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Teaching Grammar: Selection

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Lilia Angelova

on 4 November 2016

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Transcript of Teaching Grammar: Selection

Individual Needs Analysis
Teaching Grammar
Selection
- placement tests or diagnostic tests
Needs Analysis
Contrastive Analysis
The expectation that Ss will have
less difficulty
acquiring
TL patterns that are similar
to those of their
first language (L1)
than those that are different. - Lightbown & Spada (2006:197)
Why teach grammar?
There is no doubt that a knowledge - implicit or explicit - of grammatical rules is essential for the mastery of a language
: you cannot use words unless you know how they should be put together
. -
Penny Ur (Grammar Practice Activities
The effects of grammar teaching ... appear to be
peripheral and fragile
.
- Stephen Krashen (Natural Approach)
A sound knowledge of grammar is essential if pupils are going to
use English creatively
.
- Tom Hutchinson (coursebook author)
Grammar is not very important. The majority of languages have a very complex grammar. English has
very little grammar
and consequently it is
not very important
to understand it
.
- (ad for a London Language School)
Thornbury's
How to Teach Grammar
(1994:14)
Coursebook Syllabus
Grammar for English Language Teachers (2000) - Martin Parrott
usefulness
A syllabus is
pre-planned
and
itemised
.
It tells the teacher
what is to be covered
and
in what order
.

It is informed by two sets of decisions:
frequency
Grading
complexity
learnability
teachability
Error Analysis
Which Grammar?
Selection
Selection
Grading
(what order?)
(which grammar?)
=Phrasal verbs
= verb patterns
GV 428.207
PARROTT
verb patterns
Russian Speakers
Learning Styles
Error analysis developed in the
1970s
to counter
CAH
. The aim was to describe and analyse Ss errors in positive terms.
to be; to have; to do
According to the
Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis

(CAH),
which emerged in the
1960s
, errors are assumed to be the result of L1 '
interference' = influence
.
CA allows T to predict problem areas:
grammar
vocab
pronunciation
punctuation
(false friends= false cognates)
Spanish
: embarazada (to be pregnant)
= embarrassed
(English)
Slavic languages
: рецепта /retzepta/
= recipe OR prescription OR receipt
- allows T to
target specific areas

(gaps in language learning)
5
5
4
3
49
35
27
Learner English (2001)

-
Swan & Smith
Some errors correspond to the
'natural order' of first language acquisition
. For example, the regular past 'ed' ending is applied to irregular verbs:
He hit
ted me
! OR 'I put
ted
the plates ...'
=
perfect/continuous
(our view of the event unfolding in time: is it
complete/ in progress
?
SA University Students
Black South African English
Placement Tests
- learning styles questionnaire
-
'the learner expectations argument'
: Ss own expectations and motivation (Thornbury, 1999:17)
= teaching becomes more effective
- needs analysis form
Many errors can be explained in terms of Ss developing knowledge of the L2 structure (-> '
interlanguage
').
s
There is
many people.
I was
more angry
than her!
- provides a
structure
for Ts and Ss; a sense of security and progress;
guidance
for inexperienced Ts
- provides
graded content
that is suitable for Ss level and a
balance between language skills and systems
. (Ss get a feel for the language)
TIME
ASPECT
to be
to have
to do
2
6
7
12
8
3
10
11
4
9
5
1
* The Grammar Book (1999)
- Celce Murcia & Larsen-Freeman
THE BIG 5 = core grammar
NOTE: 3rd cond= only Inter level
2nd cond
= only Pre-Int/Inter level
Slips:

mistakes which Ss can correct themselves once the mistake is pointed out. Chomsky=
'performance'.
Errors:
mistakes which result from incorrect rule-learning. Ss can't correct them without formal explanation from the T. Chomsky=
'competence'.

Attempts:
mistakes which result from Ss trying out new/ complicated language. Have yet to learn form/rules of TL.
-> fossilization
- provides colourful,
diverse content
in a
cohesive framework
.
-
saves time
in terms of lesson planning; tests; extra speaking ideas; language analysis; classroom management
https://scottthornbury.wordpress.com/2010/03/21/l-is-for-learning-styles/
http://teachingenglish.britishcouncil.org.cn/article/multiple-intelligences
- coursebooks are
convenient
and '
economical
'
https://scottthornbury.wordpress.com/2010/05/16/c-is-for-coursebook-by-lindsay-clandfield/
What is grammar?
= the patterns of a language
syntax
morphology
parts of speech
GV 428.24 NEW
New Headway Elementary
New English File
True to Life Elementary
Grammar Syllabus
A comparison of
New Headway, The New Cambridge English Course, True to Life
(Beginner/Elementary)
:
relative pronouns?
Krashen's Natural Order Hypothesis vs Grammar Syllabus
I am reading (now).
(Thornbury, 1999:15)
We can study a language in terms of '
communicative function
':
= social purpose
exponent: the sentence itself/ the example of the TL
function: the purpose of the language/utterance
e.g. Have you got the time on you?
= asking for information
- lang. we use to express particular ideas or to achieve particular results in particular situations.
= 'communicative act
' = use lang to achieve a purpose (usually involves
social interaction
)
notion: concept/ an idea/ a topic
N
F
F
F
F
F
F
N
N
N
F
F
N
N
F
F
Note: only at Pre-inter level
Functions vs Notions
F
A Functional Syllabus
notion = topic
functional grammar
structural grammar
New Cambridge English Course 1
*Grading Task*
a) She has been working
She worked
She is working
She works
She will have been working
She has worked
b) where does she work?
does she work?
she works
she doesn’t work
doesn’t she work?
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