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The Roman World

Chapter 7: Rome the Rise and Fall
by

Jillian Kistler

on 30 October 2012

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Transcript of The Roman World

Rome: The Rise and Fall Geography of Italy Alps to the North
Surrounded by 2 Seas
Mediterranean & Adriatic
Great for trade & Ruling both
sides of Empire Negatives to their geography? Alps... creates Isolation
Narrow passageways
Coastline invasions Founding of Rome... Legend... What really happened Mid 700s BC Latins move into W. Italy
Built settlements around Tiber River
United settlements to create Rome LOCATION, LOCATION, LOCATION!!! Built on 7 hills
On the Tiber River
15 miles inland
@ shallow part of River = easy crossing
@ Trade route junction Early REPUBLIC Goodbye Monarchy, HELLO Republic What is a Republic??? Republic = Form of government where VOTERS ELECT officials to run the state Who is allowed to vote? 3 GOVERNING GROUPS SENATE MAGISTRATES POPULAR ASSEMBLIES SENATE MOST Powerful and Influential Controlled public $$$, foriegn policy, acted as the court In Case of EMERGENCY!
appoints a dictator What is a DICTATOR??? MAGISTRATES Elected officials [Consuls, Praetors, Censors] (2) Consuls @ a time serving 1 yr terms as executive cheif
Ran government... Controlled Army
Appointed dictator CENSORS Registered citizens according to Wealth
Appointed candidates to Senate
Oversaw moral conduct of ALL citizens HOW WERE LAWS CREATED??? ASSEMBLIES R
O
M
U
L
U
S R
E
M
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S 10 Elected officials [TRIBUNES] Had power over Senate
Voted on War and Peace Class Divisions Patricians vs Plebeians Patricians Powerful land owners who controlled the government Plebeians Majority of Population [farmers/workers]
Held very few rights... increased through strikes
Late 400s Plebeians held office How do you expand an
Empire??? Army is VERY IMPORTANT...
WHY? Every adult male who owns land must serve!!!! How did Rome maintain loyalty of conquered people??? Offered citizenship to closest people
Partial citizenship to farther people
Some were allowed to remain independent Rome expanded its empire in what direction? ROME vs CARTHAGE Great Navy Wants Sicily Control Meditteranean Sea Results of Rome's HATRED for Carthage PUNIC WARS FIRST PUNIC WAR Rome vs Carthage 264-241 BC (23yrs) Boarding Bridges Carthage LOSES! Carthage pays a fine Rome gets Sicily SECOND PUNIC WAR 218-202 BC Hannibal Roman countryside burns Rome CRUSHES Carthage Carthage Pays THIRD PUNIC WAR Rome still hates Carthage 149 BC Rome Declares
WAR! 146 Carthage is
DESTROYED!!! Rome 133 BC Controls ALL of Mediterranean Fall of the Western Empire Causes of the Fall
of the Western
Roman Empire ECONOMICS High Taxes
High Inflation
Loss of War Loot
Decline in Manufacturing MILITARY German Invasions
High Cost of Defense
Dependence on German troops
Loss of soldier loyalty
Military indifference to Rome Social Gap btw rich & poor gets larger
Loss of values
Loss of Patriotism POLITICAL Ineffective city-state system
Divided Empire
Eastern Empire strong
Corruption & unstable leadership Inflation... Rise in price caused by decrease in value of $$$
Price controls *Invaders* Goths (Visgoths & Eastern Ostrogoths)
Vandals
Franks
HUNS!!!!!
Lombards *Religion* Poly - Monothesim
Used to be stern, honest, hard working, patriotic West & East Decline Diocletian and Constantine fought for power and stability
New center= Constantinople
Last emperor of Rome = Romulus Augustulus Attila the Hun: Part 1 Attila the Hun: Part 2 Attila the Hun: Part 3 Attila the Hun: Part 4 Attila the Hun: Part 5 First
Punic War Second
Punic War Third
Punic War Causes Results Use pages 155-157 to complete the following table. Imagine this... You come home from war...
your livestock is dead, home is ruined,
vineyard/olive grove destroyed. You have no choice but to sell your land... There is no guarantee you get a job in the city... What does Triumvirate mean?
Who is in the First Triumvirate?
Who is in the Second? SOCIAL WAR Bloodiest war in Roman History
Fighting began in 91 BC over allies' right to citizenship and the right to hold public office
After the war all Italy considered itself Roman
Gaius Marius became consul in 107 BC-- he created a very loyal army of volunteers through rewards of $$$, land, & war loot. JULIUS CAESAR Nephew of Gaius Marius
Popular among Rome's poor
Part of FIRST TRIUMVIRATE with Pompey and Crassus.
Became Consul in 59 BC .
Went on campaign in Gaul gained loyalty of the army
He turns on Pompey and marches on Rome, Pompey flees to Greece...
44 BC the Senate declares him Dictator for LIFE!!!
Increased the senate size to 900 but decreased the power
RESULT: Gaius Cassius and Marcus Brutus conspire to murder him... on the Ides of March [March 15, 44 BC] SECOND TRIUMVIRATE Octavian = Caesar's grandnephew 19 yrs old... named heir by Caesar Marc Antony-- led the army east; lover/ ally of Cleopatra; failed to defeat Octavian in battle... commits suicide w/Cleopatra Lepidus- Caesar's 2nd in command, forced to retire by Octavian Octavian: The First Augustus Called himself not consul but " First Citizen" to avoid Caesar's fate
The Senate gave him the Title AUGUSTUS = the revered one
Not really and emperor but is referred to as the 1st emperor of Rome
His empire stretched from Spain Syria and from Egypt Rhine and Danube Rivers
His reign is known as the PAX ROMANA = Roman Peace which lasted 200 years... senate was weakened and rulers abused their powers Emperors of The Pax Romana 27 BC- AD 180 27 BC- 14 AD
Augustus 180AD 68AD AD 96- AD 180:
THE FIVE GOOD EMPERORS Nerva [96-98]
Trajan [98-117]
Hadrian**[117-138]- Protected boundaries, built a wall around the kingdom
Antionius Pius [138-161]
Marcus Aurelius** [161-180]- Stoic philosopher, defended against the Germanic tribes Julio- Claudian Emperors 14AD 68AD Tiberius [14-37]- very gloomy guy, exiled himself after the death of his son.
Caligula [37-41]-"The little soldier's boot", cruel, sexual promiscuous, renovated aqueducts, insane tyrant
Claudius [41-54]- ambitious builder, 1st emperor born outside of Italy, murdered by his wife
Nero [54-68]- blamed for a fire that burned Rome, committed suicide AD68- AD69
Army Emperors Galba, Otho,
Vitellius AD69- AD 96
Flavian Emperors
Vespasian [69-79]
Titus [79-81]
Domitian [81-96]
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