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The Baby's Development

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Anna Spivey

on 2 February 2014

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Transcript of The Baby's Development

Pregnancy, Labor, and Delivery
The Baby's Development
1. Germinal Stage (fertilization- 2 weeks)
3. Fetal Stage (8 weeks- birth)
Pregnancy
Thanks for Coming!
Zygote (your cell fertilized by the sperm) divides forming about 1000 cells
zygote journeys through fallopian tube and implants itself in uterus wall. It's now an embryo
major body parts grow
embryo becomes more active
last 2 months: brain cells increase and start interconnecting. They'll continue interconnecting even after birth
birth
24 weeks: incredibly fragile
36 weeks: can survive but is very small
38-40 weeks: full term
2. Embryonic Stage (2- 8 weeks)
organs develop
head begins developing before feet
why the head is bigger
cell group outside embryo becomes placenta
connects to mother through the umbilical cord
carries nutrients and oxygen from mother to the baby
carries waste from baby to mother
3rd week: cells start being assigned different roles
4th week: heart starts beating, digestive system starts forming
6-8 weeks: reproductive system becomes male or female
What to Expect
1. Trimester 1 (Week 1- Week 12)
Bleeding
Although period stops, may see light spotting of blood
Caution: See doctor if have much bleeding, cramping, sharp pain in abdomen
Breast Tenderness and Swelling
Try wearing a bigger sized bra
Constipation
Try eating more fiber, drinking more fluids, keeping physically active
Discharge: thin, milky white residue
try wearing a panty liner but don't wear a tampon, it could bring germs
See doctor if it is green, yellow, smells bad, or there's a lot of clear fluid
Extreme Tiredness
try taking naps and eating more iron
see doctor if have severe dizziness
Morning sickness: nausea and vomiting
does not just happen in morning
treatments:
eat several mini meals throughout the day instead of 3 big ones
do not lie down after eating
eat plain, low fat foods like cereal, rice, and bananas
See doctor if nausea is severe or you have flu symptoms as well
mood swings
cravings for some food and disgust for other
see doctor if crave substances that aren't food (i.e. dirt, laundry detergent)
peeing more often
headache
heart burn
don't lie down until an hour after eating
don't eat spicy/ greasy foods late at night
gaining weight
expect to gain about 3-6 pounds
should only be eating about 150 calories more per day
see doctor if gain weight is fast or too little
More Common Symptoms for Trimester 1
What to Expect in Trimester 2 (Week 13- Week 28)
backache
try sleeping on your side w/ pillow between legs, leaning on chairs with good back support, using shoes with good arch
breast enlargement
bleeding gums
keep brushing and flossing just try being gentler
runny nose and nosebleeds
try using a humidifier and saline drops instead of a congestant
hair growth in new places
shaving or tweezing may be safer than laser hair removal, waxing, and electrolysis
And just as in Trimester 1
headache
heartburn
constipation
peeing more frequently
discharge
weight gain
gain about 0.5 to 1 pound per week
eat extra 300-500 calories daily
see doctor if you've gained more than 6.5 pounds per month or less than 10 total by 20th week
hemorrhoids: swollen veins around the anus
try taking a warm bath or ask your doctor for an over the counter cream
quickening
you may begin feeling slight movement in your abdomen
face appears flushed and develops brown marks
skin more sensitive to sun so wear sunscreen and limit sun exposure between 10 am and 2pm
stretch marks (reddish purple lines) on your stomach, breasts thighs, or behind
itching hands, feet, abdomen
contact doctor if have nausea or decrease in appetite as well as itching
swollen feet, fingers, hands
contact doctor if swelling is extreme
What to Expect During the Third Trimester (Week 29- Week 40)
mild contractions
if contractions become regular and you're red in the face and short of breath after them, contact your doctor, they may be the real contractions
being out of breath
try exercising and propping your head and shoulders up with pillows at night
breast tenderness
they may begin secreting yellowish milky substance
baby moving lower down in stomach
struggles sleeping
If you notice vaginal bleeding contact doctor immediately
And as in the Previous Trimesters
hemorroids
swelling around the ankles and face
try propping your feet up on boxes or chairs while sitting and elevating while sleeping
contact doctor if swelling is sudden
weight gain
should have put on approximately 25-35 pounds by the time the pregnancy ends (see doctor for specifics)
discharge
if notice sudden rush of fluid, your water could have broken. Contact doctor immediately
Nutrition
eat 20% times more protein
need 50% times as much folic acid, iron, and vitamin B6
folic acid helps prevent defects in baby's brain and spinal cord
found in leafy vegetables (spinach, lettuce), fortified grains(cereal, bread, pasta, flour), citrus fruits, nuts, beans
Iron helps transfer oxygen in blood
eat lean meats
Vitamin B6 is in whole grains, meat, poultry, fish, beans
eat calcium to strengthen baby and your bones
try taking a prenatal vitamin to account for any nutrients you could've missed in your diet
List of Recommended Foods
beans
beef
berries
broccoli
cheese
eggs
milk
orange juice
pork tenderloin
salmon
sweet potato
whole grains
yogurt
Food to Avoid
don't drink more than 300 mg caffeine
8-ounce cup of coffee has about 150 mg caffeine
chocolate bars have about 20-60 mg caffeine
eat 20% less calories
avoid deli meats
try heating them until steaming and eating them right after
wash vegetables before eating them
stay away from raw fish, soft cheeses, undercooked meat,
Exercise
try exercising for at least 30 minutes a day
examples of good exercise:
swimming
low impact aerobics
fast walking
indoor cycling
step/ elliptical machines
make sure to warm up and cool down
don't overheat
rule of thumb: you should be able to carry on a normal conversation while exercising. If you can't, you're working yourself too hard
Harmful Physical Activities
Do not:
exercise in intense spurts and then stay inactive for a long period of time
partake in activities in which falling is common (horseback riding, skiing)
play contact sports (volleyball, basketball)
hold your breath
do full sit ups, straight leg toe touches, double leg raises, deep knee bends
lift heavy weights
Medications
stop use of all over-the-counter medication until approved by doctor
even aspirin can hurt the fetus
acne medication such as Accutane can create birth defects
stop use before conception
if you have a heart condition it could worsen during pregnancy so consult doctor before planning a pregnancy
Part 2: Labor and Delivery
Signs that Labor is Coming
Labor usually begins 2-3 weeks before birth and lasts up to 2 weeks after it
Lightening: baby moves down lower into pelvis
increases frequency of urination
may make it easier to breath
diarrhea
mucus plug released
normally prevents infection by blocking opening to cervix
brownish discharge from vagina
water breaking: amniotic fluid which surrounded baby is released
usually means labor will start in 24 hours
contractions start happening less than 10 min apart = labor began
Stage 1 of Labor: the Longest Stage
1. Latent Phase
mild contractions approximately 30-90 sec in length
try taking a bath/ shower, listening to calming music, changing positions, holding an ice or heat pack to your lower back
generally lasts 6-12 hours
2. Active Labor
cervix dilates to 10 cm
contractions last longer, happen more frequently, and are more powerful
may experience nausea, leg cramps, greater pressure on lower back
if not already at birthing facility, go now
try changing positions, rolling on a large rubber ball, showering or bathing, receiving massages, taking a walk, breathing regularly
pant through the contractions
do not push too early, at beginning of active labor, or cervix could swell
lasts around 8 hours
Stage 2: Birth
Push
you could either push with every contraction or whenever you feel the need to
push where the baby is coming from, do not keep the tension elsewhere, like in your face, direct it down
try out different positions
squatting, kneeling, sitting, lying down
you might be asked to push less intensely at some point to let your vaginal tissue rest
head delivered first, with subsequent pushes rest of body come through
time duration: several minutes- several hours
1st time mothers spend more time in stage 2 than mothers who've already given birth
Stage 3: Delivery of Placenta and Fetal Membranes
mild contractions
may feel chills, shakiness
may have to push one last time to expel placenta
will come out with blood
doctor will make sure placenta is whole and will remove any missing parts from the uterus to prevent infection
lasts 5-30 minutes
Monitoring
stage 1: pelvic examinations to check for cervix size
measure baby's heartbeat with Doppler device/ fetoscope
may have continuous fetal monitoring
2 transducers on abdomen measure baby heartbeat and uterus contractions
internal fetal monitoring: electrode put through cervix and attached to baby's head
Pain Relief Options
regional anesthesia
epidural: temporarily stops pain in lower body, used throughout entire labor
spinal block: temporarily stops pain in lower body, used right before delivery
some research shows these are more effective than medication
medication
may have side effects like nausea, itchiness, or drowsiness
massages
breathing techniques, yoga
may make you feel more in control but still permit pain
Consider taking a breastfeeding class/ investing in a breast pump
stock up on diapers
start packing for the hospital about a month before due
place in easy to access bag
research labor procedures and baby care via the web, birthing centers, doula, family/friends
talk with someone about your fears related to pregnancy
break out session: get into small groups with the women around you and share some of the fears you've been experiencing
practice imagery/ visualization, focusing on things that make you happy, picturing yourself in relaxing environments
Preparing for Labor
Breathing Techniques
slow breathing
breathe.... moan
quick breathing
quick breath... contraction
take quick breaths every 2-3 seconds
during contractions breathe slowly and rhythmically
have your partner help you regain the rhythm by hand or head motions
exhale tension
Websites to Explore
mayoclinic.org
webmd.com
medicinenet.com
lamazae.org
Stress
mild stress will not necessarily affect the baby
high levels and continuous pregnancy-related stress could cause lower birthweight and pre-term birth
pre-term birth: baby more likely to experience defects such as learning disorders, chronic lung disease, and infant mortality
when mom stressed, fetus deals with this by creating a permanent response to high stress environment, could be more likely to struggle with stress after birth
try slowing down, not trying to achieve everything, doing less chores, going to sleep early, connecting with other women in a support group
break out session: get into a small group with the women around you and share some ways you could cope with the stresses of pregnancy
Other Resources
Paying for doctor's visits
go on the Medicaid website to see if you qualify now that you're pregnant
Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) can help you find cheaper medical care. Contact them at (877) 543-7669
Paying for food
Contact Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) for food, health care referrals, and nutrition education. Visit www.fns.usda.gov/wic/women-infants-and-children-wic
USDA National Hunger Clearinghouse refers to food programs near you and government programs you're eligible for. Call them at (866) 348-6479
Maternal and Child Health Bureau arranges medical care and support for pregnant women. Call (800) 311-2229 (800-311-BABY) to find services near you
Text4baby gives advice to pregnant women on health by sending a free text message once a week. Sign up by texting BABY to 511411 (or BEBE in Spanish)
Environmental Hazards
stay away from:
dental x-rays
paint fumes
loud work environment
increases risk of baby's hearing loss
may relate to preterm birth and prevent growth development
Pick up sheet at the door for a summary of some general tips and a list of resources
Medical Interventions
labor induction
if labor doesn't progress in time can get shot of oxytocin to stimulate uterine muscles
forecps and vacuum extraction
if baby has already moved down low into uterine canal but contractions have weakened, doctor could use forceps (metal instruments that reach in canal to pull baby out) or vacuum extraction (put plastic cup on baby's head)
episiotomy
vaginal opening isn't big enough to let infant pass without tearing
incision between vagina and anus to widen opening
may be harder to heal with an epsiotomy than a tear
to lessen the chance of needing one, try giving birth in an upright position
caesarean delivery
surgical delivery instead of vaginal delivery
mother gets spinal/ epidural anesthesia
controversial
Alcohol and Drugs
Smoking lowers the amount of oxygen in the baby's lungs, can prevent development, and increase risks for conditions such as Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
alcohol leading cause of birth defects, mental disablities
can cause premature birth
cocaine and methamphetamine can cause preterm and low-birthweight babies
cocaine increases the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and mental and behavioral problems
baby of mother's who are drug addicted could become addicted themselves and experience withdrawal at birth
mother's who inject drugs are at a higher risk of getting HIV and passing it on to their baby
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