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Human Body 2015/2016

Advanced 7th grade life science 2015/2015
by

Jeff Berg

on 2 March 2016

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Transcript of Human Body 2015/2016

Human Body
Nervous
Digestive and Urinary
Circulatory
Respiratory
Skin or Integumentary
is amazing because of what it is capable of, due to all of the different organ systems that make up the human organism
The digestive system breaks down food
Nutrients are important substances that enable the body to move, grow, and maintain homeostasis
Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and water are some of the nutrients your body needs
Your muscular system is what helps you move and do different activities like, riding a bike, playing sports, eating, sitting up, walking, talking, etc.
Your skeletal system gives your body
support
and
protects
different organs and organ systems like your brain and nervous system, your lungs, and your heart.
These usable materials are nutrients, nutrients are important substances that enable the body to move, grow, and maintain homeostasis.

Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and water are some of the nutrients your body needs.
Digestion is the process of breaking down food into usable materials
Digestion is the process of
breaking down
food into usable materials
Two types of digestion

Mechanical digestion
is the process of breaking food into smaller pieces, by using your teeth. Your stomach also helps with mechanical digestion by mashing and pounding the food.

Chemical digestion
is the process of actually changing the food into a new different substance. Saliva in your mouth has enzymes that turn startches in crackers or potatoes into sugar.
Materials are broken down as they move through the digestive tract. Food moves through the body in this order; mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and then the large intestine.

Other organs like the pancreas, liver, and gall bladder release chemicals that are needed for chemical digestion.
Often we think of the urinary system as a way to remove the extra liquid in our bodies from drinking fluids throughout the day.

But it is just one of the bodies systems for removing waste materials
The urinary system disposes of
liquid waste
products that are removed from the blood
The respiratory system disposes of water vapor and waste gases from the blood
The digestive system disposes of solid waste products from food
The skin releases wastes through sweat glands
The urinary system contains the kidneys, which filters chemical waste out of your blood, then the liquid travels down the ureters to your bladder.
The kidneys also regulate the amount of
water
in the body, helps with homeostasis.
The circulatory system works with other body systems to
transport
materials from the digestive and respiratory systems to the cells.
All of these materials that are transported to or away from the cells are transported through blood.

Blood delivers
oxygen
and other materials to the cells and removes
carbon dioxide
and other wastes from the cells.
The
heart
is the organ that pushes blood through the circulatory system.

The heart is divided into the right and left side. The right side pumps blood to the
lungs
to receive oxygen and the left side pumps blood to
the entire body
.
Inside your lungs your respiratory and circulatory systems interact to bring oxygen to the cells of the body through the
blood
and to remove carbon dioxide from the cells.
Blood is made up of
red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, and platelets

Red blood cells pick up and transport
oxygen
throughout the body
White blood cells help your body
fight
infections by
attacking
disease causing organisms
Plasma is a fluid that contains proteins, glucose (sugar), hormones, gases, and other materials dissolved in
water
Platelets are large cell fragments that help form
blood clots
when a blood vessel is injured
Blood Vessels
Arteries
take blood away from the heart and have strong walls
Veins
are blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
Capillaries
connect arteries and veins
The respiratory system functions to get
oxygen
from the environment into the body and to remove
carbon dioxide
from the body.
Inside your cells a process called cellular respiration takes place to use oxygen to release energy from food through a chemical reaction.
The respiratory system includes the nose, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, lungs, and diaphragm
The skin or the integumentary system
includes all of your skin, hair, and nails

The integumentary system functions to;
repels water
guard against infection
maintain homeostasis
sense the environment
Your skin includes the dermis, epidermis, sweat and oil glands, hair and nails, and the sensory receptors

The skin is composed of two layers the epidermis and dermis, the
epidermis
is the outer layer that is tough and protective and the
dermis
is the inner layer that is strong and elastic
Sweat and oil glands help the body with homeostasis by controlling the bodies temperature and keeping the skin moist which helps protect the skin
Hair on your head helps protect it from the sun and keeps heat close to your head in the winter
Fingernails and toenails help protect the finger tips and toes from injury
Sensory receptors are attached to nerves to giver your brain signals that things are hot, cold, soft, painful, etc.
The skin grows and heals through cell division in the epidermis. New cells are produced to replace old cells. Cells are lost from the skins surface all the time. Every 2-4 weeks your skin surface is entirely new.
The Nervous system is designed to be a
control
center for the body and to
react
to stimulus.
To maintain
homeostasis
and to survive, your body must constantly monitor the environment in which you live. This involves organs that interact so closely with the nervous system they are considered extensions of the nervous system. The ability to see, smell, touch, hear, and taste.
The ability to see, smell, touch, hear,
and taste help you to react to stimuli.
A stimulus is any change in the
environment that you react to.
The central nervous system controls functions.
The brain directly controls voluntary behavior such as walking and thinking. It also allows the body to control most involuntary responses such as heartbeat, blood pressure, fluid balance, and posture
The
spinal cord
is the main pathway for information. It connects the brain and the nerves throughout your body
The peripheral nerve system is a network of nerves
both sensory and motor nerves are a part of this system
The
autonomic
nervous system controls the movements of the heart, the smooth muscles in the stomach, the intestines, and the glands. The two functions of this system is to conserve and store energy and to respond quickly to changes.
The
voluntary
nervous system monitors movement and functions that can be controlled consciously. This system controls the skeletal muscles of the arms and legs and the rest of the body. It also controls the muscles that are responsible for speech and the senses.
Immune System
Systems in the body function to maintain
health
The immune system defends the body
many systems work
together
to defend the body from pathogens or disease causing agents
Skin, respiratory, and digestive systems work to keep you healthy as the first line of defense
if something gets past the first line of defense then the immune system responds by producing
white blood cells
and some of the white blood cells produce
antibodies
.
Most diseases can be prevented or treated
Vaccines
are given to
prevent
getting a disease. A vaccine contains small amounts of dead or weakened pathogens that cause your body to produce
antibodies
to fight off the pathogen, this is to help you have antibodies already in your body just in case you come into contact with that specific disease.
Antibiotics
are medicines that block the growth and reproduction of bacteria (
only bacteria
, not viruses or fungi)
Antifungals
are used to treat fungal infections
Antiparasitics
are used to treat parasitic infections
Viruses are either prevented by a vaccine or your body has to fight it off. (common colds are not treated)
Antivirals
are used to treat viruses when treated within the first couple of days you get sick.
Microorganisms cause disease:

Bacteria
are single celled organisms that live almost everywhere. In your intestines bacteria help with digestion. So not all bacteria are bad, some are needed to help us live and survive. But some cause diseases like pneumonia, ear infections, strep throat.

Viruses
are not alive, they enter and exist inside other living cells in order to reproduce. Examples include stomach flu, chicken pox, and colds.

Fungi
can cause infections by spores that are in the air. Examples include athletes foot, ring worm, some blood infections, etc.

Parasites
cause parasitic infections and are more common in tropical and subtropical areas. Examples include malaria, roundworms, flatworms, etc.
Infectious diseases
can be spread in many ways
food, air, and water
contact with animals
person - to - person contact
Examples include viruses, bacteria, fungal, and parasites
Noninfectious diseases
are diseases that people can either be born with or develop during life. Some are
inherited through the genes
your parents give you, some are developed due to
environmental factors
and lifestyle choices (heart disease has a lot to do with eating high fat foods and not getting enough regular exercise).

Examples include cancer, inherited disorders like hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, other things like heart disease, etc.
To do these things the body needs
energy.
The most effective way our bodies can produce energy is called
cellular respiration.

In cellular respiration
oxygen
and
sugar

combine in a chemical reaction to produce
water, carbon dioxide
(the body gets rid of these as waste),

and chemical energy
that the body can use for lots of different functions.

This all happens in the
mitochondria
.
Things like moving our muscles, breathing, cell division, maintaining a constant body temperature all require energy. And every cell in our body needs oxygen and sugar to produce energy for that cell to be alive and do its job.
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