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The Roman World
Transcript of The Roman World
Geography of Italy
Alps to the North
Surrounded by 2 Seas
Mediterranean & Adriatic
Great for trade & Ruling both
sides of Empire
Negatives to their geography?
Alps... creates Isolation
Founding of Rome...
What really happened
Mid 700s BC Latins move into W. Italy
Built settlements around Tiber River
United settlements to create Rome
LOCATION, LOCATION, LOCATION!!!
Built on 7 hills
On the Tiber River
15 miles inland
@ shallow part of River = easy crossing
@ Trade route junction
Goodbye Monarchy, HELLO Republic
What is a Republic???
Republic = Form of government where VOTERS ELECT officials to run the state
Who is allowed to vote?
3 GOVERNING GROUPS
MOST Powerful and Influential
Controlled public $$$, foriegn policy, acted as the court
In Case of EMERGENCY!
appoints a dictator
What is a DICTATOR???
Elected officials [Consuls, Praetors, Censors]
(2) Consuls @ a time serving 1 yr terms as executive cheif
Ran government... Controlled Army
Registered citizens according to Wealth
Appointed candidates to Senate
Oversaw moral conduct of ALL citizens
HOW WERE LAWS CREATED???
10 Elected officials [TRIBUNES]
Had power over Senate
Voted on War and Peace
Patricians vs Plebeians
Powerful land owners who controlled the government
Majority of Population [farmers/workers]
Held very few rights... increased through strikes
Late 400s Plebeians held office
How do you expand an
Army is VERY IMPORTANT...
Every adult male who owns land must serve!!!!
How did Rome maintain loyalty of conquered people???
Offered citizenship to closest people
Partial citizenship to farther people
Some were allowed to remain independent
Rome expanded its empire in what direction?
ROME vs CARTHAGE
Control Meditteranean Sea
Results of Rome's HATRED for Carthage
FIRST PUNIC WAR
Rome vs Carthage
264-241 BC (23yrs)
Carthage pays a fine
Rome gets Sicily
SECOND PUNIC WAR
Roman countryside burns
Rome CRUSHES Carthage
THIRD PUNIC WAR
Rome still hates Carthage
146 Carthage is
Rome 133 BC
Controls ALL of Mediterranean
Fall of the Western Empire
Causes of the Fall
of the Western
Loss of War Loot
Decline in Manufacturing
High Cost of Defense
Dependence on German troops
Loss of soldier loyalty
Military indifference to Rome
Gap btw rich & poor gets larger
Loss of values
Loss of Patriotism
Ineffective city-state system
Eastern Empire strong
Corruption & unstable leadership
Rise in price caused by decrease in value of $$$
Goths (Visgoths & Eastern Ostrogoths)
Poly - Monothesim
Used to be stern, honest, hard working, patriotic
West & East Decline
Diocletian and Constantine fought for power and stability
New center= Constantinople
Last emperor of Rome = Romulus Augustulus
Attila the Hun: Part 1
Attila the Hun: Part 2
Attila the Hun: Part 3
Attila the Hun: Part 4
Attila the Hun: Part 5
Use pages 155-157 to complete the following table.
You come home from war
your livestock is
, home is
. You have no choice but to
your land... There is no guarantee you
get a job
in the city...
What does Triumvirate mean?
Who is in the First Triumvirate?
Who is in the Second?
Bloodiest war in Roman History
Fighting began in 91 BC over allies' right to citizenship and the right to hold public office
After the war all Italy considered itself Roman
Gaius Marius became consul in 107 BC-- he created a very loyal army of volunteers through rewards of $$$, land, & war loot.
Nephew of Gaius Marius
Popular among Rome's poor
Part of FIRST TRIUMVIRATE with Pompey and Crassus.
Became Consul in 59 BC .
Went on campaign in Gaul gained loyalty of the army
He turns on Pompey and marches on Rome, Pompey flees to Greece...
44 BC the Senate declares him Dictator for LIFE!!!
Increased the senate size to 900 but decreased the power
RESULT: Gaius Cassius and Marcus Brutus conspire to murder him... on the Ides of March [March 15, 44 BC]
Octavian = Caesar's grandnephew 19 yrs old... named heir by Caesar
Marc Antony-- led the army east; lover/ ally of Cleopatra; failed to defeat Octavian in battle... commits suicide w/Cleopatra
Lepidus- Caesar's 2nd in command, forced to retire by Octavian
Octavian: The First Augustus
Called himself not consul but " First Citizen" to avoid Caesar's fate
The Senate gave him the Title AUGUSTUS = the revered one
Not really and emperor but is referred to as the 1st emperor of Rome
His empire stretched from Spain Syria and from Egypt Rhine and Danube Rivers
His reign is known as the PAX ROMANA = Roman Peace which lasted 200 years... senate was weakened and rulers abused their powers
Emperors of The Pax Romana 27 BC- AD 180
27 BC- 14 AD
AD 96- AD 180:
THE FIVE GOOD EMPERORS
Hadrian**[117-138]- Protected boundaries, built a wall around the kingdom
Antionius Pius [138-161]
Marcus Aurelius** [161-180]- Stoic philosopher, defended against the Germanic tribes
Julio- Claudian Emperors
very gloomy guy, exiled himself after the death of his son.
"The little soldier's boot", cruel, sexual promiscuous, renovated aqueducts, insane tyrant
ambitious builder, 1st emperor born outside of Italy, murdered by his wife
blamed for a fire that burned Rome, committed suicide
AD69- AD 96