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Anatomy & Physiology: Immunology

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james donahue

on 13 March 2018

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Transcript of Anatomy & Physiology: Immunology

Surface barriers
mucous membranes
Internal defenses
NK cells
antimicrobial proteins
Humoral immunity
B cells
Cellular immunity
T cells
Innate (nonspecific) defense
first line of defense
skin and mucosal membranes
prevent entry
second line of defense
antimicrobial proteins, phagocytes
inhibit the spread of the pathogen
Adaptive (specific) defense
third line of defense
attacks a specific pathogen
immobilizes, neutralizes or destroys foreign substances
amplifies inflammatory response
is systemic
takes longer to react
has memory
stratified squamous epithelium
pH ~ 3-5
oil and saliva kill bacteria
gastric pH ~ 2
resistant to weak acids and bases, bacterial enzymes and toxins
Surface Barriers
mucosal membranes
traps microorganisms
engulf invaders
antimicrobial proteins
destroy foreign cell membranes
Mechanism of Phagocytosis
NK cell attacking a cancer cell
Mechanism of Inflammation
Why inflammation?
1) Prevent the spread of damaging
agents to nearby tissues
2) Dispose of cell debris and pathogens
3) Set the stage for repair processes
The four cardinal signs of acute inflammation:
1) redness
2) heat
3) swelling
4) pain
Adaptive immunity is antigen specific
Two separate but overlapping parts
1) Humoral immunity (B cells)

AKA - antibody-mediated immunity
2) Cellular immunity (T cells)

AKA - cell-mediated immunity
B-cells become immunocompetent and self-tolerent in the bone marrow
After an antigen challenge, differentiate into plasma cells (make antibodies) and memory B-cells (clones)
T cells become immunocompetent and self-tolerant in the thymus
negative selection eliminates T cells that are strongly anti-self
positive selection selects T cells with a weak response to self-antigens
Two major populations of T cells:
CD4 cells usually become helper T cells to make more cytotoxic T cells and activate macrophages
CD8 cells become cytotoxic T cells to kill virus-invaded cells and cancer cells
Autoimmune diseases
Multiple Sclerosis - demyelinates neurons
Myasthena Gravis - attacks ACh receptors
Graves' Disease - targets thyroid follicle cells
Type I Diabetes Mellitus - destroys pancreatic beta cells
Systemic Lupus Erythematosis (SLE) - anti-DNA antibodies
Be sure you can:
The Origin of the Anti-Vaccination Movement
found in lymphoid tissues, sweat, saliva, milk and intestinal fluids
prevents the attachment of pathogens to epithelial surfaces either inhaled or ingested
AKA - mucosal immunity
AKA - Immunoglobulins
first Ig released during the primary response
secreted by both naive and effector B cells
functions as a potent agglutinating agent and activator of B cells
attached to naive B cell surface
functions to bind foreign antigens in extracellular fluid and activate B cells
secreted by effector B cells after isotype switching
most abundant (75-85%)
protects against bacteria, viruses and toxins in the blood and lymph
main antibody of secondary and late primary responses
crosses the placenta
secreted by effector B cells after isotype switching
causes histamines to be released from basophils
amplifies the inflammation response
Religious reasons NOT to vaccinate
What is Measles (rubella and rubeola)?
spread through the air
can stay active for up to two hours
very contagious
90% chance of becoming infected if in
a room with someone with the disease
runny nose
sore throat
red eyes
white bumps on tongue
rash; starts at hair line and spreads
to neck, torso, limbs, hands and feet
1 in 10 develop ear infections and permanent hearing loss
1 in 20 develop pneumonia
1 in 1,000 develop encephalitis and brain damage
for every 1,000 infected, 1 - 2 die
for every 100,000 infected, 4 - 11 will develop subacute sclerosing paraencephalitis (SSPE), a rare but fatal disease, 7 - 10 years after infection
if infected while pregnant, can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth or birth defects including brain damage, visual impairments and cardiac malformation
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