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Road to Success: Promoting Positive Change in Special Educat

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on 24 June 2014

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Transcript of Road to Success: Promoting Positive Change in Special Educat

Road to Success: Promoting Positive Change in Special Education
No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA)
Project Based Learning (PBL)
How are NCLB, IDEA, technology and PBL related?

What does research mean in relation to NCLB, IDEA, technology and PBL?

How can NCLB, IDEA, technology and PBL work together to promote positive change in special education?

Create a picture that connects all four concepts.
Educators must begin with the end goal in mind.

The finish line
is the point where ALL students achieve positive learning outcomes.

Such standards are
set forth in
What is No Child Left Behind (NCLB)?
As outlined by the U. S. Department of Education, NCLB
Was enacted by George W. Bush in 2001
Sets standards high for ALL students, including students with disabilities
Provides that ALL student performance on basic proficiency assessments should increase until rates are 100%
What is the NCLB waiver?
According to the Georgia Department of Education (2012), the waiver
Was granted in 2012 to Georgia, along with 9 other states
Excuses states from stringent standards called for in NCLB
Requires states to hold themselves accountable and report graduation and achievement statistics
Allows for greater "flexibility" In demonstrating student learning

What does NCLB and the Waiver mean for educators?
Teaching higher standards to ALL students, including students with disabilities
Accountability of learning outcomes
Gaining knowledge of standards
Using research based approaches to teaching
Using data to drive effective instruction
How can
educators achieve these
positive outcomes?
Create an encouraging, safe, real-world environment for learning (Tavakolian & Howell, 2012)
Use research-based positive behavior intervention strategies
Provide motivational learning tasks
More ways to
achieve positive
Collaborate to monitor mastery of skills
Change strategy if students are not learning
Use innovative and research based teaching strategies (Tavakolian & Howell, 2012)
Find the right environment for student success
mandates that students with disabilities participate in the general curriculum to the maximum extent appropriate with their peers without disabilities.
Least Restrictive Environment
can be defined as the most inclusive setting in which a student can learn successfully with the use of supplementary aids and services as needed.
is not defined by legislation, but is an educational term to describe:
physical placement
social interaction
meaningful participation in the curriculum (Almazan, 2009).
Toward the Finish Line
has a goal of 80% of students with disabilities in general education classrooms for 80% of the day.

Research shows that students with disabilities benefit from inclusive settings in many ways:
better grades
mastery of IEP goals
on-task behavior
self-esteem (Whitbread, n.d.).
Benefits for all
Research supports inclusion for students without disabilities in these areas:
academics (Slavin, Madden, & Leavy, 1984)
reduced fear of human differences
greater comfort and tolerance of differences
growth in social cognition
improved self-concept
development of personal, moral, and ethical principles
meaningful, long-lasting friendships (Staub & Peck, 1994)
Proven Strategies
Research based strategies make inclusion work!
Peer tutoring
Cooperative learning (Maheady, et al., 1988)
Graphic organizers
Project based learning
Assistive technology (Horton, Lovitt, & Berglund, 1990).
Effective teacher collaboration such as:
Alternative teaching
Team teaching
Parallel teaching
Station teaching
One teach/one assist (Vaughn, Schumm, & Arguelles, 1997).
Strong Partnerships Drive LRE Success!
"Research shows that principals, special education directors, superintendents, teachers, parents and community members must all be involved and invested in the successful outcome of inclusive education" (Whitbread, n.d.).

Circle of Friends
is an excellent research-based way to achieve this.
Circle of friends is an approach to enhancing the inclusion, in a mainstream setting, of any young person (known as ‘the focus child’), who is experiencing difficulties in school because of a disability, personal crisis or because of their challenging behavior towards others (http://www.inclusive-solutions.com/circlesoffriends.asp).
Circle of Friends
Benefits of Technology in the Classroom
Supports curriculum access and inclusion for students with disabilities (Jackson, 2004)
Motivating and engaging
Promotes collaboration and communication
Increases learning (D'Angelo & Woosley, 2007)
Can make ordinary lessons extraordinary
Provides hands on learning opportunities
Allows for instant differentiation with built in scaffolds or enrichment (ie. Universal Design for Learning)
Types of Technology in the Classroom
Interactive whiteboards
- controlled by a computer and projector, can do anything a a computer can do. Great way to imbed videos, games, or activities into a lesson (ex. Promethean Board, SMART Board)
- can be used individually or as a group, data collection, many apps for learning or even controlling the interactive whiteboard from across the room
Student Response Systems
-hand held devices that allow students to answer a question posed on an interactive whiteboard, graph answers, save data from answers for progress monitoring (ex. ActiVote, irespond)
Camera/Video Camera
- allow student use for projects, making videos, collecting photo evidence
Cell Phones
-can be used in lieu of camera or video camera for projects, allow students to text answers for quiz
What is Assistive Technology
Assistive technology is anything that makes a task easier (Christmann & Christmann, 2003). This can be anything from glasses or a pencil grip, to a communication device. IDEA mandates that assistive technology be evaluated for all students at their IEP (Mittler, 2007).
Assistive Technology
Examples of Assistive Technology
Voice recognition software
Text to speech software
Adaptive keyboard (ex. IntelliKeys)
Spoken text
Pencil grips
Screen magnifiers
Switch access
Communication boards
Augmentative and Alternative Communication devices (ex. as ipads with ACC app, tech talk, dynovox)
Try it out!

What is Project Based Learning (PBL)?
Students engaging in solving real world problems.
Students act as investigators/researchers.
Teachers act as facilitators.
Students usually (though not always) work in pairs or groups,
Teachers or students can propose the questions that students are investigating,
Ends in a culminating project, presentation, or permanent artifact (Bell, 2010).
Why use PBL?
The Common Core uses many performance standards and PBL is one way students can demonstrate mastery.
Project based learning creates deeper connections.
Students who participate in PBL have better long term memory of concepts.
This success translates in to equivalent or higher high stakes tests scores (Bell, 2010).
Promotes collaboration and problem-solving skills.
Provides skills problem solving skills needed for the 21st Century (Bell, 2010).
How can PBL be used positively in Special Education?
Projects can be scaffolded for students who require this to reach mastery of learning (Bell, 2010).
Projects can be planned using Universal Design for Learning.
Differentiation can occur within groups or between groups.
Groups can be set ahead of time with heterogeneous ability levels.
If working in a group, roles and responsibilities can be assigned based on individual strengths and weaknesses.
The amount of structure can be varied depending on the organizational needs of the student or students (Ellis, Farmer, & Newman, 2005).
Allows for integration of technology.
Project based learning is NOT just assigning a project.
Start with something small (Miller, 2012).
It is critical that the teacher be prepared to coach students on collaboration and self-direction.
Students should have some choice, but not freedom to make all choices.
The project MUST begin with the end in mind (Dickson, 2012).
Resources for PBL:
www.cast.org (Information on Universal Design for Learning)
By incorporating standards of the
, requirements of
Project Based Learning
Educators can "win" the race and promote positive change in special education.
In the race to
the finish line, educators must
Begin with the end goal in mind, as dictated by
Equip their cars with the best learning environment for student needs, as created by
Outfit their cars with the latest
Monitor progress along the race with
Project Based Learning
Check out this brief introduction to assistive technology by the Pacer Center (2010).
Assistive technology in the classroom
Use your ActiVote to answer the following question:

How useful was the information you learned today?
a. very useful
b. useful
c.somewhat useful
d. not useful at all
Educators must equip their cars with the best learning environment for individual student needs.

These requirements are described in
Educators must outfit their cars with the latest

Educators must monitor progress throughout
the race using
Project Based Learning

Essential Questions
Ellis, E., Farmer, T., & Newman, J. (2005). Big ideas about teaching big ideas.

Teaching Exceptional Children, 38
, 34-40.

Georgia Department of Education. (2012). Frequently asked questions for

parents and families on Georgia’s ESEA Flexibility Waiver. Retrieved

from http://www.gadoe.org/External- Affairs-and-Policy/communications/

Documents/Frequently%20Asked%20Questions%20 About%20Georgia


Georgia Department of Education. NCLB Waiver. Retrieved from http://

www.gadoe.org/External- Affairs-and-Policy/communications/Pages/


Horton, S. V., Lovitt, T. C., & Bergerud, D. (1990). The effectiveness of

graphic organizers for three classifications of secondary students in

content area classes.
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23,

Retrieved from http://ldx.sagepub.com/

Almazan, S. (2009). Inclusive education and implications for policy: The state of

the art and the promise. TASH Congressional briefing on inclusive

education. Retrieved from:http://www.edlawcenter.org/assets/files/pdfs/



Bell, S. (2010). Project-based learning for the 21st century: Skills for the future.

The Clearing House, 88
, 39-43.

Christmann, E. P., & Christmann, R. R. (2003). Technologies for special needs

Science Scope,1
, 50-53. Retrieved from http://science.nsta.org/

D’Angelo, J. M., & Woosley, S. A. (2007). Technology in the classroom: Friend

or foe.
Education, 127
, 462-471. Retrieved from http://


Dickson, A. C. (2012). Practical PBL: Four tips for better implementation.

Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/4-practical-pbl-

Jackson, R. M. (2004).
Technologies supporting curriculum access for students

with disabilities.
Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the General

Curriculum. Retrieved [March 14, 2014] from http://aim.cast.org/.
Maheady, L. Sacca, M. K., & Harper, G. F. (1988). Classwide peer tutoring with

mildly handicapped high school students.
Exceptional Children, 55,

Retrieved from: http://journals.cec.sped.org/ec/

Miller, A. (2012). Getting starting with project based learning (Hint: Don’t go

crazy). Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/project-based-learning-


Mittler, J. (2007). Assistive technology and IDEA. In C. Warger (Ed.), Technology

integration: Providing access to the curriculum for students with disabilities.

Arlington, VA: Technology and Media Division (TAM).

Pacer Center (2010, November 12). Understanding assistive

technology: Simply said. Retrieved from http://youtube/


Palilis, B. (n.d.). Circle of Friends Information Video. Retrieved

from: http://youtube/GFg0_9u_0cI

Slavin, R. E., Madden, N. A., Leavey, M. (1984). Effects of team

assisted individualization on the mathematics achievement of

academically handicapped and nonhandicapped students.

Journal of Educational Psychology, 76
(5), 813-819.

Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org

U. S. Department of Education. PL 107-110 the No Child Left Behind

Act of 2001: Table of contents. Retrieved from


Vaughn, S. Schumm, J. S., & Arguelles, M. E. (1997). The ABCDE’S

of co-teaching.
Teaching Exceptional Children, 30
, 4-10.

Retrieved from http://journals.cec.sped.org/tec/

Weibellk (2008, March 7). Assistive technology. Retrieved from


Whitbread, K. (n.d.). What does the research say about inclusive

education? Retrieved from: http://www.wrightslaw.com/info/


Staub, D. & Peck, C. (1994). What are the outcomes for nondisabled

students? The Inclusive School, 52, 36-40. Retrieved from:

http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational- leadership/dec94/


Tavakolian, H. & Howell, N. (2012). The impact of No Child Left

Behind Act.
Franklin Business and Law Journal
(1), 70-77.

Retrieved from http://www.franklinpublishing.net/


The path to inclusion. (2010). Circle of Friends. Retrieved from:


SPED 8783
March 23, 2014

Alissa Calsetta
Lindsay Hill
Lara McLean
Michelle Pritchett
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