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POOP

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lily mohr

on 10 June 2014

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Transcript of POOP

“He would get embarrassed, he’d have accidents onstage. He’d have to change clothes and come back because of the way we were trying to treat his constipation. I just want to get the story straight... it was chronic constipation that actually killed the King of Rock and Roll."
Relevance to "Gulp"
Feces Formation
What is poop?
Poop is brown due to bilirubin, a byproduct of red blood cell breakdown that is found in bile. Bilirubin is originally yellow, but after interaction with various gut bacteria, the iron found in bilirubin causes normal feces to be brown.
In an ideal bowel movement (bristol type 4), the fecal matter is composed of :
75% water
25% solids
8% dead bacteria
8% fiber
4% cholesterol + other lipids
4% inorganic substances (ex: calcium phosphate and other salts)
1% protein
cell debris from the intestinal tract
A general overview and self experimentation on the subject of fecal matter by L. Mohr
The Bristol Stool Scale
Why does it smell?
Poop smells because it contains the chemicals indole, skatole, hydrogen sulfide, and mercaptans. These chemicals are produced by the bacteria in your intestinal tract .
FECES
The Bristol Stool Scale was created by Dr. Ken Heaton at the University of Bristol in 1997 as a self diagnostic tool to allow patients to effectively communicate with their doctors about the texture of their feces. The Bristol Stool Chart is especially useful for patients who are embarrassed or ashamed of openly discussing their bowel movements.


Types 1 & 2 indicate constipation
Types 3, 4 & 5 are considered healthy
Type 4 specifically is optimal
Types 6 & 7 indicate diarrhea
Why is poop brown?

Constipation
Constipation is defined by having 2 or more of the following symptoms:
-Straining during excretion more that 25% of the time
-Hard stool more than 25% of the time
-Incomplete excretion more than 25% of the time
-Two or less bowel movement per week








-On the bristol stool chart, constipation is represented by stool types 1 & 2.
Causes of Constipation
"-Inadequate water intake
-Inadequate fiber in the diet
-A disruption of regular diet or routine; traveling
-Inadequate activity or exercise or immobility
-Eating large amounts of dairy products
-Stress
-Resisting the urge to have a bowel movement, -which is sometimes the result of pain from hemorrhoids

-Overuse of laxatives (stool softeners) which, over time, weaken the bowel muscles
-Hypothyroidism
-Neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis
-Antacid medicines containing calcium or aluminum
-Medicines (especially strong pain medicines, such as narcotics, antidepressants, or iron pills)
-Depression
-Eating disorders
-Irritable bowel syndrome
-Pregnancy
-Colon cancer"

-WebMD
How to Avoid Constipation
Drink more water ( at least 8 cups per day)
Eat more fiber filled foods (fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains.
Exercise regularly
Diarrhea
Diarrhea is represented by stool types 6 and 7 on the Bristol Stool Scale.
-Osmotic Diarrhea: water from the general body is drawn into the bowel and causes watery stool.
-Secretory diarrhea: the body releases water into the bowel when its not supposed to. This can be a side effect of many drugs or infections.
-Exudative diarrhea: there is blood and pus in the stool. This is caused various diseases an infections.

I was inspired by chapters 16, "I'm all stopped up" & 17 "The ick factor" in "Gulp" that addressed constipation and fecal matter. These topics intrigued me because they are not typically discussed publicly. This lack of awareness around feces & constipation encouraged me to focus on them in my project in order to allow more people to understand the issue surrounding colon health.
Laxatives
Fiber
Women should eat
25
grams of fiber per day, and men should eat
38
. However, the average American only eats
13
grams of fiber daily.
Soluble Fiber
Insoluble Fiber
Allows water to remain in your stool, which makes the stool softer. This allows it to pass through the colon more easily.
Adds mass to your waste. This allows it to travel through the colon faster.
"Foods with the most Fiber:
Fruits: pears, apples, berries, oranges, tangerines
Vegetables: broccoli, Brussels sprouts, carrots, squash, potatoes
Legumes: beans, lentils, peas
Grains: whole-wheat breads, brown rice, bran, oatmeal
Nuts and seeds: almonds, peanuts, sunflower seeds, walnuts"

-Everyday Health
Water
Bulking Laxatives: Fiber increases the water content as well as bulking up the stool through using both soluble and insoluble fiber.

Lubricant Laxatives: Lubricant Laxatives use mineral oil moisturize the intestinal walls to allow waste to easily travel through them.

Emollient Laxatives: Emollient Laxatives use chemicals to soften the stool, but may take up to a week to take effect.
Exercise
Works Cited
Elvis Presley
-Dr. Nichopoulos, Evlis' personal doctor
15% or 42 million
Americans are
constipated
Water lets stool remain soft and pass through the colon easily.
Water lubricates the intestines and the food.
Water makes up 75% of stool.
Plums & Apricots
contain sorbitol, an indigestible sugar alcohol that draws water into the large intestine through osmosis.
Senna Leaf
contains sennosides, organic compounds that stimulate increased peristalsis in the large intestine.
Aloe Vera
contains anthraquinone glycosides that stimulate increased peristalsis in the large intestine. Aloe Vera's high water content also increases the amount of water in stool.
Natural Laxatives
Cardio increases your breathing, heart rate and overall body processes by increasing blood flow to internal organs, including the large intestine.This additional blood flow causes the intestinal muscles to contract more readily which then facilitates the passage of stool through the colon.
Caution!
Although laxatives can be useful for relieving constipation, overuse of laxatives can actually result in constipation.
Liquid chyme enters the large intestine through the ileo-cecal valve from the small intestine. The chyme moves through the large intestine going up the ascending colon, across the transverse colon, down the descending colon and finally into the rectum, from which the feces will be defecated. During this process, the large intestine is constantly absorbing water from the chyme to make it into the solid that we know as poop.
Even natural laxatives can be dangerous if abused. Laxatives such as senna and aloe that increase peristalsis through nerve stimulation of the large intestine can cause Melanosis Coli, a condition in which the colon turns black.
This black pigmentation is due to layers of dead cells on the interior surface of the colon. The over stimulation of these cells through abusive laxative use cause the cells to die prematurely, resuling in the black pigmentation.
Caution!
Yoga can also relive constipation as yogic movements are choreographed as to stimulate large intestine peristalsis.
"Bristol Stool Chart · Faecal · Continence Foundation of Australia." Bristol Stool Chart Faecal · Continence Foundation of Australia. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 May 2014.

The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Feces (biology)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 28 May 2014.

"Exercise for Constipation Relief: Which Exercises to Do." WebMD. WebMD, 03 Jan. 0000. Web. 30 May 2014.

"How Fiber Helps Ease Constipation - Digestive Health Center - EverydayHealth.com." EverydayHealth.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 May 2014.

McKay, Hollie. "EXCLUSIVE: Elvis Presley's Doctor Claims He Died of an 'Embarrassing' Case of Chronic Constipation." Fox News. FOX News Network, 05 May 2010. Web. 29 May 2014.

"Result Filters." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 31 May 2014
.
Roach, Mary. Gulp: Adventures on the Alimentary Canal. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.
Self Experimentation
To test the effects of water, fiber and exercise on defacation, I conducted an 18 day experiment in which I tested the following conditions:
1. increased water intake (20 cups/day)
2. increased fiber intake (25 grams/day)
3. aerobic exercise (4 mile run)
4. yoga (1 hour of bikram)
5. laxative use of plums (2 per day)
6. laxative use of aloe water (1 cup)
7. laxative use of senna tea (1 cup)
8. increased fiber, increased water, choice of either exercise options and choice of any laxative options
9. control day (no increase in water/fiber, no exercise, no laxative use)
I conducted this cycle twice in order to have multiple trials. While I tested a variable, all others were left constant in order to isolate said variable. I then evaluated stool passed on that particular day using the bristol stool chart.


RESULTS

Day 1:
increased water intake (20 cups/day)
Evaluation: Type 2
Day 2:
increased fiber intake (25 grams/day)
Evaluation: Type 3
Day 3:
aerobic exercise (4 mile run)
Evaluation: Type 3
Day 4:
yoga (1 hour of bikram)
Evaluation: Type 2
Day 5:
laxative use of plums (2 per day)
Evaluation: Type 3
Day 6:
laxative use of aloe water (1 cup)
Evaluation: Type 2
Day 7:
laxative use of senna tea
Evaluation: Type 6
Day 8:
increased fiber, increased water, choice of either exercise options (4 mile run) and choice of any laxative options (2 plums)
Evaluation: Type 4
Day 9:
control
Evaluation: No deification

Day 1:
increased water intake (20 cups/day)
Evaluation: Type 1
Day 2:
increased fiber intake (25 grams/day)
Evaluation: Type 3
Day 3:
aerobic exercise (4 mile run)
Evaluation: Type 3
Day 4:
yoga (1 hour of bikram)
Evaluation: Type 2
Day 5:
laxative use of plums (2 per day)
Evaluation: Type 3
Day 6:
laxative use of aloe water (1 cup)
Evaluation: Type 3
Day 7:
laxative use of senna tea
Evaluation: Type 5
Day 8:
increased fiber, increased water, choice of either exercise options (4 mile run) and choice of any laxative options (2 plums)
Evaluation: Type 4
Day 9:
control
Evaluation: Type 1
only a combination of exercise, fiber, water and gentle laxatives created a Type 4 or 'optimal' stool
water intake seemed to have little to no impact
senna tea usage resulted in diarrhea
aloe water seemed to have little to no impact
exercise and fiber both seemed to increase water content of stool, but alone were not able to create an 'optimal' stool.
Error Analysis
increase number of subjects
decrease confounding variables and increase controls (i.e. eating the same meals everyday except for on fiber days, getting the same amount of sleep each day, running the same pace during running days, maintaining a consistant stress level, drinking the same amount of water each day except for high water intake days, etc.)
more trials
longer test periods
separate testing periods, so that the test periods wouldn't influence each other.
In an ideal world, I would change this experiment in these ways:
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