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The Roman World

Chapter 7: Rome the Rise and Fall
by

Jillian Kistler

on 24 August 2018

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Transcript of The Roman World

Rome: The Rise and Fall
Geography of Italy
Alps to the North
Surrounded by 2 Seas
Mediterranean & Adriatic
Great for trade & Ruling both
sides of Empire
Negatives to their geography?
Alps... creates Isolation
Narrow passageways
Coastline invasions
Founding of Rome...
Legend...
What really happened
Mid 700s BC Latins move into W. Italy
Built settlements around Tiber River
United settlements to create Rome
LOCATION, LOCATION, LOCATION!!!
Built on 7 hills
On the Tiber River
15 miles inland
@ shallow part of River = easy crossing
@ Trade route junction
Early REPUBLIC
Goodbye Monarchy, HELLO Republic
What is a Republic???
Republic = Form of government where VOTERS ELECT officials to run the state
Who is allowed to vote?
3 GOVERNING GROUPS
SENATE
MAGISTRATES
POPULAR ASSEMBLIES
SENATE
MOST Powerful and Influential
Controlled public $$$, foriegn policy, acted as the court
In Case of EMERGENCY!
appoints a dictator
What is a DICTATOR???
MAGISTRATES
Elected officials [Consuls, Praetors, Censors]
(2) Consuls @ a time serving 1 yr terms as executive cheif
Ran government... Controlled Army
Appointed dictator
CENSORS
Registered citizens according to Wealth
Appointed candidates to Senate
Oversaw moral conduct of ALL citizens
HOW WERE LAWS CREATED???
ASSEMBLIES
R
O
M
U
L
U
S
R
E
M
U
S
10 Elected officials [TRIBUNES]
Had power over Senate
Voted on War and Peace
Class Divisions
Patricians vs Plebeians
Patricians
Powerful land owners who controlled the government
Plebeians
Majority of Population [farmers/workers]
Held very few rights... increased through strikes
Late 400s Plebeians held office
How do you expand an
Empire???
Army is VERY IMPORTANT...
WHY?
Every adult male who owns land must serve!!!!
How did Rome maintain loyalty of conquered people???
Offered citizenship to closest people
Partial citizenship to farther people
Some were allowed to remain independent
Rome expanded its empire in what direction?
ROME vs CARTHAGE
Great Navy
Wants Sicily
Control Meditteranean Sea
Results of Rome's HATRED for Carthage
PUNIC WARS
FIRST PUNIC WAR
Rome vs Carthage
264-241 BC (23yrs)
Boarding Bridges
Carthage LOSES!
Carthage pays a fine
Rome gets Sicily
SECOND PUNIC WAR
218-202 BC
Hannibal
Roman countryside burns
Rome CRUSHES Carthage
Carthage Pays
THIRD PUNIC WAR
Rome still hates Carthage
149 BC
Rome Declares
WAR!
146 Carthage is
DESTROYED!!!
Rome 133 BC
Controls ALL of Mediterranean
Fall of the Western Empire
Causes of the Fall
of the Western
Roman Empire
ECONOMICS
High Taxes
High Inflation
Loss of War Loot
Decline in Manufacturing
MILITARY
German Invasions
High Cost of Defense
Dependence on German troops
Loss of soldier loyalty
Military indifference to Rome
Social
Gap btw rich & poor gets larger
Loss of values
Loss of Patriotism
POLITICAL
Ineffective city-state system
Divided Empire
Eastern Empire strong
Corruption & unstable leadership
Inflation...
Rise in price caused by decrease in value of $$$
Price controls
*Invaders*
Goths (Visgoths & Eastern Ostrogoths)
Vandals
Franks
HUNS!!!!!
Lombards
*Religion*
Poly - Monothesim
Used to be stern, honest, hard working, patriotic
West & East Decline
Diocletian and Constantine fought for power and stability
New center= Constantinople
Last emperor of Rome = Romulus Augustulus
Attila the Hun: Part 1
Attila the Hun: Part 2
Attila the Hun: Part 3
Attila the Hun: Part 4
Attila the Hun: Part 5
First
Punic War
Second
Punic War
Third
Punic War
Causes
Results
Use pages 155-157 to complete the following table.
Imagine this...
You come home from war
...
your livestock is
dead
, home is
ruined
,
vineyard/olive grove
destroyed
. You have no choice but to
sell
your land... There is no guarantee you
get a job
in the city...
What does Triumvirate mean?
Who is in the First Triumvirate?
Who is in the Second?

SOCIAL WAR
Bloodiest war in Roman History
Fighting began in 91 BC over allies' right to citizenship and the right to hold public office
After the war all Italy considered itself Roman
Gaius Marius became consul in 107 BC-- he created a very loyal army of volunteers through rewards of $$$, land, & war loot.

JULIUS CAESAR
Nephew of Gaius Marius
Popular among Rome's poor
Part of FIRST TRIUMVIRATE with Pompey and Crassus.
Became Consul in 59 BC .
Went on campaign in Gaul gained loyalty of the army
He turns on Pompey and marches on Rome, Pompey flees to Greece...
44 BC the Senate declares him Dictator for LIFE!!!
Increased the senate size to 900 but decreased the power
RESULT: Gaius Cassius and Marcus Brutus conspire to murder him... on the Ides of March [March 15, 44 BC]

SECOND TRIUMVIRATE
Octavian = Caesar's grandnephew 19 yrs old... named heir by Caesar
Marc Antony-- led the army east; lover/ ally of Cleopatra; failed to defeat Octavian in battle... commits suicide w/Cleopatra
Lepidus- Caesar's 2nd in command, forced to retire by Octavian
Octavian: The First Augustus
Called himself not consul but " First Citizen" to avoid Caesar's fate
The Senate gave him the Title AUGUSTUS = the revered one
Not really and emperor but is referred to as the 1st emperor of Rome
His empire stretched from Spain Syria and from Egypt Rhine and Danube Rivers
His reign is known as the PAX ROMANA = Roman Peace which lasted 200 years... senate was weakened and rulers abused their powers

Emperors of The Pax Romana 27 BC- AD 180
27 BC- 14 AD
Augustus
180AD
68AD
AD 96- AD 180:
THE FIVE GOOD EMPERORS
Nerva [96-98]
Trajan [98-117]
Hadrian**[117-138]- Protected boundaries, built a wall around the kingdom
Antionius Pius [138-161]
Marcus Aurelius** [161-180]- Stoic philosopher, defended against the Germanic tribes
Julio- Claudian Emperors
14AD
68AD
Tiberius [14-37]-
very gloomy guy, exiled himself after the death of his son.
Caligula [37-41]-
"The little soldier's boot", cruel, sexual promiscuous, renovated aqueducts, insane tyrant
Claudius [41-54]-
ambitious builder, 1st emperor born outside of Italy, murdered by his wife
Nero [54-68]-
blamed for a fire that burned Rome, committed suicide
AD68- AD69
Army Emperors
Galba, Otho,
Vitellius
AD69- AD 96
Flavian Emperors
Vespasian [69-79]
Titus [79-81]
Domitian [81-96]
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