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Copy of America, 1800-1860
Transcript of Copy of America, 1800-1860
Family Block US History
Revised by Anne Raybon
The Antebellum Period
Causes of the Civil War
The idea that the destiny of the United States was to spread its democratic ideals and religion westward to the Pacific ocean.
Inspired by the Second Great Awakening--expansion seen as God's desire.
Led to the acquisition of land: Louisiana Purchase, Florida, Texas, Oregon and the Gadsden Purchase.
The idea of Manifest Destiny and the reality of Expansionism eventually led to a major dispute --should the new states allow slavery or not? The northern states said "no," the southern states said "yes." As more western territory was added, this issue became more divisive.
The Transportation Revolution
Expansionism was made possible by, and led to further development of new methods of transportation, such as trains and steamboats, and growth of the industries needed to run them (iron, steel and coal).
The industrial revolution (underway in England since 1750) brought mass production to America, which led to growth in income and population, and capitalism as the preferred economic system.
Sectionalism - As the United States expanded westward in the 1800s, different regions of the United States began to develop distinct identities.
The Three Main Sections were:
The identities of these sections were initially influenced by geography
From Pennsylvania to New England and from the Atlantic Ocean to the Appalachian Mountains
Characterized by cold winters, poor soil and the Atlantic Ocean
So they turned to commerce, shipbuilding and fishing. The north also was known for their
Stretched from the Chesapeake Bay to Florida, and as far west as the Mississippi River
Rich soil and a long growing season led to heavy reliance on agriculture, plantations, and slave labor to cultivate cash crops--cotton, tobacco, rice.
Lands between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. It eventually came to be everything west of the Mississippi River
Characterized by Cheap, fertile land
There were also many Native American Indians and Mexicans living there
As America expanded, these new groups began to develop their own cultures based on
geography, economy, and religion.
Sectionalism strengthened the attitudes toward the federal government
Southern states were wary of a strong federal government because they were opposed to tariffs (taxes on imports) since they needed to import goods and to export their agricultural products.
The north preferred a more powerful federal government because northern industry needed government support in the form of tariffs (taxes on imports) to protect their profits.
The Northern region was much more urbanized with railroads and canals connecting cities and their factories. The economy was based on the manufacture of goods in workshops, factories and mills.
The South was primarily rural, with few roads and rail lines and little industry. The economy was based on cash crops produced on plantations, which required cheap labor --slaves--to make a profit.
As the United States grew, so did sectionalism and the division over the issue of slavery.
Slavery had always been a major issue dividing the North and South, since the founding of the nation it had been dealt with temporarily through compromises.
Nothing was ever settled long term, but it allowed the north and south to avoid a serious conflict over slavery.
In 1820 the Missouri Compromise was enacted. It allowed Missouri to join the U.S. as a slave state and for Maine to join as a free state.
The Missouri Compromise also permitted slavery in any future states below the latitude line of 36'30" (see map) and prohibited slavery in future states above the line.
The Missouri Compromise held the nation together for about 30 more years.
Sectionalism was a dispute between two different ways of life--and as Sectionalism grew, so did the issue of slavery.
In 1849, California, where gold had been found the previous year, wanted entry as a free state.
If California came in it would upset the balance of power in congress.
Northerners liked the idea of California becoming a free state, while the South hated it.
With the rise of Expansionism and Sectionalism (Missouri Compromise and Compromise of 1850), another issue came to the forefront of debate and dispute: Abolitionism
In 1854, The Kansas-Nebraska Act was enacted. It canceled the Missouri Compromise, and opened the Great Plains for settlement. Any new states would be allowed to choose whether they would be slave or free (popular sovereignty).
This enraged many Northerners, who thought that the Missouri Compromise had placed the Great Plains as off-limits for slavery. They formed the
in 1854 to oppose slavery.
As a result, Kansas and the Midwest became a battleground. Both the North and South sent pro-slavery or abolitionist groups into the territory to settle, vote, and control the decision. This led to violent confrontations between the two groups, and became known as "Bleeding Kansas." In many ways, it was a proxy war (a war fought somewhere else) between North and South.
Some fought for the abolitionist movement through the judicial system:
Dred Scott was a slave who was taken by his master to live in free states and territories. He took his owner to court, arguing that he'd been enslaved illegally in the areas where slavery was illegal.
The case eventually reached the Supreme Court, in 1857.
The Court ruled against Dred Scott. The court said he was property (not a person), that living in a free state did not make a slave free, that no person of African descent (including free blacks) were citizens of the United States, and that congress could not regulate slavery.
The court's decision outraged the North and fired up the Abolitionist cause.
After the election of 1860, some of the southern states were ready to secede (pull out) from the United States.
Most events from 1800-1860 that led to the Civil War can be connected to
The moral teachings of the Second Great Awakening led many people to believe that reforms in many areas of life were needed, and that individuals could do God's will by working to make those changes take place. Reform movements included women's suffrage (the right to vote), prison improvement, better care for the mentally ill and disabled, temperance (anti-alcohol), education, and abolitionism--the end of slavery.
Union vs. Confederacy
both the North and the South thought the war would be a quick victory
had more supplies, people, and a better economy
Fighting on own soil and had great military leadership
First Battle of Bull Run
first major land battle of the civil war
Win for the South
Wake up call for the North
Abraham Lincoln and General Winfield Scott devised a strategy
Surround the south and squeeze it to death
Set up a naval blockade
stop southern trading (cut off supplies)
Battle of Antietam
September 17, 1862 in Sharpsburg, Maryland
bloodiest one-day battle in U.S. History
turning point in the war
Lincoln issued a warning to the confederates
return to the union or he would free their slaves
They ignored the warning and Lincoln declared all slaves in rebellious states forever free
Took awhile to take affect but foreshadowed what was to come
Battle of Gettysburg
General Lee and 750,000 troops vs. Union force of 95,000
Ended in Union victory and major turning point in the war
Led to the Gettysburg address
lead to a "new birth of freedom"
General Grant vs. General Lee
Sherman's March to the Sea
William Tecumseh Sherman wage a campaign of destruction through Georgia and the Carolinas
African americans still faced racism and were killed in riots over inequality
Often sang songs to pass the time when not at war
Effects on African Americans
Fled to union lines for safety
some returned to owners
After time allowed "collored troops"
45th Massachusetts Regiment (black unit)
won acceptance for black soldiers
Higher death rates; not given quality guns or supplies
Effects on the Soldiers
New weapons --> death
improved guns and canons
Soldiers massed together
easier target with better guns--> blood bath
Often fought in open fields
Poor sanitation and hygiene
faced with riots from draft disagreement and taxes on food
Women's Contributions to the War
Many disguised themselves and fought
Some women worked behind lines as spies
Provided medical care
houses turned into medical shelters
Men believed nurses were "unlady like"
presence of women in the hospital would distract the soldiers
Forced to form crucial jobs to support the family and war effort
North- worked in factories with ammunition
South- Worked in fields
EFFECTS OF THE WAR
Follow the Drinking Gourd
Causes of the Civil War
Effects of the Civil War
Becoming increasingly urban
Factories, mass production, heavy industry
Stretched from New England to Pennsylvania, and as far west as the Appalachians
West of the Mississippi
New patterns of life emerged, as settlers moving westward interacted with the Native Americans and Mexicans.
The first Republican president ever, Lincoln led the Union to victory in the Civil War and ended slavery in America.
Lincoln's assassination on 14 April 1865 removed his politically moderate influence from the national stage, giving way to a more radical form of Reconstruction.
Served as commander in chief of the Union army during the Civil War, leading the North to victory over the Confederacy.
Grant later became the eighteenth President of the United States, serving from 1869-77.
Grant accepted Confederate General Robert E. Lee's surrender on 9 April 1865.
Against secession but he declined Lincoln's offer to command the Union Army.
Declared his allegiance to his home state of Virginia.
Lee commanded the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia until his surrender to General Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865.
One book in particular increased the hostility of many Northerners toward the South: "Uncle Tom's Cabin," written in 1852 by Harriet Beecher Stowe. The book was a runaway best seller, and changed forever how Americans viewed slavery, the system that treated people as property. It demanded that the United States deliver on the promise of freedom and equality, galvanized the abolition movement and contributed to the outbreak of the Civil War.
End of Part 1
The Compromise of 1850 permitted California to be admitted as a free state, and allowed settlers in New Mexico and Utah to decide whether they wanted to allow or prohibit slavery in their states.
It also strengthened the Fugitive Slave Act, meaning owners had more rights in recovering runaway slaves.
It increased friction between the North and South. Geographically, the west was not suited for plantations or slavery, and the southern states could foresee an America which eventually would have a minority of slave states.
However, it held the country together for a few more years.
In Congress, Massachusetts Senator Daniel Webster often spoke for the North.
Webster was known for his oratory skills. In Congress he spoke passionately in favor of the Union, and was completely against slavery.
In Congress, South Carolina Senator John C. Calhoun represented the Southern point of view.
He loved the southern way of life, and defended slavery. He believed slavery was necessary, and morally beneficial. He also believed that the Union would work best if states had more power.
Settlers from the eastern U.S. and recent immigrants from Europe were attracted to the west by the availability of cheap land.
Although Senator Henry Clay represented Kentucky, he often spoke for Western interests.
He owned slaves, but believed in the Union. He was called the "Great Compromiser" because of his skill at negotiating.
Clay, Calhoun and Webster were known as the "Great Triumvirate." They did not necessarily agree with each other, but put the nation first when working out compromises dealing with slavery throughout the 1800s. Their ability to compromise held the nation together until the late 1850s
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