests
The expectation that Ss will have
TL patterns that are similar
to those of their
first language (L1)
than those that are different. - Lightbown & Spada (2006:197)
Why teach grammar?
There is no doubt that a knowledge - implicit or explicit - of grammatical rules is essential for the mastery of a language
: you cannot use words unless you know how they should be put together
Penny Ur (Grammar Practice Activities
The effects of grammar teaching ... appear to be
peripheral and fragile
- Stephen Krashen (Natural Approach)
A sound knowledge of grammar is essential if pupils are going to
use English creatively
- Tom Hutchinson (coursebook author)
Grammar is not very important. The majority of languages have a very complex grammar. English has
very little grammar
and consequently it is
not very important
to understand it
- (ad for a London Language School)
How to Teach Grammar
Grammar for English Language Teachers (2000) - Martin Parrott
A syllabus is
It tells the teacher
what is to be covered
in what order
It is informed by two sets of decisions:
= verb patterns
Error analysis developed in the
. The aim was to describe and analyse Ss errors in positive terms.
to be; to have; to do
According to the
Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis
which emerged in the
, errors are assumed to be the result of L1 '
interference' = influence
CA allows T to predict problem areas:
(false friends= false cognates)
: embarazada (to be pregnant)
: рецепта /retzepta/
= recipe OR prescription OR receipt
- allows T to
target specific areas
(gaps in language learning)
Learner English (2001)
Swan & Smith
Some errors correspond to the
'natural order' of first language acquisition
. For example, the regular past 'ed' ending is applied to irregular verbs:
! OR 'I put
the plates ...'
(our view of the event unfolding in time: is it
complete/ in progress
SA University Students
Black South African English
- learning styles questionnaire
'the learner expectations argument'
: Ss own expectations and motivation (Thornbury, 1999:17)
= teaching becomes more effective
- needs analysis form
Many errors can be explained in terms of Ss developing knowledge of the L2 structure (-> '
- provides a
for Ts and Ss; a sense of security and progress;
for inexperienced Ts
that is suitable for Ss level and a
balance between language skills and systems
. (Ss get a feel for the language)
* The Grammar Book (1999)
- Celce Murcia & Larsen-Freeman
THE BIG 5 = core grammar
NOTE: 3rd cond= only Inter level
= only Pre-Int/Inter level
mistakes which Ss can correct themselves once the mistake is pointed out. Chomsky=
mistakes which result from incorrect rule-learning. Ss can't correct them without formal explanation from the T. Chomsky=
mistakes which result from Ss trying out new/ complicated language. Have yet to learn form/rules of TL.
- provides colourful,
in terms of lesson planning; tests; extra speaking ideas; language analysis; classroom management
- coursebooks are
What is grammar?
= the patterns of a language
parts of speech
GV 428.24 NEW
New Headway Elementary
New English File
True to Life Elementary
A comparison of
New Headway, The New Cambridge English Course, True to Life
Krashen's Natural Order Hypothesis vs Grammar Syllabus
I am reading (now).
We can study a language in terms of '
= social purpose
exponent: the sentence itself/ the example of the TL
function: the purpose of the language/utterance
e.g. Have you got the time on you?
= asking for information
- lang. we use to express particular ideas or to achieve particular results in particular situations.
= 'communicative act
' = use lang to achieve a purpose (usually involves
notion: concept/ an idea/ a topic
Note: only at Pre-inter level
Functions vs Notions
A Functional Syllabus
notion = topic
New Cambridge English Course 1
a) She has been working
She is working
She will have been working
She has worked
b) where does she work?
does she work?
she doesn’t work
doesn’t she work?