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Assignment 4 - Diet planning for a selected athlete

BTEC Level 3 Unit 11 Sports Nutrition
by

Miss Watson

on 29 June 2016

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Transcript of Assignment 4 - Diet planning for a selected athlete

Diet planning for a selected athlete
Learning Intentions
P6: Describe the components of a balanced diet
P7: Plan an appropriate two week diet plan for a selected sports performer for a selected activity

M3: Explain the components of a balance diet
M4: Explain the two week diet plan for a selected sports performer for a selected sports activity

D2:Justify the two week diet plan for a selected sports performer for a selected sports activity
Components of a balanced diet
A balanced diet is essential for maintaining good health. There are seven components that make a healthy diet: carbohydrates, fats, protein, water, fibre, vitamins and minerals.

A balanced diet is important for both athletes and non-athletes. A non-athlete requires the following quantities of macronutrients and micronutrients
50-60% kcals from carbohydrates
10-20% kcals from protein
30% kcals from fat
A plentiful supply of vitamins and minerals from fruit and vegetables
2 litres of water

As the energy demands are higher for athletes their macronutrient needs change:
60-70% kcal from carbohydrates
10-20% kcal from protein
30% kcals from fat A plentiful supply of vitamins and minerals from fruit and vegetables
2 litres of water
Components of a balanced diet
Carbohydrates

The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for muscular contractions and for the brain and liver to function properly.

Carbohydrates should provide 50-60% (non athlete) or 60-70% (athlete) of calories intake. They are the body's preferred energy source providing 4 kcals per 1g consumed.

Carbohydrates come in a variety of forms:
Monosaccharides: Glocouse, Fructose and Galactose
Diasaccharides: Surrose, Lactose and Maltose
Polysaccharides: Pasta, Rice and Potatoes

Proteins

Proteins have three specific roles in the body
To build and repair structures (muscle, bone, organs, tissue, hair and nails)
To perform functions (hormones, enzymes, formation of lipoproteins)
To provide fuel (although protein is not the body's preferred energy source, it can be used during endurance training/events)

Proteins should provide 10-20% of calorie intake thus providing 4kcals per 1g consumed. Foods that provide a good source of protein include: lean meat, fish, eggs, milk and cheese.

Components of a balanced diet
Fats

Fats are vital to health and perform many important functions in the body e.g formation of cell membrane, protection of internal organs and heat production.

Fats can be divided into saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acid. The department of health recommends a person should have a maximum of 10% of kcal from saturated fat (dairy products), 12% kcal from monounsaturated fat (olive oil, avocados, almond oil) and 10% kcal from polyunsaturated (sunflower oil, nuts, seeds).

Adipose tissue is the fat stored around the body, high volumes of it can be dangerous to health and can lead to type 2 diabetes, heart disease and obesity.

Vitamins

Vitamins are organic substances that the body requires in small amounts. The body is unable to make vitamins for its overall needs, so they must be supplied regularly by the diet. Vitamins aid blood clotting, vision, reproduction and transmission of nerve impulses. They are subdivided into:
Water soluble - C and B
Fat soluble - A, D, E and K
Components of a balanced diet
Minerals

There are several minerals required to maintain a healthy body. Some are needed in moderate amounts and others in small amounts. Examples of minerals include:

Calcium - needed to build strong bones and teeth
Magnesium - aids the production of proteins and helps regulate body temperature
Phosphorus - essential for metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins

Water

Water is essential to life and is used by the body to transport chemicals and regulate body temperature. Only half of the body's water requirements come in the form of liquid. The other half is supplied from food and metabolic reactions.
Planning a diet: Selected activity
When planning a diet for any person, you need to look at the
physiological demands
placed upon them and the effect these have on their body structures and
fuel consumption
. You may also have to make a decision about whether to use food alone or to combine food with s
upplements, protein or multi-vitamins.

Aerobic athletes

The physiological demands on aerobic athletes are considerable therefore when planning a diet the following factors should be considered:

Replacing the energy lost during training
• Maintaining high energy levels
Repairing any damage done to the body's structure during training
The need for vitamins and minerals to ensure correct functioning of all body's systems
Replacement and maintenance of fluid levels

NB aerobic athletes will require a high carbohydrate diet in order to meet energy demands and should maintain fluid levels.

Planning a diet: Selected activity
An
a
erobic or power athletes

An anaerobic diet should have more focus on repairing muscle damage, replacing energy and maintaining fluid levels - this requires a
high protein diet.
The physiological demands on anaerobic athletes differ from the aerobic athlete and they include:

Repairing damaged muscles and other structures of the body
Replacing the energy lost during training
The need for vitamins and minerals to ensure correct functioning of all the body's systems
Replacement and maintenance of fluid levels

Combining carbohydrate with protein post exercise promotes an anabolic environment and increases protein synthesis that helps promote muscle development; however excessive protein intakes should be avoided.
Planning a diet: Selected activity

Recommended macronutrient intake
Protein

The amount of protein recommended is dependent upon the activity in which the individual is involved:

Sedentary adult: 0.8g per kg of body weight
Recreational adult: 0.8-1.5g per kg of body weight
Endurance athlete: 1.2-1.6g per kg of body weight
Speed/power athlete: 1.7-1.8g per kg of body weight
Adult building muscle: 2g per kg of body weight

Task:

If you have a sedentary adult weighing 70kg what is their recommended protein intake?

If you have a body builder weighing 90kg what is their recommended protein intake?

Protein is best utilised if it is taken on in amounts of 30-35g at a time. A chicken breast or tin of tuna gives 30g of protein, it is advised for a body builder to consume 6 portions of 30g of protein rather than 3 large protein meals.
Recommended macronutrient intake
Carbohydrate

The amount of carbohydrate recommended is based on the activity level of the individual in terms of its length and intensity.

An endurance athlete would need 10g a day, mainly from complex carbohydrate sources e.g. rice, potatoes, pasta.


The table shows a summary of the studies done into male and female athletes to show the percentage of macronutrients different types of athletes should be consuming in order to maximise their sporting performance.
Timing
Optimal performance in sport and exercise requires optimal nutrition. Sportspeople should pay careful attention to foods that can enhance their preparation for competitions and aid recovery. To prepare for optimum performance diets should be planned according to their competition calendar. Co-ordinating the timing of a diet with the competition calendar will help prepare the athlete for a definite peak in the competition season.

Pre season nutrition

The main aim of pre-season nutrition is often to l
ose any post season weight gain
. However this nutritional strategy must take into account the demands of training in terms of frequency, intensity, duration and specificity. When the frequency, intensity and duration of training increases so will the athletes nutritional demands. Pre season nutrition will require the athlete to increase their carbohydrate and fluid intake. If an athlete does not meet the nutrient demands of pre season training then this will increase the risk of injury and illness.



Timing
Mid season

Nutritional demands of the mid-season phase are focused on
maintaining energy
and
fluid requirements
as the demands of the competition schedule get underway. During this time, less overall nutrition may be required but more attention may be placed on pre event preparation and post event recovery strategies to remain injury and illness.

Post season

Post season presents a window of opportunity where the athlete can relax dietary intake a little but unnecessary weight gain should be monitored. It is likely during this period that energy and fluid requirements will be at their lowest.

Timing
Pre event

The pre event meal should aim to
top up muscle and liver glycogen stores
. Therefore the pre event meal should be
rich in carbohydrate but low in fat and fibre
and contain a
moderate amount of protein.
In addition this meal should be familiar to the athlete and provide adequate fluids. Solid foods can usually be consumed with comfort up to two hours before an event, but liquid meals or carbohydrate drinks can be consumed 30-60 minutes before.

Athletes participating in events that last longer than 90 minutes should be advised, where possible, to taper training in the week leading up to the event, include a rest day and consume a higher than normal carbohydrate and fluid intake.

Inter event

During training and competition fluid loss is major. Therefore it is recommended throughout intense training or competition to
drink isotonic sports drinks
to assist fluid replacement and provide a source of fuel. This is beneficial if the training or competition lasts longer than 60 minutes. During ultra endurance events solid food may be consumed e.g. energy bars/gels as a concentrated source of carbohydrate.
Timing
Post event

Refuelling after an event should begin as soon as possible. The longer refuelling is delayed the longer it will take to fully refuel. Sensible choices in terms of food and fluid will allow the sports performer to recovery more quickly for the next training session.
Components of a balanced diet
Fibre

Dietary fibre is a complex carbohydrate that aids the transit of food through the digestive system. Fibre is found in wholegrain cereals, fruit, vegetables and nuts. A high fibre diet combined with a high fluid intake helps reduce the risk of colon cancer, irritable bowel syndrome and diabetes. There are two types of fibre:
Soluble fibre: found in oats, rye and barley, it plays an important role in maintaining blood glucose and cholesterol levels.
Insoluble fibre: found in whole-wheat, bread and pasta, it helps prevent bowel disorders.
Planning a diet: Assessment of needs

Weight gain

Weight can be gained in two ways: by increasing the amount of fat or lean body mass. Gains in fat are relatively easy to achieve. However, gains in lean body mass can only be achieved as a result of adaptation to a progressive strength training programme, supported by an adequate diet.

Weight loss

Most sports people are concerned about either attaining or maintaining their body weight. However, in some sports weight restrictions apply i.e. rowing, boxing and horse racing therefore the sportsperson must compete within a given weight range.

For some sports it is crucial to maintain a low body weight, which for some may be below their natural weight (gymnastics, diving, figure skating). This can present many challenges in maintaining a nutritionally adequate diet. The best type of diet to help the person lose weight but still have enough energy to train would be a low fat diet.

Planning a diet: Assessment of needs
Muscle gain

Strength training provides the stimulus for muscle to grow while adequate nutrition provides the opportunity for them to grow at an optimal rate.

Rates of muscle gain are dependent on genetics and body types. To gain strength and size, it is necessary to achieve a positive energy balance:

Increase calorie intake by 500kcal per day
Increase protein intake to 1.4-1.7g per kg of body weight

Planning a diet: Selected activity
Muscular strength and endurance

Many sports can fall into this category dependent upon the particular physiological demands of the sport. For example high levels of muscular endurance are required for some team sports such as rugby as well as category sports such as judo. Nutritional demands will be dictated by the nature of the individual sport and participant requirements, but key nutrients for consideration in all cases are
carbohydrate and fluid
.

Flexibility

For sports that require a good deal of flexibility e.g. diving, gymnastics and figure skating weight control is a serious dietary issue. Leanness or specific weight may be considered important for optimal performance, placing greater consciousness of what the sports person eats and how they look. The same healthy eating and balance of good health principles apply for these sports but greater emphasis may be placed on a
low fat diet
. However, this should not be at the expense of other essential nutrients. Adequate
hydration
is essential to maintain concentration for the technically demands of these sports.
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