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Plagiarism & Harvard Referencing

Public Services

Caroline Proctor

on 12 October 2012

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Transcript of Plagiarism & Harvard Referencing

Plagiarism & Referencing Harvard Referencing What are references & citations? What is correct referencing? Why reference? (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr Academic & practical reasons:
To provide supporting evidence for facts, opinions, data and approaches taken
To give your work academic credibility
To show you have read widely and know your subject
To protect yourself from accusations of plagiarism Harvard Referencing & Plagiarism If you include information from other works to support your assignments you must reference these in your work

This is true whether you use direct quotes from the works you read or whether you just use ideas you have read about.

Even if you paraphrase we still need to provide a reference. A citation appears in the text of your essay, wherever you use a quote or incorporate an idea you have picked up from another source .
A reference or bibliography appears at the end of your essay and gives the full details of each source of information that you have used.
A reference must give enough information so that your tutor, or anyone else reading the essay can go away and track down the source item. Using different sources When researching for your assignment you will be expected to use multiple sources. For example: Books
Journal articles
Electronic journals
Electronic resources How to reference a book: Authors surname, initial(s). (year of publication) Book title. (I) Edition- if not the first. City of publication: publisher How to reference a printed journal: Authors surname, Authors initial (s). (year of publication) Title of article. Title of journal (I). Volume (part number/ month) page number of artile (from beginning to end) How to reference a website: Authors surname, Authors initial(s)- or name of website if not authors name is available. (year in brackets) Title of web document (I) [Online]. Date of document- if specified. Available from: URL. [Accessed: followed by the date you accessed] How to reference an e-journal: Authors surname, Initial(s) (year of publication). Title of article. Title of journal (I). [Online]. Volume number (part number/ month). p: followed by page numbers. Available from: URL. [Accessed: followed by the date you accessed] Task: What is plagiarsim? Plagiarism is when we copy the work of someone else and pretend that it is our own. Plagiarism can be intentional or unintentional and includes copying another student’s work, buying essays online or copying and pasting bits of text, diagrams or videos from the internet. More information:
Secondary Referencing- It will be a common occurrence where the author of the book you are reading mentions a piece of research carried out by someone else or for example gives a useful fact, statistic or quote then gives a citation naming another author. You want to use this bit of information but are not sure how you should go about referencing it in your bibliography after.

There are two possible solutions to this. First you can identify, find and read the source mentioned yourself (you should be able to find the full citation in the back of the book) and check the accuracy of the summary given by the author of the book in which you found that piece of information (the secondary source author). You can then refer to this new source directly as you have read it yourself, this is the best option.


If you struggle to find the primary source of information, or you are 100% sure that the author you have been reading is accurate in the way in which they have summarised, paraphrased or quoted the original author then it is ok in this instance to carry out secondary referencing. For example in the book, Licensed to work by Barrie Sherman and Phil Judkins (1995) there is reference to another writer, Ivan Illich, who refers to ‘shadow work’. If the Sherman and Judkins book was used as a secondary source your citation must make this clear. So for example you could write:

Ivan Illich (1981), as summarised by Sherman and Judkins (1995, p.121), has suggested that ‘shadow work’ …….
Sherman and Judkins in their book (1995, p.121) refer to the work of Ivan Illich (1981), who coined the term ‘shadow work’ as being……

In your bibliography at the end you would then only need to include a reference for the Sherman and Judkins book which you have read. Task Staffordshire University Ref zone: http://www.staffs.ac.uk/uniservices/infoservices/library/find/references/harvard/index.php What is paraphrasing? Paraphrasing involves close attention to a particular section of a text and attempting, in your own words, to capture the essence of the original. How to cite When we use a direct quote, or the words and ideas of another author we need to firstly make sure we acknowledge them within the body of our text. To do this we type our quote in quotation marks, or introduce someone's point of view in a sentence and follow this by the author and year of publication. Page numbers can be added but this is not essential for the Harvard style of referencing- ask your lecturer if this is required!

For example:
“The important thing is to choose reliable sources that give credence, authority and support to the ideas and arguments that you present” (Neville 2007)
Neville (2007) believes that the important thing is to choose reliable sources that give credence, authority and support to the ideas and arguments that you present. To protect from
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